- FEMALE INHERITANCE AND WIDOWHOOD PRACTICE AMONG IGBO OF EASTERN NIGERIA
- AN INVESTIGATION OF THE CAUSES OF STRIKE AND ITS EFFECT ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
- TEACHERS INPUT AS DETERMINANT OF STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS (A Case Study Of Secondary Schools In Kosofe Local Government )
- AN INVESTIGATION ON STUDENTS POOR PERFORMANCE IN TYPEWRITING EXAMINATION IN TERTIARY INSTITUTION
- CAUSES OF DISPARITY BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE ENROLMENT IN ADULT EDUCATION
- RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A STUDY OF SELECTED FEMALE IN LAGOS MAINLAND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
- INFLUENCE OF NEED SATISFACTION ON PRONENESS TO STEALING AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS AT UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, AKOKA, LAGOS
- INFLUENCE OF FINANCIAL AND NON-FINANCIAL REWARDS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ATHLETES IN TERTIARY EDUCATION SPORTS
- AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE DETERMINANT OF FEMALE ATHLETES PERFORMANCE IN SPORTS FESTIVAL IN LAGOS STATE (A CASE STUDY OF THE LAGOS STATE MALE AND FEMALE ATHLETES)
- THE INFLUENCE OF RECREATION ON THE SOCIAL LIFE OF FEMALE UNDERGRADUATES
AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE DETERMINANT OF FEMALE ATHLETES PERFORMANCE IN THE JUST SPORTS FESTIVAL IN LAGOS STATE (A CASE STUDY OF THE LAGOS STATE MALE AND FEMALE ATHLETES)
This study investigated the determinants of male and female athlete’s performance in the just concluded sports festival in Lagos state. 5 research questions and hypotheses were raised, formulated and tested in the course of this study. 50 male and female basketballers who play for Lagos state basketball team. The research instrument used was a self-developed questionnaire, the 5 hypotheses formulated were analyzed and tested using the Chi-square (X2) statistics to determine the effects of the variables. All the stated hypotheses were rejected. Based on the finding of this study the following conclusions are hereby reached that: inadequate planning and preparation, inadequate funding of athlete’s programme, inadequate welfare package for athletes, professional incompetence of national coaches and athletes Attitude and International Circuit Programmes determined male and female athlete’s performance at the National Sports Festival. In view of the findings obtained and the conclusion reached above the following recommendations are hereby made strategic planning should be adopted for sports festivals which will ensure that athletes’ are well trained before the games, long term preparation should be applied to all sports for better performance at the sports festivals, adequate funding of athletes’ programme should be ensured. The Nigerian committee in charge of the sports festival should seek for corporate sponsorship of all sports and money accrued should be judiciously spent on athletes for better result, the national Sports Commission should be objective in the selection of state coaches to lead teams for each sport at the sports festivals, a good welfare package should be designed for the future of athletes’ so that they can commit their effort for better performance at the games, state coaches in Nigeria should continuously improve their knowledge in their sports since sports is dynamic, scientific basic approach should be applied to all sports in the area of training, physical conditioning, techniques acquisition and tactical knowledge, athletes’ needs to put up patriotic attitude for better performance at the festival Games, state Sports Commissions should ensure better financial and material support for athletes to avoid brain drain of athletes to other states & athletes’ should be given grants for training purposes.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction 1
Background top the study 1
Statement of the problem 2
Purpose of the study 3
Research questions 3
Research hypotheses 4
Significant of the study 5
Delimitation of the study 6
Limitation of the study 7
Operational definition of key term 7
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 8
Record of past host of national sports festival 1973-2012 8
Coach: Definition, Qualities and Role 20
Leadership Behaviours 26
Leadership Theories in sports 35
Coaching Behaviour and Athletes Wellbeing 47
Models of coaching effectiveness 48
Concept of sports 54
Value of sports 59
Characteristics of sports 66
Purpose and usefulness of sports 67
Duties of contemporary Athletic Administrators 73
Determinant of participation in sports and physical Activity 76
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 87
Research method 87
Sample and sampling technique 88
Research instrument 88
Validity of the research instrument 88
Reliability of the research instrument 89
Procedure for data collection 89
Procedure for data analysis 89
Result and Discussion 90
Data presentation 90
Analysis of Data and testing of hypothesis 92
Discussion of findings 97
Summary, conclusion and recommendation 100
Background to the study
The root of sports is dated back into primitive days when the meaning of the term sports meant more than fun or diversion. Sports during the early times meant survival, since human being found it necessary to bunt fish and hurl missiles, not for pleasure but to survive the hostile environment that surrounds them. As civilization developed, the Egyptian and other people who lived in the Middle East and other parts of the world participated in various sports.
This year’s national sports festival dubbed Eko 2012, kicked off at the main bowl of the Teslim Balongun stadium, Lagos. Vice president, Namadi Sambo, who declared the prestigious event open, enthused that the objectives of the festival was to foster national unit and discover talents who would represent the country in the future international engagements. With a view to motivating participant states to give their best at the event that opened amid glitz and glamour, Sambo, who represented president Good luck Jonathan, pledge a cash gift of N20m for any state that comes first, N15m for the second runner up and N10m for the third runner up.”I am highly delighted to be a part of the opening ceremony of the 18th Sports Festival in Lagos.
I advice the athletes to stay away from performance- enhance drugs and give their best to excel in the festival. The officials should also be fair in officiating the games. On behalf of the federal government, I pledge cash gifts of 20 million naira for the best state, 15 million naira for the second best state and 10 million naira for the third best state, “he said. He, however, assured of government’s support to Nigerian sports development. Also, Minister of sports, Bolaji Adbullahi, declared that government was putting structures in place to ensure that athletes discovered were well trained to meet global challenges. According to him, Nigeria’s poor performance in the last Olympic games in London was the major reason government was playing serious role in the festival.”I ve inspected the facilities in Lagos and can say that the state is fully ready for the festival.
Based on our poor performance in the London Olympics, it has become important that this sports festival will be used to discover talents that will restore Nigeria’s glory in sports. “Government has realized that the grassroots sports development is the solution to the sports crisis. The festival’s key objective is to foster friendship and discover talents in the country and participate in the festival.”
Statement of the problem
Over the years, from 1973 through 2012 that sports festival held in Lagos, the researcher had observed that Nigeria’s athletes performance has not measured well enough as it is expected. It has also been noted that lack of adequate preparation for athletes by the relevant state federations in Nigeria, affects good performance. Budget funding for sports is inadequate for the aspects of training, welfare and remuneration of athletes due for games. Subjective selection of athletes has always been part of the problem. The reputation and caliber of coaches handling the athletes has always been a problem.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants of male and female athlete’s performance in the just concluded sports festival in Lagos state. Others are to find out the effects of:
1. Inadequate planning and preparation on athlete’s performance
2. The influence of funding on athlete’ performance
3. Inadequate welfare package on athlete’ performance.
4. Professional incompetence of national coaches on athletes’ performance
5. Athlete attitude and programmed on performance
The following research questions were raised and answered in the course of this study:
1. Will inadequate planning and preparation be a determinant of female athlete’s performance at the national sports festival?
2. Will inadequate funding of the athletes programmed be a determinant of athlete’s performance at the national sports festival?
3. Will the welfare of athletes be a determinant of female athlete’s performance at the national sports festival?
4. Will professional incompetence of national coaches be a determinant of female athlete’s performance at the national sports festival?
5. Will athlete’s attitude and international circuit programmed be a determinant of female athlete’s performance at the national sports festival?
The following research hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study.
1. Inadequate planning and preparation will not be a determinant of female athlete’s performance at the national sports festival
2. Inadequate funding of athletes programmed will not be a determinant of female athlete’s performance at the national sports festival
3. Inadequate welfare package for athletes will not be a determinant of female athlete’s performance at the national sports festival
4. Professional incompetence of national coaches will not be a determinant of female athlete’s performance at the national sports festival
5. Athletes’ attitude and international circuit programmed will not be a determinant of female athlete’s performance at the national sports festival.
Significance of the study
This study may be of significance in the following ways:
1. It will be of great benefit to the field of sports administration and management as it will be an added information to knowledge. It will further enhance research work in the area of strategic planning on human resource management in the sports industry.
2. The findings of this study will be of great importance to ministry of sports youth and social development as well as assist in provision of needed impetus towards better performance at the national sports festivals.
3. The findings is expected to influence prompt reaction to adequate planning programmed for athletes and coaches, welfare of athletes, adequate funding and facility provision coupled with talent identification and nurturing of star athletes from grassroots
4. The findings will serve a pivotal and reference point for future preparation towards international competition most especially Olympics games 2016 Rio, Brazil.
Delimitation of the study
This study was delimited to the following:
1. Descriptive survey research design
2. 50 male and female basketballers who play for Lagos state basketball team
3. Use of questionnaire for data gathering, simple frequency counts of percentages was used in the presentation of demographic data while the inferential statistics of Chi – Square (x2) was used in the testing of stated hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.
The study was further delimited to the following variables.
i. Inadequate planning and preparation
ii. Inadequate funding
iii. Welfare packages
iv. Professional incompetence
v. Athletes attitude
Limitation of the study
Some of the participants did not return the questionnaire given to them to fill in time. The researcher appealed to the participants by persuading them and motivating them to return the questionnaire at the appropriate time.
Operational Definition of Key Term
1. Athletes: this represents Lagos state male and female athletes in basketball.
2. Inadequate funding: the inability of a state federation nation to provide enough money to prosecute the national sports festival programmed.
3. Planning: this is the preparation put in place towards the national sports festival. It includes scouting for talents and having adequate preparation, financing and monitoring of athletes.
4. Poor performance: the string of unsuccessful results made by Nigerian athletes at the national sports festival from 1973-2012
5. Professional incompetence: the inadequacies of state team coaches in the area of technical input, training techniques and tactical knowledge update
6. Sports development: this refers to a general process of movement to optimum condition of state and an improvement in sports standard.
7. Welfare packages: this include allowances, financial bonuses, feeding, medical services and insurance policy for athletes and other non- financial benefits accrued from talking part in the national sports festival.