AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ECONOMIC STUDENTS IN OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA LAGOS STATE


Content

ABSTRACT

This study was based on investigation into the effect of instructional materials on the teaching of economic in secondary school in Ojo Local Government Areas.

 

A sample population of 120 students was carried out and also sample population of 24 teachers carried out in 8 schools randomly selected in Ojo LGA. The major instrument used was questionnaire. Simple percentile and the T- test was also used to for the analysis.   

 

The result shows their is a significant difference in the existing instructional materials and the students performance in classroom also there is no significant difference between the instructional material and teaching learning effectiveness.

 

However, based on the research analysis among other things that available instructional materials should undergo periodic maintenance because materials make learning more real and concrete which helps the students in focusing attention and motivation.

furthermore materials, (reading or teaching) resources should be properly made available and periodically up dated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                               TABLES OF CONTENTS     

 

Title page                                                                       pages

Certification                                                                  i

Dedication                                                                    ii

Acknowledgment.                                                         iii

Abstract                                                                        iv

Chapter one: Introduction.

1.0       Background to the study.                                  1-2   

1.1    Statement of problems                                       3

1.2    Purpose of the study.                                         3-4

1.3    Research questions                                            4-5

1.4    Significance of the study                                    5-6

1.5    Scope and limitations of the study.                   6-7

 

Chapter two:  Literature Review.

2.0       Introduction                                                        8

2.1    School environment of learning                         8-10

2.2    Teacher’s working condition                    10-12

2.3    Instructional materials of learning                    12-15

2.4    Teacher’s motivation towards teaching             18

2.5    Insufficient period of learning                            18-19

 

Chapter Three: Research methodology

3.0    Introduction                                                        20
3.1    Research Design                                                 20

3.2    Area of study                                                       20

3.3    Population of the study                                      21

3.4    Sample and sampling techniques                      21

3.5    Instrument for data collection.                          21

3.6    Administration of Instrument                            22

3.7    Data Analysis                                                      22

 

Chapter Four: Analysis of research Question and Results

3.0       Introduction                                                        23

4.1       Analysis of research question 1                         23-25

4.2       Analysis of research question II                        25-28

4.3       Analysis of research question III                       29-31

4.4       Analysis of research question IV                       32-35

4.5       Analysis of research question V                        35-38

4.6       Summary of the findings.                                   38              

 

Chapter Five: Interpretation and Discussion of result

5.0    Introduction                                                        39

5.1    Interpretation and discussion of results.          39

5.2    Interpretation and discussion of results.          39-43

5.3    Educational implication of the study.               44

5.4    Limitations of the study.                                     45

5.5    Recommendations                                              45

5.6    Suggestions for further studies                         46

5.7    Summary of the entire study                    46

References:                                                                   47-48

Questionnaires.                                                  49-53

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

1.0.  INTRODUCTION:

Economics is a very interesting subject. The importance of Economics as a senior secondary school subject cannot be over-emphasized. Its importance is such that every senior secondary school student must offer the subject right from senior secondary school one (S.S.S 1) to senior secondary school three (S.S.S3) when the senior school certificate examination will be taken (S.S.C.E) and National Examination Council (N.E.CO) will be taken respectively, The policy has placed Economics in the same group as core subject such as mathematics English language Science etc.

 

However, Economics has a wide, which involves production, distribution and consumption. It will be noted that this scope summaries every activity a society undertakes the benefits  of studying economics are immense and includes the follows:

a.   Economics teaches consumers how to make rational use of our resources.

b.   it enables us apply its principles to solve practical problems, thus avoid unnecessary and costly mistakes.

c.    It enables us as individuals to make right decisions on spending money.

d.   It helps planners to plan adequately   for the nations economic development.

e.    Lastly, it prepares students for the wider world generally. it trains the student to have better understanding of the problems of the society  and therefore be in position to offer effective solutions to them.

These are some of the benefits of economics to individuals and students.

The study of Economics has in recent years being faced with many challenges. One of the most prominent of these challenges is the issue or problem of instructional materials used in teaching secondary  school economics. Teachers differ in their personality behaviour and attitudes to work teachers also differ in their methods of teaching and presentation of their materials to students. However, these teachers all have one thing in common, which is to make their students learn.

 

The role of a teacher in any instructional situation is primarily that of communication. The  teacher tries to effect changes in the behaiour of learner by representation facts and information learning rules and procedures, gaining the learner’s attention by activity involves them in meaningful participation,  participation, propelling that thinking and stimulating their imagination for effective transfer of knowledge. The proper selection of an appropriate teaching method involves consideration of class size, equipment and facilities. Many students of economics in secondary schools receive instruction either through traditional lecture method or through the use of obsolete and inadequate instructional materials. As a result of this students learn economics as a matter of compulsion, rather than with real interest.

 

It is still common to find teachers using the traditional teaching and chalking ‘method of teaching at the expense of non-traditional approaches such as the scientific method of inquiring or the use of relevant instructional materials and learning. They help the teacher teach better and make learning interesting and less strenuous. They are also referred to as educational instructional media.

 

In other words instructional materials include all forms of information carriers  that can be used to promote  and encourage effective teaching  and learning activities.

 

The materials range from simple materials like chalks markers textbooks, illustrated pictures, charts, maps, pictures to more complex materials like projectors, tapes, records, videos etc.

 

Instructional materials can be classified  according to the sense organs  (hearing or sight) they appeal to. These are visual aids (Sense of sight) audio (sense of hearing) and audio-visual aids (sense of hearing and sight).

 

Farrant (1988) pointed out that the quality of any selected and applied instructional material can be assessed in the light of its relevance adequacy, neatness, validity, applicability and the  number of senses it appeals to, from observation it has been noted that many of the existing instructional materials used in teaching economics in senior secondary schools, if assessed under  the above criteria (as pointed out by Farrent (1988), will not do very well. Is a result of this students either learn in abstract   memory or they do not learn at all.

 

1.1   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS:

One of the major difficulties facing students of economics is the method of teaching used and the instructional materials available for the use in their learning process.

 

The methods of teaching and instructional materials used while teaching can determine how much a student will learn. The value of instructional materials used cannot be over-stressed as the help students learn affectively to ask good questions, search for acceptable and reasonable answers, confront reality and reflect about economics problems in creative and challenging ways. This search is to asses the existing instructional materials presently used in teaching economics in senior secondary schools in Ojo Local Government area of Lagos   State.

 

However, it probes into the following areas of assessment which includes.

a.   The relevance of instructional materials.

b.   Adequacy of the instructional materials.

c.    The validity of the materials available.

d.   Neatness of the materials and

e.    Validity of the materials.

1.2   The purpose of the study includes:

i.             To identify the types of instructional materials used in teaching of economics.

ii.           To justify the used for the need of instructional materials in order to promote effective teaching and learning of Economics.

iii.          To determine the levels of usages of instructional materials in the selected secondary schools in are local government area.

iv.          To asses the instructional materials available for use

v.            To examine the relevance and effectiveness of the materials used and the students performance.

 

1.3   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

a.       To what extent does the availability of instructional materials affect the teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school?

b.      How relevant are the available instructional materials in the teaching of Economics?

c.       To what extent does the attitude of students and teachers ? towards the use of instructional materials enhance Economics lessons?

d.      What are the type of materials that are available for the teaching of Economics in senior Secondary school?

How effective are the instructional materials used in teaching Economics in Senor Secondary School?

 

HYPOTHESIS  

i.             There is no significant difference between the instructional materials and the teachers- student teaching and learning effectiveness.

ii.           There is no significant difference between the instructional materials on students performance in class.

 

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study is significant in the following respect; They study will make the learning environment more real and likely. The study will show the usefulness of the existing instructional materials in teaching Economics. The study will show the areas where the use of instructional materials is lacking in the teaching of  Economics. The study will show what instructional materials are in use and which are needed. The study will provide guidelines for teachers on how to effectively  use the available instructional materials in teaching Economics.

 

1.6       SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research is restricted to five selected secondary schools in Ogo Local Government  Areas of Lagos State due to certain intervening variable, which include the limited time available for carrying out the research and also the financial constraints on the part of the researchers.      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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