A SURVEY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS USED FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ECONOMICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS


Content

ABSTRACT

 This research work aimed at examining instructional materials used for effective teaching and learning of Economics in Senior Secondary Schools.

The problem observed in the research work was that, there should be provision for the maintenance of the instructional materials and there should be adequate information to teachers on the availability of ready made Instructional materials.

For the purpose of providing the theoretical framework and background for the study, the researcher reviewed various literature such as books, magazines, journals and unpublished past projects which directly relate to the research work.

Furthermore, a structured questionnaire was deigned to collect data based on the review. The questionnaire was divided into two  sections (Aand B) section A  dealt with biographical data of the respondents while section B dealt with research statements. The data obtained  in section B was analyzed using percentage scores and other statistical means such as pie chart, bar chart, line graph and chi-square. Having analyzed the data thoroughly, my findings, showed that instructional materials create lasting impressions on the part of the learners and it enables the students to grap the meaning of concept being taught fast and easily.

Based on the outcome, the researcher therefore recommended that government should intensify efforts in providing maintenance for instructional materials provided in the secondary schools.

                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                               

Pages

Title page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                                        iii

Acknowledgement                                                                           iv-v

Abstract                                                                                           vi-vii

Table of contents                                                                    viii-ix

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                 

1.1 Background to the Study                                                        

  1.2 Statement of the Problems                                                                          1.3 Justification for the Study                                                                          1.4 Limitations of the Study                                                                    

  1.5 Significant of the Study                                                                                1.6 Research Questions

  1.7 Definition of Terms

  1.8 Hypothesis

                                                           

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW    OF RELATED LITERATURE                             2.1 Introduction

2.2 General concept of Instructional Resources

2.3 Classification of Instructional Materials

2.4 Importance of Instructional Materials

2.5 Problems Associated with the use of Instructional

     Materials

2.6 Selection of Instructional Material for Effective

      Teaching

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                  

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research Design                                                                      

3.3 Research Instrument

3.4 Population                      

3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques                                          

3.6. Data Collection Procedure

3.7 Method of Analysis

3.8 Reliability and Validity of the Study

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

 

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Analysis of Respondent Bio-data

4.3 Analysis of Research Questions

4.4 Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Introduction                                                                          

5.2   Conclusion                                                                             

5.3    Recommendation                                                                  

                                                                                     

Bibliography

Questionnaires                                                        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It is necessary to note that teaching aids are important catalysts of social reengineering and change in learners. It is obvious that effective instructions cannot be well accomplished without the use of instructional materials.

The reason is not far-fetched: advances in technology have brought instructional materials especially the projected and electronic materials to the fore front as the most radical tools of globalization and social development which have affected the classroom teaching learning situation positively such technological breakthrough as net worked and non-net worked; projected and non-projected; visual, audio, audio-visual electronic materials are important landmarks in knowledge transfer. With them both teaching and learning become very pleasant experiences.

Instructional materials possess some inherent advantages that make them unique in teaching.

For one thing, they provide the teachers with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to want to learn more and more. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and reference, the learner’s interest and curiosity are increasingly stimulated.

Further, the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic. They generally make teaching and learning easier and less stressful. They are equally indispensable catalysts of social and intellectual development of the learners.

Bolick (2003) pointed to a good relationship between effective teachings and using of instructional materials. He argued that “… while some educators have been fascinated by the potential of instructional materials to enhance teaching and learning, teachers lagged behind in using instructional materials during teaching and learning. Others expressed doubts that instructional materials will ever incite teaching reform in social studies”. Instructional materials are integral components of teaching-learning situations; it is not just to supplement learning but to complement its process. It  then shows that, if there must be an effective teaching-learning activity, utilization of instructional materials will be necessary.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS 

The poor funding of schools greatly affects the procurement of instructional materials in majority of the school.

Majority of Instructional Materials used in the schools are out dated and irrelevant to the teaching and learning of the subject.

Majority of the modern Instructional materials procured by the schools cannot be operated because the teachers are not experts in uses of these materials such as computers, projector and other  gadgets.

1.3 JUSTIFICATIONS FOR THE STUDY

The practical justification for this study is that it is an instrument for accelerating the pace of all inertia in a people, achieve mobilization and direct their productive forces in improving their living condition.

1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The limitations to this study could be the time needed to sample opinion from schools.

The huge financial resource needed to get relevant materials and time limit to complete and submit the project.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study is significant because it would show the relevance of teaching as a profession and the impact of  a teacher in influencing the future development and growth of a leaner. How teaching and learning materials design, production and their use facilitate the teaching and learning outcomes.

1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In attempt to make a survey of instructional materials used for effective teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary schools it is necessary to ask some pertinent questions.

A.   What are the relevant instructional materials that could aid the teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary schools.?

B.  What is the role of government in supplying instructional material in senior secondary schools?

C.  What are the impact of using these instructional materials on the students.?

D.  What are the problems facing teachers in using these instructional materials in senior secondary school.?

E.   What are the financial constraint facing the teacher in getting these instructional materials.?

 

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERM

Terms can be defined as some special chosen words used in the course of this project which are defined below to make it more explanatory and meaningful.

o   Instructional Material: are objects such as printed, audio and visual that aid in the successful delivery of lesson.

o   Effective communication: is usually the result of a careful selection of the appropriate medium or combination of media available by an effective teacher.

o   Teaching: The work or profession of a teacher.

o   Learning: Knowledge gained through reading and study.

o   Projected: are forms of media which could be visual, audio and audio-visual in nature that requires projection and electricity in their using process for teaching and learning situation.

o   Non projected: These are materials that do not require any form of projection before they can be utilized.

o   Development: the process of gradually becoming bigger, better, stronger, or more advanced.

o   Technology: new machines, equipment, and ways of doing thing that are based on modern knowledge about science and computers.

o   Visual Aid: this appeal to the sense of vision (the eye) such as  still pictures, maps,, charts, graphs, diagrams, chalkboard, sketches, atlas and painting.

o   Manipulative materials: are instructional materials that the learners actually handle skillfully, deal with, and manage expertly to bring about the desired behavioural changes.

1.8 HYPOTHESES

Below are the hypothesis on which the project will be based

A.   There is a significant relationship between the instructional materials used for effective teaching and learning and the level of the student.

B.  There is significant relationship between the roles of teacher and instructional materials used for effective teaching and learning.

C.  There is a significant relationship between the role of government and instructional materials used for effective teaching and learning.

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