ASSESSMENT OF BREAKFAST CHOICE AND THE EFFECTS ON THE CONCENTRATION OF STUDENTS


Content

ABSTRACT

The study was focused on the assessment of breakfast choices and the effects on the concentration of students in Birch Freeman Junior High School. Mushin. The descriptive survey research design method was employed in the study. The population of the study comprised of the entire students of Birch Freeman Junior High School while the sample sued was two hundred and forty (240) respondents. A self structured and modified four point Likert rating scale questionnaire was used as the research instrument for data collection  to obtain the opinion of the respondents on the needed information on each items of the questionnaire on the major variables examined in the study. The data was analysed using simple frequency and percentage to analyse demographic data while inferential statistical of Chi-square was used to test each hypothesis. Respondents also expressed their opinion on each of the variables. The study generated some recommendations based on the findings. Suggestions were also made for further study.

Key words, Breakfast choice ,concentration, junk food, calories, metabolism

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGES

Title page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                       ii

Dedication                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgment                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                            v

Table of Content                                                                               vi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of study                                                                        1

Statement of problem                                                                       9

Purpose of the study                                                                         9

Research Questions                                                                           9

Hypotheses                                                                                       10

Significance of the study                                                                             11

Limitation of the Study                                                                     12     

Definitions of Terms                                                                         12

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction                                                                                                14     

Overview of food                                                                              15

Factors that influence students breakfast choices                             33

Reasons why students skip breakfast                                                         41

Characteristics of healthy breakfast meals                                        43

Effects of skipping breakfast                                                            44

School food Programme                                                                   45

Defining the concept Concentration                                                  48

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction                                                                                                51

Research Method                                                                              51

Population                                                                                        52

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                      52

Research Instrument                                                                         53

Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument                               53     

Procedure for Data collection                                                            54

Procedure for Data analysis                                                              54

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDING

Introduction                                                                                      55

Demographic Data Analysis.                                                            55

Chi-Square Testing of Hypotheses                                                    57

Discussion of Findings.                                                                     60

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE:SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary                                                                                          63

Conclusion                                                                                        64

Recommendations                                                                                      65

REFERENCES                                                                                 67

APPENDIX                                                                                       73


 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of study

Breakfast is the first meal of the day taken after rising from a night’s sleep, most often eaten in the early morning before undertaking the day’s work and numerous medical studies have proven that it is the most important meal of the day. Nutritionists advise that breakfast should be eaten within two hours of waking and a healthy breakfast should provide calories in the range of 20-35% of your guideline daily allowance (GDA).

However, it is the most missed meal of the day and this can have negative effects on concentration, result in metabolic changes that interfere with some aspects of cognitive functioning and school performance and impair the availability of energy (glucose­) and certain nutrients necessary for the synthesis of neurotransmitters which in turn are necessary for correct functioning of the central nervous system.

As adults, eating breakfast each day is necessary for improved performance at work but for children it is even more important because their growing bodies and developing brains need regular fueling often gotten from food.

The first point that comes to mind while thinking about breakfast for kids is that breakfast helps in their overall learning process. Students have a busy time in school where they not only learn different subjects but also indulge in extracurricular activities. For doing these activities, they need energy which comes from glucose that breakfast provides. Despite the importance of the calories obtained from food, a heavy breakfast could leave one with the feeling of drowsiness and make it more difficult to concentrate and remember important details, a meal that is too light will not provide the brain with adequate calories to function effectively.

For school aged children, eating breakfast before heading off to school have many benefits.Among such benefits are:

Nutritional Benefits

Breakfast foods are good sources of important nutrients such as calcium, iron and B vitamins as well as protein and fibre. The body needs these essential nutrients and research shows that if these are missed at breakfast, they are less likely to be compensated for later in the day.  Fruit and vegetables are good sources of vitamins and minerals so try to include a portion of your daily five at breakfast, whether that is a banana or glass of fruit juice.

Making healthy breakfast choices helps in the reduction of nutritional deficiency diseases like beriberi, kwashiorkor, marasmus and scurvy.

Energy Needs

Consumption of food in the early morning has a marked satiating power, leading to the control and moderation of the total energy intake throughout the whole day. People's energy needs vary depending on activity levels and life stage but typically men require more energy than women.  Growing children require a lot of energy, as an example boys aged 7-10yrs should consume approx. 1970 kcals per day, and girls aged 7-10yrs should consume approx. 1740 kcals.  For adults, men require approx. 2500 kcals and women approx. 2000 kcals per day. When we eat breakfast, we are stimulating our metabolism in such a way that we help our body to burn calories from food during the day. On the contrary when we don't eat for long time we are slowing down the burning procedure of calories and we feel tired
Generally speaking, people that eat breakfast on a regular basis are more active and they manage to complete their tasks more efficiently than the others that they don't eat breakfast. Especially for kids, numerous scientific results have shown that regular consumption of breakfast helps their brain to retain better new information

Breaking the Fast Is Healthy

A 2008 study in the journal Pediatrics found that adolescents who ate breakfast daily had a lower body mass index than teenagers who never ate breakfast or only on occasion.

Ironically, the breakfast eaters even ate more calories, fibre, and cholesterol in their overall diets compared to the kids who skipped breakfast. But the kids who ate breakfast also had diets with less saturated fat. “We know that the biggest predictor of overeating is under-eating,

Eating breakfast also has ramifications on school performance. “Study after study shows that kids who eat breakfast function better.

Children who eat breakfast are generally in better health overall, a fact that may be attributed to the types of food often associated with the morning meal. Breakfast provides a golden opportunity to fortify your teen with nutrients that can easily fall by the wayside the rest of the day. “Breakfast is a great time to consume fiber in the form of cereals and whole wheat breads,”

Breakfast is also an opportunity to feed children with bone building calcium and vitamin D. Kids enter their peak bone building years in adolescence and continue building bone into their early 20s. Although vitamin D is best known for its role in promoting the absorption of calcium, new studies show vitamin D may also boost immunity and help prevent infections, autoimmune diseases, cancer and diabetes.

Exposure to the sun triggers the skin to produce vitamin D, but experts generally caution against relying on the sun for vitamin D — too much sun raises the risk for skin cancer. Instead, experts recommending getting vitamin D from foods, including eggs and fortified foods such as breakfast cereals, milk, and yogurt — all perfect for the morning meal. Vitamin D is also found in salmon, tuna, and other types of seafood. Kids who do not get enough vitamin D from food should consider taking a supplement.

Cognitive Function

Breakfast also restores glucose levels, an essential carbohydrate that is needed for the brain to function. Many studies have shown how eating breakfast can improve memory and concentration levels and it can also make us happier as it can improve mood and lower stress levels.  In studies amongst children, breakfast can improve attainment, behaviour and has been linked to improved grades.  Just like any other organ in the body, the brain needs energy to work at its best.

Improve Family Bond

Breakfast is an excellent occasion to eat together as a family when possible. Meal times are fantastic time to bond together as a family. It offers the children the privilege to talk about the previous day’s activities and their expectations for the new day.

Establishing good breakfast habits in childhood and maintaining them throughout adolescence may be an important factor in reducing the prevalence of breakfast skipping and developing good eating habits that last a lifetime.

Breakfast during childhood and adolescence should be a pleasant occurrence and should be consumed within the family, providing a variety of different dietary choices, as for lunch and dinner.

Builds Healthy Eating Habits

Breakfast is integral part of a balanced dietary pattern. Besides regulating the feeling of hunger and satiety throughout the day, it also needs to meet the metabolic requirements that follow an overnight fast.

Puts one in a good mood

Eating breakfast in the morning will keep the spirit up through out the day. Firstly, since the body is not starving after a nutritious meal, it is easier to get in a good mood and stay that way. It also provides plenty of needed energy to help in getting through the  regular tasks of the day and this can help in keeping ones mood bright and optimistic. A healthy meal in the morning can also help to regulate blood sugar level through lunch time which plays a vital role in improving ones mood.

Boost Concentration

In the morning, after fasting while you sleep, your brain and body need the energy and nutrients from food to get you going. Eating a nutritious breakfast can have beneficial effects on concentration and memory throughout the day. 

Helps in Weight Loss

One of the greatest benefits of eating breakfast every morning is you can lose weight by doing so. Breakfast helps the body stay lean. Numerous studies have also shown that an increase in weight is commonly associated with skipping breakfast. The best part is, even if you eat too much or have something a little unhealthy, you still have the entire day to make up for it. Eating breakfast every morning is one of the easiest ways to lose weight.

Reduces the consumption of junk food

Eating of breakfast reduces the temptation of eating junk food and makes it less likely to chose snacks that are high in fats and calories to satisfy hunger

Statement of problem

The notion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day is popular among parents, students and educators. However, the nutritional benefits of these meals are usually not put into consideration especially when it comes to school aged students. The researcher seeks to identify the nutritional benefits of breakfast, reasons for students skipping breakfast and what effects breakfast have on the concentration of students.

Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study was to assess breakfast choices as it affects the concentration and overall academic performance of students.

Research Questions

The following research questions will be formulated for this study.

Will the quality and quantity of breakfast choice affect the concentration of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin?

Will the socio-economic status of parents influence the choice of breakfast of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin?

Will the nature of parents’ employment affect the choice of breakfast of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin?

Will students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin who eat quality breakfast be more active in morning lessons?

Will skipping of breakfast have any effect on the participation in class activities of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin?

Hypotheses           

The quality and quantity of breakfast choice will not significantly affect the concentration of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin.

Socio-economic status of parents will not significantly influence the choice of breakfast of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin.

The nature of parents employment will not significantly affect the choice of breakfast of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin.

The quality of breakfast will not significantly increase the activeness in morning lessons of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin.

Skipping of breakfast will not significantly affect the participation in class activities of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin.

Significance of the study

This study may provide the students of Birch Freeman Junior High School With the knowledge on the type of breakfast that can enhance class participation and concentration.

Furthermore, this study can assist in increasing the awareness on how breakfast can help in building healthy eating habits in children.

The findings from this study may enlighten the students and educators on the importance and benefits of balanced diet.  

Delimitation of the study

This study was delimited to the following:

1. `Breakfast choice and effects on the concentration of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin.

2. J.S.S.1, J.S.S.2 and J.S.S.3 students of Birch Freeman Junior high School Students.

3. The use of self- developed questionnaire to elicit responses from the respondents

4. Demographic variables: age, gender, religion, class.

5. Stratified Random Sampling Technique

Limitation of the Study

The major challenge encountered during the study was getting the students to fill the questionnaire during their busy class period but this was achieved by administering it during their break period.

Definitions of Terms

Metabolism: The chemical process that occurs in a living organism to maintain life

Junk food: Food with little nutritional value.

Neurotransmitters: A chemical substance released from the end of a nerve fibre, affecting the transfer of an impulse to another nerve muscle.

Calories: The unit usually used to measure the energy value of food.

Glucose: A simple sugar that is an important energy source and it is a component of carbohydrate.

Tardiness: Delay or delaying beyond the right or expected time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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