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AN EVALUATION OF COMPUTER UTILIZATION IN RECORD MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM(A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF ED0-EKITIT IN EKITI STATE
The main aim of this study was “An Evaluation of Computer Utilization in Nigerian University system. A case study of university of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State.
The study examines some of the problems facing manual method in record management in Nigerian University system. Some of these problems are delay in getting any needed information, inability to search and retrieve record quickly, insufficient storage facility, errors in computation of records due to human feelings, inaccuracy, inconsistency and redundancy of data, administrative bottle necks among others.
The study focuses on how to produce within a definite time limit accurate report of students and staff, to reduce errors in computation of records, to overcome redundancy, inconsistency and repetiveness of data, to prevent an –authorized access to data and files of students and staff, to store data efficiently, to search and retrieve any needed information as and when due and to help the university authority in decision making.
The study made use of descriptive survey. The stratified random sampling was used in the selection of 120 subjects comprising of 100 students and 20 staff from fire faculties from university of Ado-Ekiti in Ekiti State. Two set of questionnaires were developed, validates and used. The statistical techniques employed for the analysis of data for the study were T-test and chi-square.
The result of the analysis of data from the study show that:
1. there was significance difference between computer utilization in record management and manual method in record management.
2. there was significance relationship between computer utilization and accurate record in record management.
3. there was significance relationship between computer utilization and computer personnel in record management.
4. there was relationship between computer utilization and financial resources in record management.
In the light of these findings the study recommended among others the following:
- Nigerian university systems should develop her own information technology.
- establishment of departments in universities where computing and information technology courses can be taught to staff and students of the universities with cognate skills.
- computerization and equipping of all developments and faculties in Nigerian universities.
- tax free importation of all computer related equipments.
- the environment for the development and management of the computer and its related materials should be made available in all universities in Nigeria.
- the problem of erratic power supply should be addressed by the Federal and state governments
- development of all information and communication infrastructure in all universities in Nigerian.
- all departments and faculties in universities in Nigeria should be computerized, connected to the internet, have electronic database and websites and share hardware and software resources.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitation of the Study
Scope of the study
Definition of Terms
Definition of Records
Managing Physical Records:
Managing Electronic Record
Purpose of Record
Importance of Record Keeping
Characteristics of Good Records.
Problems Associated with Record Keeping
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
3.4 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
Other source of data
3.5 VALIDITY OF THE INTERMENT
3.6 ADMINISTRATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULT
INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULT
Discussion of Finding, Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Discussions of Findings
Implication for Educational Policy
Implication for Practice
Implication for Research
Background to the Study
Staff and students in some universities in Nigeria are sometimes discouraged, disturbed and disappointed as a result of delay in getting needed information, inconsistency, redundancy and inaccuracy of data, lack of sufficient storage facility to cater for proper record of both staff and students, inability of the various universities to cope with huge amount of data that are being produced annually.
Some of the reasons for the afore-mentioned problems could be the method that is used to collect, collate, process and maintain the data other factors could be the protocol in getting the required information, economic, political, human and among others. However, to address the above problems, the exam and record units of all universities in Nigeria should be computerized.
Ebijuwa, A.S (2004) defines computer as the tools used for collection, processing, storage transmission and dissemination of information.
Computer is an indispensable medium by which science expresses, formulates and communicates itself. For any university community to develop socially, politically, economically, have easy access to information as and when due, overcome inaccuracy, inconsistency and redundancy of data, insufficient storage infrastructure, to cater for adequate record of both staff and students, cope with large amount of data being produced yearly, the exam and record units should be automated.
Computerized record keeping is oriented toward the use of computer systems and sophisticated programmable machines for the handling of information associated with a process and for the actual control and activation of mechanisms that facilitate or completely accomplish that process with minimal human guidance.
Rowley (1986) gives four reasons for computerization such as:-
i. increased workload – computerization can be helpful with a constant decreasing staff.
ii. need for greater efficiency- computerization may be seen as a means of saving time and money.
iii. need services –computer may offer the opportunity to offer new services in addition to existing services at little extra cost.
iv. Co-operation and Centralization
The application of computer in record keeping in Nigerian university will make it possible for personnel and students to access the vast record over the internet, cable television and some other type of remote electronic connection. It will make it possible to store and retrieve large amount of records of both staff and students of the university.
The application of computer in the collection, collation, processing, storage, retrieval, use, transmission, dissemination and maintenance of records occupies a pride of place in every facet of life and work experience in Nigerian universities because it is being used to compute the grade point average of students, for on-line registration, examination, and admission processing, keep accurate record of both staff and students, accounting (financial management, purchasing and inventory) physical plant (room assignment, hostel accommodation, allocation of courses to lecturers, planning and maintenance), process the academic transcripts of students, results, certificates, and NYSC call up letters. In addition, the application of computer in record keeping in Nigerian universities will prevent un-authorized personnel to have access to records of both staff and student, enable data to be updated quickly and simply without redesigning and rewriting systems and programs, overcome redundancy, repetitiveness and inconsistency of data; lead to grater efficiency and effectiveness of records keeping, provision of extra services, provide lecturers, students, administrators staff of the university, and the general public with information effectively and efficiency and manage record effectively. These applications of computer were made possible because of its high speed of operation, accuracy, diligence, versatility, high storage capacity, program compatibility and consistence in its mode of operation.
The focus of this work however, is on an evaluation of computer utilization in Record keeping at the university of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State. This is determined by the shortcomings of the manual (traditional) method of record keeping. However, as a result of the “Information Technology Age”, the computer has improved the act of record keeping in Nigeria University System because it is being used to compute the grade point average of students, for on-line registration, and admission processing, keep records of both staff and students, process the academic transcripts of students among others. The computer, an invaluable invention of our time, can be used for many applications in all fields of human endeavour. For example, in education sector, the computer is used to appraise and grade the scores of students in examination, for administrative purpose, on-line registration, e-examination, distance learning and keeping of records of personnel and scholars. In addition, the computer is also used in the following sectors : engineering, agriculture, medical, law, banking, transportation, security, police, armed forces, communication among others to carry out various tasks.
A well kept school record is a weapon to build the history of the students and staff. The world is becoming more and more complex such that we cannot but keep accurate records in our University system in Nigeria in the interest of the state, the lecturers as well as of the students.
The university as a socio-technical organization comprises of a technical task, human and the structural subsystem, each having supra system which constitutes that environment. The survival of the university system depends on its capacity to maintain constancy in its process and relationships within and outside the system, and in order to maintain a state of equilibrium in the system, there must be adequate feedback which the university collects information about the quality of her output to the environment.
University education in Nigeria is the education given after post-primary school. Its duration is between four years and seven years. The main functions of university education are teaching, research and community service.
The need to overcome the age-long problems that are peculiar to the collection of academic transcripts, NYSC call up letters, certificate, results, and other vital data as and when due has been of interest to staff and students of the University of Ado- Ekiti State, in Ekiti State. There is a peculiar references to the measure being used to determine the factor which account for the shortcomings of the manual method of record keeping at this university. Some of the factors identified are: loss of information as a result of transporting the files from one location to another; the mode of storage of data, misfiling of forms, time wasted in searching of records because of large files, poor security measure, rise in enrolment of students admission and shortage of manpower. Other factors which might contribute to the shortcomings of the manual method of record keeping, but they are more often than not ignored. Some of these are attitudinal, administrative and organizational, inadequate facilities of computer and its accessories at the University of Ado-Ekiti.
University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State on which this study was centred, has been known to have problems with regards to manual record keeping of both staff and students. For example, Mr. Razaq Ojikutu (an alumni of the University) while expressing his opinion over problems associated with the manual record keeping was unhappy because his attempts to get his academic transcripts on several occasions proved abortive. There is need for all UNADITES (past and present) to re-visit the perennials lapses of the traditional record keeping. The research work will review the manual method of record keeping with a view to finding solutions to the problems; the prospects of the computerized methods among which are :-
It will contribute to improved performance, overcome redundancy, inconsistency and repetitiveness of data, strengthened educational leadership and achievement, to overcome the loosely coupled conditions of the university by providing vital and sufficient information to authorities in the University, in ill –structured and complex decision phenomena.
It will enable students and academic staff to have unlimited access to educational resources which will make them to carry out an in-depth comparative studies and research in all fields of knowledge. The computerized method will lead to the emergence of new approaches, techniques and new styles of processing and disseminating records of both staff and students of the university.
Inspite of the relevant role of computer utilization in record keeping at the University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State, constraints such as inaccessibility of the user to computer, inadequate knowledge and skills-based for computer planning, erratic power supply, low level of computer literacy on the part of the staff and students of the university concerned, attitudinal, administrative and organizational problems, and prohibitive cost of computer and its accessories, dearth of qualified personnel and technicians will continue to inhibit the usefulness of the computer for meaningful record keeping at the University Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State.
Statement of the Problem
The problem that characterized the manual method of record keeping have become a source of concern to both staff and students of the University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State. For instance, students who go for their academic transcripts, their results, NYSC call up letters and certificates could not get all these as and when due. If all these shortcomings are not identified and addressed, the University might have failed in the discharge of her responsibilities and services to her citizenry. This study, therefore, focuses on the problems that be-deviled the straditional method of record keeping at the University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State with a view to ascertain the causes and proper solutions. In addition, this study will also identify the merits and demerits of computer utilization in records keeping.
Purpose of the Study
This study investigates those bottle –necks that are peculiar to the manual method of record keeping and critically evaluates computers utilization in record keeping at University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State. Some of its objectives are to produce within a definite time limit accurate report of students and staff data, reduce errors due to human feeling, overcome redundancy, inconsistency and repetitiveness of data, prevent an-authorized access to data and files of students and staff, handle large volume of data and store data efficiently, help the university authority in decision making, and for effective and efficient management of staff and students.
1. Were there any significant difference between computer utilization and manual method in record management?
2. Is there any relationship between automated record and accurate record in record management?
3. Are there any significant relationship between computer utilization and computer personnel in record management?
4. Are there any significant relationship between computer? utilization and financial resources in record management?
1. There is no significant difference between computer utilization and manual method in record management.
2. There is no significant relationship between automated record and accurate record in record management.
3. There is no significant relationship between computer utilization and computer personnel in record management.
4. There is no significant relationship between computer utilization and financial resources in record management.
Significance of the Study
This study will bring into lime light the problems that be –deviled the manual method of record keeping. The findings from this study will enable both staff and students of this University to appreciate the potentials of the computer in record keeping and equally expose the students and staff of this University to the role of computer in various aspects of life. It will also necessitate government active involvement in logical locative mechanism for all sub-sectors the education industry; improve the quality and efficiency of record keeping in terms of academics transcripts, registration courses, NYSC call up letters, results and certificates.
Worthy of mentioning in this study is the fact that some general problems bedeviling the university set up will be examined and vital and general recommendations will be suggested. These will provide useful guidelines to policy makers, planners, administrators and school technocrats by providing the ways of improving the university system in their future attempts. It will afford the students and staff of the university much easier access to information than the manual method as there may be no further need for guides or intermediaries. It affords the optimal use of available personnel, and thereby same time and money. It will make information to be rendered readily within and beyond the limits of the university through effective communication and on-line system. It will enable data to be updated quickly and simply without redesigning and rewriting system and programs.
It will contribute to improved performance, overcome redundancy, repetitiveness and inconsistency of data, and strengthened educational leadership and attainment. There will be improvements in the searching and retrievals of records of both staff and students. It will help in the development and presentation of standardized records of both staff and students of the university. For example, annually statistical reports summarizing total numbers of students admitted, total number of students and staff in the university total number of graduating students and non-graduating students in each department and faculty, annual results of budget, revenue and examination.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
Scope of the study
This study aims at identifying the extent of the effect of the manual method of record keeping at the University of Ado-Ekiti, in Ekiti State. The study will be designed to study
Staff and Students Record Module :
· to maintain and keep the historical records of staff and students.
· to assign lectures to courses.
· for student’ registration courses.
Financial Record Module :
· to create and maintain a list of billable items ( tuition, accommodation fees)
· to generate students’ bill, receipt for payment, individual students’ account.
Staff Payroll Module :
to create and maintain list of salary items.
to process monthly salary for individual/ general staff.
to generate staff pay slip/payroll history, deduction schedule
Exam Record Module:
· to create and maintain list of all courses offered both at undergraduate and post-graduate levels.
· to attach a set of courses to a particular department, faculty.
· to create/maintain other measurable skills/attitudes.
· to take students’ semester continuous and assessment and examination scores for processing students results.
· to process and maintain a data bank of students’ results.
· to process and maintain a data bank of students’ transcripts results.
The hardware requirement of the components such as: Microprocessors, mother board, disc drives, RAM and hard disc, memory capacities, keyboards, operating systems, the members of computers and peripherals, the cost, installation, and maintenance of the computer and its accessories will also be examined.
So, as to have an in-depth and general understanding of computer utilization in record keeping, determine the prospects and problems of record keeping at this University.
Limitation of the Study
Every new idea is often associated with certain accompanying problems. Computer utilization in record keeping at the university of Ado-Ekiti, in Ekiti State is no exception. It is a sort of mixed-grill reaction when an entirely new concept is being super-imposed on an existing structure with a view to make the new supplant the old. The consequences may be far-reaching in terms of human and material conditions.
Some of these limitation are:-
1 Human Elements:-
a. The personal problem is real and could be highly intractable when it comes to quality and the capacity to retain the few skilful ones that could be attracted or trained on the job. The attitude of existing staff toward change or re-orientation may also be discouraging
b. Getting the clientele (staff and students) attuned to the culture of information retiring through the on-line system could be counter-productive.
c. Where the system adopted is entirely new, the pioneering spirit may create a sort of perpetual fear in the initiations to the effect and the repercussions of serving as a “Guinea Pig’ and experiment prowl.
2. Environmental Element
a. Telecommunication problems and the erratic power supply
b. Absence of well-developed and sophisticated computer market which results in the market of obsolete hardware and unsuitable software usually at exorbitant prices.
c. The supportive maintenance facilities are nothing to write home about.
a. The ability of the Director of the computer centre to convince the Vince-chancellor or bureaucrat of the desirability to computerize.
b. The fear of the failure of a previous attempt at computerization may continue to haunt the initiators of the new project.
c. The conversion of data into the computer system, a process that would require skilful staff with positive commitment dedication and analytical mind.
4. Sourcing Computer Equipment:- This describes the model of computer hardware or software packages to opt for. The school authority may decide to buy, lease, rely on the services being provided by an existing computer system or subscribe to the service being rendered by a computer bureau.
5. Economic Element: The funding determines the quality of the human material resources, the choice of hardware and software, the choice of the type of computer to use. The choice of each of the varieties also has varying degrees of consequences as regards space, manageability, cost benefit analysis, output and performances.
Definition of Terms
1. University: This is a citadel of learning, an institution for a pursuit of knowledge, very often for its own sake, helping the initiated individual student to develop his intellect to the highest possible extent, and claiming the freedom to do research and teach, guided principally, if not entirely by its own light and its own wisdom.
2. Computer: is an electronic device that has the capability of automatically accepting data, processing it and producing relevant and meaningful output.
3. Software: This is a set of programs that is given to the computer to carry out specific tasks which make the hardware to be useful.
4. Hardware: This is the non-physical part of the computer such as keyboard, scanner, and printer.
5. System: This is a coordinated network of people, materials and events, organized for optimal achievement of the nation’s educational goals and it takes into cognizance the instructiveness and interdependence of all the components of the school and the whole education industry.
6. Subsystems: These are small units that exist within the large system. Systems are composed of subsystems such as faculties departments.
7. Supra system: This refers to the large society which the University finds itself.
8. UNADITES : This means Students and Staff of the University of Ado-Ekiti
9. Data. These are communication symbols that have been used to describe objects, convey information, meaning or ideas.
10. Records. These are valuable data or information recorded on a medium for the purpose of storage, conveyance or transmission over time and space.