AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY IN PRACTICAL BIOLOGY ACTIVITES IN YABA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE


Content

ABSTRACT

 

Information and communication technology (ICT) is now playing a major role to support teaching and dissemination of knowledge. Nobody can deny that the deployment of Information technology has profoundly altered not only the way we live and walk today but also our teaching and learning experiences. The potential of these technologies in teaching Biology is enormous. Biology is a practical science. Thus, high quality, appropriate biology experiments and investigations are the key to enhanced learning, and clarification and consolidation of theory. The quest for greater efficiency in practical biology has promoted a huge reliance on ICT as opposed the mundane methods of conducting practical biology. This study therefore is designed to investigate the availability and utilization of new technologies for practical biology activities in Lagos State, Nigeria; ascertain the availability of new technological devices in public and private secondary schools in Lagos State; determine the extent of utilization of new technological devices in public and private secondary schools in Lagos State, among others. A descriptive survey design was adopted. Simple and stratified random sampling techniques were employed to select ten schools and twenty nine teachers. Four research questions and four hypotheses were also raised in the study. A structured questionnaire titled “Availability and Utilization of new Technology for Practical Biology Activities Questionnaire (AUNTPBAQ) was designed. The result collated was analyzed using simple percentage and t-test method of statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that the new technological devices are not adequately available in public and private secondary schools for practical biology activities; the private schools have more technological devices than the public schools. The result also portrayed that lack of financial capacity, irregular power supply, lack of teachers’ competency, etc. are some of the factors that hinder the effective utilization of the new technologies; students’ readiness to learning is greatly influenced by this new technology among others. Given these, some recommendations were made which include: biology teachers should be trained and retrained on the use of new technological devices and materials for teaching and learning; Lagos state ministry of education should ensure that all senior secondary schools in the state are adequately equipped with the necessary new technological devices and materials; biology teachers should use available resources during lessons; available resources should be maintained properly, among others.

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                       

Title page                                                                                                                                i

 

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

 

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

 

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

 

Table of Content                                                                                                                     v

 

List of Tables                                                                                                                          viii

 

List of Figures                                                                                                                         ix

 

Abstract                                                                                                                                  x

 

 

CHAPTER ONE:   INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       Background to the study                                                                                           1

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                          5

 

1.3       Purpose of the Study                                                                                                 5

 

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                                    6

 

1.5       Hypothesis                                                                                                                 6

 

1.6       Scope of the Study                                                                                                    7

 

1.7       Significance of the Study                                                                                          7

 

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                8

 

 

CHAPTER TWO:  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES

 

2.1       Theoretical Framework                                                                                              9

 

2.1.1    The Technology Acceptance Model                                                                          9

 

2.2       General Framework (ICT in Teaching Biology)                                                        12

 

2.3       The Role of Practical Biology                                                                                    13

 

2.4       Review on Technologies used in Practical Biology                                                    16

 

2.4.1    Virtual or e-Laboratory                                                                                              16

 

2.4.2    Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)                                                                       19

 

2.4.3    Videos and DVDs                                                                                                      22

 

2.4.4    Projectors and CD ROMs                                                                                          26

 

2.5       Factors Militating Against the Use of Information Technology Communication      28

 

2.6       Positive Influence of Using ICT Technology                                                            32

 

 

CHAPTER THREE:  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

3.1       Research Design                                                                                                         34

 

3.2       Area of the Study                                                                                                       34

 

3.3       Population of the Study (Target and Accessible)                                                       35

 

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                                35

 

3.5       Research Instrument                                                                                                   36

 

3.6       Validity of the Instrument                                                                                          36

 

3.7       Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                       37

 

3.8       Method of Data Collection                                                                                         37

 

3.9       Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           37

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR:   DATA ANALYSIS

 

4.1       Introduction                                                                                                                38

 

4.2       Analysis of Students' Personal Data                                                                           38

 

4.3       Analysis of Teachers' Personal Data                                                                           40

 

4.4       Analysis of Research Questions                                                                                 43

 

4.5       Testing of Hypotheses                                                                                                            48

 

4.6       Findings of the Study                                                                                                 50

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE:   DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

 

5.1       Discussion of Findings                                                                                               52

 

5.2       Conclusions                                                                                                                 56

 

5.3       Educational Findings                                                                                                  57

 

5.4       Recommendations                                                                                                      57

 

5.5       Limitations of the study                                                                                             58

 

5.6       Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                 58

 

 

 

 

References                                                                                                                              59

 

Appendices                                                                                                                             70

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 1:           Gender of Students                                                                                        38

 

Table 2:           Distribution of Students according to Classes                                               39

 

Table 3:           Gender of Teachers                                                                                         40

 

Table 4:           Marital Status of Teachers                                                                              41

 

Table 5:           Years of Teaching Experience of Respondents                                              42

 

Table 6:           Extent of Availability of New Technological Devices in Public and

Private Schools for Practical Biology Activities                                             43

 

Table 7:           Extent of Utilization of the New Technological Devices in Public and

 Private School for Practical Biology Activities                                             45       

 

Table 8:           Hindrances to the Utilization of New Technologies in Public and                46

 Private Schools for Practical Biology Activities                                                                                                                                                                                           

Table 9:           Influence of New Technologies on Students' Readiness to Learning                        47

 Practical Biology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

Table 10:         Difference between the Mean Ratings of Availability of New Technology

 For Practical Biology Activities in Public and Private Schools                     48

 

Table 11:         Difference between the Mean Responses of Biology Teachers/ Students

 In Public and Private Schools on the extent of utilization of new

 Technological Resources for Practical Biology                                             48

 

Table12:          Difference between the Mean Responses of Biology Teachers in Public

and Private Schools on the Hindrances to the Utilization of New

Technological Resources                                                                                 49

 

Table 13:         Influence of the New Technology on Students' Readiness to

Learning  Practical Biology                                                                            50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

Figure 1:          Theory of Reasoned Action                                                                            10

 

Figure 2:          Davis, 1989: Original Technology Acceptance Model                                   10

 

Figure 3:          Gender Distribution of Respondents                                                              39

 

Figure 4:          Distribution of Students According to Classes                                              40

 

Figure 5:          Gender Distribution of Teachers                                                                    41

 

Figure 6:          Marital Status of Teachers                                                                             42

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       Background to the study

Science has made the whole world to be technologically complex. The panacea for achieving the great millennium goals is embedded in science through which information and communication technology materials are developed. In other words, ICT is an indispensable part of the contemporary world. According to Chiadika (2012) and Oriseyi 1977.), ICT can enhance teaching and learning through its dynamic, interactive, and engaging content.

 Information technology communication is seen as an umbrella that includes any communication device encompassing radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software satellite system as well as the various services associated with them. (Mohammed, 2013).  National Open University of Nigeria (2009) viewed ICT as forms of technologies that are used to record, store, process retrieve and transmit information across the globe.

Teaching profession requires teachers who have skill and competencies in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to impart adequate knowledge for creativity, skills, new ideas and high level productivity and to bring about transformational changes in their learners. There is need for secondary school science teachers to see ICT learning resources as a priority area of need for integration in classroom teaching and learning. A Shift in pedagogy with adequate understanding of ICT learning resources for classroom management skills will provide needed solutions to emerging societal needs for global competitiveness. World Bank (2008) acknowledges that ICT holds the opportunity to revolutionize pedagogical methods, expand access to quality education and improve the management of the education systems. 

Science education is a veritable tool for scientific and technological advancement of any nation. This fact is enshrined in the National Policy on Education (Federal Republic Of Nigeria (FRN), 2004), which states that science education should among other things equip students to live effectively in the modern age of science and technology. To achieve this, resources for science and technology in teaching and learning must be adequately provided for and judiciously utilized in educational institutions whether primary, secondary or tertiary education respectively.

Biology as a branch of science and the prerequisite subject for many fields of learning contributes immensely to the technological growth of the nation. This includes medicine, forestry, agriculture, biotechnology and nursing.

Practical activities in biology provide opportunities for students to actually do science as opposed to learning about science. Nzewi (2008) asserted that practical activities can be regarded as a strategy that could be adopted to make the task of a teacher (teaching) more real to the students as opposed to abstract theoretical presentation of facts, principles and concepts of subject matter.  A practical work is such an integral part of secondary school science; those who can’t access it are missing out on a major element of their science education.

New technological devices as resources in biology laboratory activities are redefining biology education by making it possible for emerging disciplinary knowledge and understanding of biological processes previously too small, large, slow or fast to be taught.  ICT plays a major role in the teaching and learning of biology and other related sciences. Knowing what and how to use these devices is vital on the part of the teachers and students respectively. These new technologies can be applied in various ways by teachers to store information such as planned lessons, diagrams and pictures of objects relevant to their teaching for retrieval when needed. The internet can be used to explore, investigate, solve problems, interact, reason, communicate and learn many concepts in the school curriculum. The use of these technologies facilitate the use of various methods of teaching and balances the teaching and learning materials thus de- emphasized the situation that is teacher centered and theoretical. As a result, learners can no longer be viewed as empty vessels waiting to be filled but rather as active organisms seeking meaning, the teacher is that of a guide.

The strength of these new technological devices has been recognized as they are found to provide students with huge quantities of up-to-date information available for practical activities in the laboratory. Furthermore, the utilization of these new technological resources in science instructions makes learning of science concepts clearer to the students and also enable them engage students in critical thinking, problem solving and acquisition of new scientific knowledge and skills (Adeosun, O. 2010).

These new technologies available for practical biology among others include the use of data logging, data base, the internet, world wide web, simulations, animations,  interactive board,2D and 3D graphics, flowchart, Computer Aided Instructions, spreadsheets, digital photographs, video players, computers, television, multimedia projector, CD;ROMS, overhead projectors etc.

Despite the importance of biology highlighted above to the scientific development of our nation, there has been consistent failure in biology and other science related subjects by students undertaking West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE) (Solomon, Onyemaechi and Ogbenyealu, 2011).

Survey from previous research work has shown teachers’ incompetence as one of the reasons behind poor performance of students (chiadika, Awili, and Nwabudike, 2012: Solomon I., 2011; and Osagiede, 2012). Poor performance of students in biology is greatly influenced by their performance in practical.

The traditional resources for teaching biology and especially practical activities are mainly textbooks, chemicals, charts, microscope, chalkboard, flask, models, regalia etc. This method can no longer produce skills, knowledge and competencies required to be exhibited in a 21st century biology student. The major challenge facing secondary school biology teachers is possessing adequate knowledge and having access to the new technological devices and being able to utilize them in a practical biology class (Onyegebu 2011). Other barriers that has lead to the persistence of the traditional methods according to Ayelaagbe (2012) include: resistance to change and negative attitude, ICT infrastructure and funding, poor maintenance culture, low internet connectivity and Tele- density, poor power supply and low technical expertise.

Modern technologies are not easy to grasp as conventional ones. Teachers therefore need the opportunities to effectively use these tools to keep abreast with technological innovations and changes.  To have a meaningful understanding of rapid growth of biological knowledge, interact and meet the demands of and challenges of the fast technology changing world, it is imperative to try out new methods, exchange ideas with experts and peers and refine skills that will quickly respond to new development in the science and technology.

This study seeks to find out if these technological devices are available and their extent of utilization.

 

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Nigerian students both primary and secondary have trailed behind other African countries in scientific assessment as reported by Akpan, B.B. (2008). Poor academic performance of science students in Biology is worrisome. A lot has been done to improve science teaching in secondary schools in Nigeria especially practical activities. In spite of all these, students still perform poorly. This situation has driven researchers to embark on a search for better methods of teaching.

Furthermore, in developing countries like Nigeria, there are problems specific to teaching practical biology which has accounted for failure in Biology at external examinations. Most laboratories are underfunded with outdated equipment (Onyegebu, 2011), large class sizes, adopting lecture style of teaching, insufficient knowledge on the part of teacher, negative predispositions of students towards practical activities are among difficulties experienced.

Considering these challenges, it’s imperative that biology teachers must shift focus from the traditional methods which has produced little or no effect to embrace opportunities presented by technological development to enhance teaching and learning in order to eradicate the menace of poor academic performance of students.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the availability and utilization of new technologies being used in practical biology in Senior Secondary Schools in Yaba Local Government Area of Lagos State. Specifically, the study is set to:

Ø  Ascertain the availability of new technological devices in public and private secondary schools in Lagos State.

Ø  Determine the extent of utilization of new technological devices in public and private secondary schools in Lagos State.

Ø  Determine the hindrances to the utilization of new technological devices in teaching 

Ø  Ascertain the influence of new technology on students’ readiness to learning practical biology.

1.4       Research Questions

1.      To what extent are new technological devices available in public and private schools for practical biology activities?

2.      To what extent are the new technological devices utilized in public and private school for practical biology activities?

3.      What are the hindrances to the utilization of new technological devices in public and private schools for practical biology activities?

4.      What is the influence of new technologies on students’ readiness to learning practical biology?

1.5       Research Hypothesis

Ho 1: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of biology teachers/ students in public and private schools on availability of new technology for practical biology activities.

Ho 2: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of biology teachers/students in public and private school on the extent of utilization of new technological resources for practical biology.

Ho 3: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of biology teachers in public and private school on the hindrances to the utilization of new technological resources.

Ho 4: The new technology will not significantly influence student’s readiness to learning practical biology.

1.6       Scope of the Study

This research work focused on availability and utilization of new technology for biology practical activities in Yaba Local Government Development Area of Lagos State. This research work covered all public and private school teachers and students in Yaba Local Government Area of Lagos State.

1.7       Significance of the Study

The rapid growth of biological knowledge is placing it prominence among the sciences. For this reason, biologists are realizing that their responsibilities have changed, as new technological devices are redefining biology. The new direction now in the biology laboratory, is to make use of these new technological devices in enriching teaching and learning experiences for the students. This new direction has taken a wave more in secondary schools in developed countries, where decisive and remarkable changes have occurred in how students learn .The advent of new technology is of extremely importance not only to scientists and their counterparts in developing countries, but also, a society like ours facing difficult choices about health care, biotechnology, the environment and others involving biological issues.

The utilization of these new technological resources will not only help in changing the ambience in the biology laboratory classroom, but will also make concepts clearer to the students as these devices have both visual and aural appeal; stimulate students to learn; develop  reasoning skills needed to acquire and apply new information throughout their lives. It will also foster new ways of teaching, thereby making teaching more interesting and educative for teachers as well as students. This study will form the bedrock for further research in this subject area. In other words, this study will serve as an impetus for other researchers to venture into further research in related areas.

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms

1.         Public schools: public school in this context refers to schools owned by the Government.

2.         Private schools: in this context, private schools refer to schools owned by private individuals, churches or organizations.

3.         Virtual laboratory and E-laboratory are used interchangeably in this study to denote the new equipment and tools being used to aid students in their learning.

 

 

 

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