study set out to assess the impact of armed bandits’ activities on socio
economic development in Nigeria with focus on Zamfara State, Nigeria between
the period of 2011 and 2018. The research was limited to the twenty-two (22)
communities that had once experienced a form of armed banditry attack since
2011. The communities are; Kizara, Lilo,
Kwokeya, Gidan Kaso, Lingyado, Bagegga, Unguwar Galadima, Tungar Baushe, Guru,
Badarawa, Rakumi Mallamawa, Karagawa, Cigama, Yargada, Jangeme, Madaba,
Mutunji, Mashema, Dabgulbi, Birnin Magaji and Filinga. This research study adopts survey and descriptive
research design. Data were garnered basically through primary source with the
aid of a well-structured questionnaire and supported with in-depth
interview conducted with selected community leaders, Police Officers and some
victims of armed banditry. The quantitative data were analysed descriptively
using frequency distribution table while the formulated hypothesis were tested
with Chi-square statistical analysis tool. Findings from the research revealed
that growing unemployment among youths, Illiteracy, harsh economic conditions,
gold mining, lack of basic infrastructure, social, health and other facilities
in Zamfara state had encouraged youths to collaborate and commit acts of armed
banditry. The result also indicated banditry activities had affected the socio
and economic activities of the state, fall in business activities due to fear
of insecurity by travelers and service providers, and the psychological trauma suffered
by residents, victims and relative of victims of armed banditry. It was also
discovered, a failure on the part of law enforcement agencies towards
controlling and preventing incidents of armed banditry. The challenges the law
enforcement agencies face in this regard include inadequate funding, inadequate
training and equipment, political interference, poor welfare package, poor
quality of human and personnel resources, and the absence of a comprehensive
crime prevention/control policy. It is therefore recommended that control and
prevention of acts of armed banditry requires a holistic approach involving all
stakeholders adopting long and short term measures which includes; effective
institutional coordination among specialized agencies in view of the
multi-dimensional nature of state security, government recognition of vigilante
groups, adequate funding, training and equipping of law enforcement agents.
Banditry, Cattle Rustling, Crime, Social
Cohesion, Socio-economic Development
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.4. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.5 RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONS/HYPOTHESES
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE CHAPTERS
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL
2.1.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.1.2 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF ARMED BANDITRY IN
ZAMFARA SINCE 2011
2.1.3 CAUSES OF ARMED BANDITRY IN ZAMFARA STATE
AT CURBING ARMED BANDITRY IN ZAMFARA STATE
2.1.5 EMPIRICAL FRAMEWORK
2.2 THEORITICAL FRAMEWEORK
2.2.1 DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY
2.2.2 CONTROL THEORY
2.2.3 LABELING THEORY
2.2.4 STRAIN THEORY
2.2.5 THE REVISIONIST THEORY
2.3 THEORETICAL, EMPIRICAL AND THEMATIC GAPS
IN THE WORKS REVIEWED
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 POPULATION OF STUDY
SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 INSTRUMENTS FOR DATA
3.6 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.7 PILOT STUDY
3.8 RELIABILITY OF THE
OF DATA COLLECTION
FOR DATA ANALYSIS
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Characteristics of the Respondent (Section
Response of Respondents to the Problem Areas.
of Respondents to the Problem Areas. (Section C)
Response of Respondents to the Problem Areas.
and Interpretation of the Hypotheses.
of Hypothesis One
of Hypothesis Two
of Hypothesis Three
of Hypothesis Four
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES
TO THE STUDY
conflicts prior to the cold war era was seen as wars fought between sovereign
states. Many countries and places are still either in conflict, or are recovering
from its adverse effects like Sinai Insurgency in Egypt in 2011, Batwa-Luba
clashes in Democratic Republic of Congo in 2013, War in Donbass in Ukraine in
2014 and Philippines Drug War in 2016. Nigeria in particular has had its fair
share of conflicts that have impacted hugely on its economic development,
resulting to huge loss of lives and properties as well as investment
like any other African country has been experiencing various forms of violent
crimes such as ethnic conflicts, rape, armed robbery, assault, murder and
kidnapping. At the end of civil wars, there is usually mass abandonment of the
fighting zones which results in various types of weapons and ammunitions finding
their way into the hands of unscrupulous individuals, who may ultimately use
them for criminal activities, as have been the case with Nigeria at the end of
its civil war in 1970.
this period, it was generally expected that armed robbery which was the
phenomenon of concern as at then, would be confined to the Eastern states of
Nigeria, but this was not so because cases of armed robbery were reported from
all parts of Nigeria.
Nigeria tries to cope with tensions generated by diversity of its population,
struggle for economic independence, defense of its territorial integrity and
against organized armed banditry, it is faced with problems of various
instabilities within neighboring countries forcing their people and members of
their armed forces to troop into Nigeria from various points across the porous
borders. Most of these people have been alleged to be the brains behind the
numerous armed banditry incidents in the Northeastern region of Nigeria (Gubio,
then are those factors that encourage these foreign bandits to operate in
Nigeria? While it may be attributed to the relative ease with which foreign
rebels move in and out of Nigerian territory (International Institute for Democracy
and Electoral Assistance, 2000:269), it could also be the thickly forested
strip along the borders with neighboring Franco-phone countries (Onah, 2010).
to conflict zones as well as easy availability of weapons constitute another
factor (United Nation’s Small Arms Survey, 2004:194, Bobbo D, 1999:19). While
other factors could be rising poverty, high unemployment and the breakdown of
traditional social control structures (Defending Human Rights report, 2005:2).
has been observed that human living and existence in Zamfara state got worse since
after the conduct of the 2011 general elections due to the unending conflicts
between Fulani herdsmen and Hausa rural settlers especially those residing
along Dansadau, Zurmi, Shinkafi, Anka, Maradun and Tsafe forest. This conflict
which up till now has not been clearly defined either by the government or
people of the state started like a mere conflict of interest but later turned
to bloody crises, which has led to the death of so many lives. As stated by
Kiruwa (2017) over five thousand lives have been lost to the crises since it
started in early 2011 and despite interventions of the government and its
agencies not much has been achieved in an attempt to end the conflict.
tragedy which has caused Zamfara state a bad name amongst the comity of other
states in Nigeria, is considered as one of the most critical challenges that
threatens the peace of the state. While hundreds of innocent people are leaving
Zamfara State due to the fear of these armed bandits, hundreds of them continue
to take advantage of the situation to rustle more cattle and other ruminant
animals. From 2011 to date not fewer than 15,000 cattle were rustled by these
suspected armed bandits leaving away the owners to survive in a state of
uncertainty (Daniya, 2017). In terms of destruction of lives and properties,
not fewer than 36 communities along Dansadau, Zurmi, Shinkafi, Tsafe, Bakura
and Maradun towns were burnt to the ground with their residents forcefully
asked to migrate to alternative safer places (Tukur, 2017).
Odunsi, Amnesty International (AI) on Tuesday raised an alarm that insecurity
was escalating in northwest Nigeria’s Zamfara state, with daily killings and
kidnappings by armed bandits, leaving villagers in constant fear of attack.
atrocities by the attackers, Amnesty International said thousands of people
have been displaced by a conflict which began in 2012 as a result of clashes
between farmers and herders.
is Nigeria’s forgotten conflict. The authorities’ failure to act has left
villagers in Zamfara at the mercy of armed bandits, who have killed hundreds of
people over the course of two bloody years,” said Osai Ojigho, Director of
Amnesty International Nigeria.
we visited the region, villagers told us that they had pleaded with the
government to help them after receiving warning letters from the bandits ahead
of attacks but had received no protection. The Nigerian authorities have
repeatedly claimed to be tackling the situation, but the mounting death toll
tells a different story” (Daily Post, 2018).
effort by both the Federal and State Governments to curtail this ugly situation
through the use of cohesive measures, the killings and brutality continue to
take new dimension as the bandits continue to come up with new strategies of
perpetrating their heinous acts and crimes. It has been difficult for the security
agencies to fight along the forest as the bandits understand the terrain more
than the security agencies. According to a former Zamfara State Commissioner of
Police Mr. Akila Usman Gwary, he told newsmen that security agencies in Zamfara
state especially police and army were finding it difficult to fight the armed
bandits along Dansadau-Birnin Gwari forest because there was no access road in
trying to reach out to these villages whenever there was report of an attack and
communication even for the security agencies operating along the forest was
virtually impossible (NTA, 2014).
alternatively manage the situation, the idea of peace deal and amnesty was
initiated between the State government and the leadership of these armed
bandits. The peace deal was initiated to enable the armed bandits surrender
their weapons and embrace peace. The impacts of the cohesive measures,
especially the use of the military and mobile police men had been reviewed and conclusion
drawn that, the operation had not yielded the much needed result in spite of the
huge sums of money spent by the government and negotiation with the bandits
opted for as the best option to ensuring sustainable peace (Tangaza, 2017).
peace deal has however been described as a failure especially with the
resurgence of fresh killings in some communities along Shinkafi, Tsafe,
Dansadau and Maradun with multiple number of death and loss of properties. The
new violence is described as the most tragic in the history of the state with
brutal murders and sexual intimidation among women and children. In trying to
give an account of their tragedy, the victims considered the nature of the
operation by the armed bandits as the most inhuman maltreatment against
humanity. As captured by Shehu (2017), they are sexually harassing our women.
Sometimes they would ask a resident to take his daughter or wife to their camp
to rape. No one dares to stop them.
ugly development emerged at a time when people believed that, the peace deal
entered into between the state government and the bandits would serve as
panacea to the crises. But why has the peace deal failed? Was is due to absence
of political will from the side of the government to implement the agreement it
has entered with the bandits? Or non-implementation of rehabilitation and
reconstruction measures to bring succor to the victims of this conflicts as
well as the re-arrest of some members of the bandits by Department of the State
Security Services (SSS) after they had signed the peace deal with the state?
communities affected since 2011 have been socially and economically unstable.
Many residents have had to relocate, some other settled in Internally Displaced
Persons’ camps (IDP). Those that returned back to their communities after the intervention
of security personnel live in absolute fear. Farmers are scared of going to
farm, cattle rearer afraid of taking their cattle to graze lands.
is against this background, that this study assessed the impact of these armed
bandits’ activities on socio economic development in Nigeria with a focus on
Zamfara State between 2011- 2018.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
research examines the impact of armed bandits’ activities on the social and
economic development in Nigeria with a focus on Zamfara State from 2011 – 2018.
Armed banditry which according to Mburu (1999) is prevalent in the horn Africa,
has become so pervasive in Nigeria that only a few Nigerians that do not travel
or live within affected communities can claim not to have suffered its impact.
phenomenon could take various forms in various places which may include
waylaying victims on the highways and on transit points, storming and sacking
of an entire village, stealing of cattle, settling in villages and collecting
taxes as well as extortion on village routes. Losses could range from monetary,
material, valuables livestock and above all, human resources (Okoli and Agada, 2014).
Nigeria bandits that raid pastoralists, farmers, travelers, and even
businessmen have, taken a huge toll in terms of lives and disrupted economic
activities by attacking the network of highways. Pastoralists and farmers have
often been targeted by bandits in search of food. In the worst affected areas,
harvests are threatened as most people are afraid to go to their farms for fear
of being attacked (Okoli, 2012)
voluminous literature on armed banditry, no study has demonstrated a causal
linkage between armed banditry and its impact on socio-economic development.
The impact of armed banditry on socio-economic development still remains
controversial. Several authors have reported on the phenomenon of armed
banditry with reference to conflict prior to cold war era in places like Egypt - Sinai Insurgency of 2011, Democratic
Republic of Congo - Batwa-Luba clashes of 2013, Ukraine - War in Donbass in
2014 and Philippines Drug War in 2016, in which is against the background that
this study investigates the impact of armed banditry on socio-economic
development in Nigeria, focusing on Zamfara from 2011 – 2018.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
study seeks to find answers to the following research questions:
What is the nature of armed bandit
activities in Zamfara state?
To what extent has armed banditry affected
the social and economic development of Zamfara state?
To what extent has cattle rustling
affected the security of Zamfara state?
What are the challenges being faced as a
result of armed banditry on social cohesion of communities in Zamfara State?
What are the possible solutions to the
challenges in combating armed banditry in Zamfara state?
1.4. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
aim of this research is to examine the impacts of armed bandit activities on
social and economic development in Nigeria with a focus on Zamfara state from
2011 – 2018. The researcher has the following objectives in carrying out this
To identify the nature of armed banditry
To determine the impact of armed bandit on
the social and economic development of Zamfara state.
To ascertain the extent to which cattle
rustling has contributed to insecurity of Zamfara state.
To ascertain the challenges faced in combating
armed banditry in promoting social cohesion of communities in Zamfara State.
To identify the possible solutions to the
challenges faced in addressing and combating armed banditry in Zamfara state
due to its impact on social and economic development from 2011 – 2018.
1.5 RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONS/HYPOTHESES
view of the problem that prompted this research, also in line with the
objective mentioned above, the following hypotheses are formulated and will be
tested in the cause of this research.
Hypotheses one (1)
Ho: Armed bandits does not affect the social
and economic development of Zamfara state
Hi: Armed bandits affect the social and economic
development of Zamfara state
Ho: Cattle rustling has no significant effects
on insecurity of Zamfara state
Hi: Cattle rustling has significant effect on
insecurity of Zamfara state
: Relationship does not exist
between armed banditry and social-cohesion of communities in Zamfara State
: Relationship exists between
armed banditry and social-cohesion of communities in Zamfara State
Ho: The incidence of armed banditry does not
constitute problem to individual victims, communities and government
Hi: The incidence of armed banditry constitutes
problem to individual victims, communities and government
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
debilitating effects caused by the activities of these bandits on the economy
of Nigeria, and the increasing pace at which it has become a regular pattern
and occurrence posits the need for an in-depth study that would offer a panacea
as well as address the raging question of insecurity in Nigeria which this
study seeks to address.
This study will not only seek to add
additional volume of knowledge and information to a sphere hitherto marred with
a dearth of information (armed banditry activities in the northeast, Zamfara
state specifically and Nigeria at large), but also enlighten readers,
stakeholders as well as enable government and policy-makers see the shortfalls
or loopholes on previously formulated policies aimed at curbing these banditry
activities and hence serve as a guideline towards strengthening such policies
or enabling them make an airtight formulations with newer ones such as more
stringent punishment to bandits.
study will establish a link between certain common social factors that are
fueling an increase in these banditry activities. Findings from this study will
also be useful to economic experts looking to build on necessitating factors
that engender social and economic development in Nigeria and the world at
1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE CHAPTERS
study is comprised of five chapters; Chapter one is the Background of the study
which embraces subject matters such as, Statement of the problem, Objectives of
the study, Research questions, Research hypotheses, Significance of the study,
and Organization of the study. This is followed by Chapter two which focused on
detailed review of related literature and relevant literature and theories
adopted for this work is also captured herein. Chapter three focuses on the
Research Methodology. This chapter describes elaborately the procedural steps
adopted for this study. It encompasses the description area of the study, types
and sources of data used in gathering information on the subject matter,
techniques of data collection and sampling procedures, techniques of data
analysis and anticipated problems encountered in the course of the study. Chapter
four focuses on the presentation of data and analysis of the assessment of the
impact of armed bandits’ activities on socio-economic development in Nigeria –
A focus on Zamafara State from 2011 – 2018. Chapter five describes the Summary,
Recommendations and Conclusion of the study.