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ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS IN LAGOS STATE SECONDARY SCHOOL
This study explored the impact of environmental factors on the effective teaching and learning of physical education and sports in Lagos state secondary schools. The study was guided by research objectives, questions and hypotheses that included the influence of school location, school facilities and modern supervision techniques on the effective teaching and learning of physical education and sports in Lagos state secondary schools. Literature review covered relevant texts and documents on the research topic. The researcher adopted the descriptive survey research design. A sample of 100 teachers was taken from Education District (IV) of Lagos state which was the area of the research. The researcher used questionnaires for the selected respondents for data collection. Descriptive statistics of percentage and inferential statistics of chi-square were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study showed that school location will influence the effective teaching of physical education and sports in secondary schools; school facilities will influence the effective teaching of physical education and sports in secondary schools and modern management techniques will influence the effective teaching of physical education and sports in secondary schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 3
1.3 Purpose of the study 6
1.4 Research questions 6
1.5 Research hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the study 7
1.7 Scope of Study 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 The concept of school environment on student academic performance 11
2.2 Concept of academic performance in physical education and sports 17
2.3 The contributions of school managers and administrators towards academic performance of students 21
2.4 The contributions of parents in the academic progress of students at the secondary school 26
2.5 Socio-economic background and students’ academic performance at secondary school level 32
2.6 School environmental factors and effective school administration 35
2.7 Problems of negative school environment 41
2.8 Indiscipline as a social menace that affects academic performance at the secondary school level 52
2.9 Effective school facilities and its influence on performance of students at the secondary school level 61
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design 67
3.2 Population of the study 67
3.3 Sample and Sampling technique 68
3.4 Research Instrument 68
3.5 Reliability of the Instrument 68
3.6 Validity of the Instrument 68
3.7 Procedure for Data Collection 68
3.8 Procedure for Data Analysis 69
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS OF FINDINGS
4.1 Presentation of Demographic Data 71
4.2 Analysis of Research Questions 74
4.3 Analysis of Data and Testing of Hypotheses 78
4.4 Discussion of Findings 79
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
5.1 Summary 81
5.2 Conclusion 81
5.3 Recommendations 82
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies 83
1.2 Background to the study
There is no gainsaying the fact that education is very vital to the pace of social, political and economic development of any nation. This is why most nations of the world strive to devote a sizeable proportion of their Gross National Income to develop the educational sector. In Nigeria, between 7.6% and 9.9% of our annual expenditure is devoted to education (Durosaro, 2003). The proportion earmarked in the approved national budget is meant to finance capital and recurrent expenditure of schools. The physical structures which is capital intensive takes the larger part of the cost since the physical environment of a school adds a lot of value to the school (Obong, 2007).
Egim (2003) observed in her study that the physical environment contributes either negatively or positively to the effectiveness of teaching and learning in the school. The school physical environment includes the buildings, classrooms, furniture, equipment, instructional materials, laboratories, libraries, play grounds, and so on. Others are walls, machinery, decorative objects, play fields, skating rinks, swimming pools, audio-visual equipment (Mckay, 1964 in Egim, 2003). Egim (2003) maintained that in a bid to expand the educational enterprise, educational planners are more interested in issues such as the number of schools, teachers, students’ infrastructural facilities like classrooms and school buildings. Little attention is paid to the quality of the environment (Obong. 2010).
Maintaining a sound and healthy environment has always been a challenge to man (Akintola, 2008). For example, the different inputs from anthropogenic activities include energy generating heat, uncontrolled sound turning into noise, and other land-using agencies that causes degradation of the physical environment. Various human activities that require planning and coordination demands comprehensive and deliberate efforts to keep the physical environment fit for the total man to function well. Hence, the management of built environment is determinant to the quality of man at any given time. Where this is undermined, there is bound to be poor physical conditions and the consequence is poor human output. Of particular interest to this study is the school environment.
The physical outlook of the school environment is very important in contributing to a healthy academic exercise. It forms the fulcrum on which other activities revolve. This is because it creates an atmosphere through the mind for studies(Akinsolu,2004). The duties of teaching and learning, if effectiveness is the goal, is a great one; one of such is the school location. Where a school is located can determine to a large extent the stability of the student’s mind for academic readiness.
A school located along air-traffic route, roadside (especially without a fence), in the neighbourhood of industrial activities, markets, and so on will be academically encumbered because such environments will interfere with the students’ learning process. It will generate noise enough to badly affect the study adventure. As indicated by the National Teachers’ Institute (NTI, 2008; Mckay, 1964 in Egim, 2003), these are capable of affecting the quality of learning environment. Equally crucial is the greening of the school environment. Sanitation Connection (2001/2002) maintains that a school management that provides sanitation and planting of flowers, trees and maintaining lawns, well cleared grasses, etc. improves quality of life and study environment. Aesthetics of a school environment is another aspect of managing a school environment. Regular painting and maintaining the quality of buildings, channelling of sewage, well-planned landscape and trimming of flowers, clearing of grasses, proper disposal of refuse, sweeping and removing cub webs among others, provides a relaxed atmosphere for the moulding of minds. All the issues above constitute school environmental management strategies that could make a school a place to live and not to leave.
In spite of this all-important top burner matter, very little have been done in managing school environments for fruitful academic venture. It becomes necessary to conduct a study on the environmental factors that affect effective teaching and learning
How a school environment is managed in aesthetics, recreation, waste, drainage pattern, and other physical outlook of the environment has a telling effect on the quality of learning. It is opined that regular grass clearing, sweeping of the school compound and painting, landscaping and planting of flowers, good drainage, refuse disposal, provision of fields, playgrounds and sporting facilities are strategies adopted to ensure effective teaching and learning(Akinsolu, 2004). In this study however, the focus is on the effective teaching of Physical Education and Sports at the secondary school level.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Over the years, the researcher had noticed that there has been a public outcry on the poor quality of education and continual decline in the standards of education in the country especially at the secondary school level. A careful examination of the environmental factor revealed some of the problems bedeviling the system, and which have been hindering effective administration of any school in Nigeria (Ogunbiyi, 2004; Nwakpa,2008).
Education stakeholders have blamed the quality assurance agents (school supervisors and inspectors of education) for the falling standard due to dilapidated school buildings and structures. The complaint is that infrastructures and facilities are fast decaying and depreciated and that the quality of inspection is below expectation. A lot of problems have been identified to be affecting the state of education, mostly at the secondary school level. The rate at which the standard of education deteriorate cannot be overemphasized. Some of these problems could be traced to inadequate finance that is required to provide for basic school facilities, school plant planning, buildings and structures, libraries building and other social amenities, sports and training facilities(Emeratom,2004).
Good quality education as well as having standardized school in place depends heavily on the provision of adequate educational facilities. This was why Emeratom (2004) insisted that educational curriculum cannot be sound and well operated with poor and badly managed school facilities. By school facilities, he meant a physical resource that pushes up effective teaching and learning. These include blocks of classrooms, laboratories, workshops, libraries, equipment, consumables, electricity, water, visual and audio-visual aids, tables, chairs, playground, storage space and toilets. The shortage or lack of any of these provokes research interest since result of education depends on their availability.
In another vein, Adeboyeje (2000) identified the characteristics of teaching-learning efficiency were noted to include the following conditions:
· Where the teachers create learning environments where students are active participants as individuals and as members of collaborative groups;
· Where teachers encourage students to accept responsibility for their own learning and accommodates and diverse learning needs of all students;
· Where teacher motivate students and nurture their desire to learn in a safe, healthy and supportive environment which develops compassion and mutual respect;
· Where teachers cultivate cross-cultural understanding and the value of diversity;
· Where they display effective and efficient classroom management which includes classroom routines that promote comfort, order and appropriate student behaviours;
· Where teachers provide students with equal access to technology, space, tools and time;
· Where they effectively allocate time to students for engaging in hands-on experiences, discuss and process content and make meaningful connections; and
· Where teachers design lessons that excite students to participate in activities in which they understand, make mistakes and are empowered as natural part of learning.
Based on the foregoing, the problem of this study is to reveal the environmental factors affecting the effectiveness of teaching and learning of physical education and sports at the secondary school level in Lagos State.
1.6 Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study was to examine the impact of environment on effective school administration in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos state.
Purposes of study include the following: To determine whether school climate will influence effective school administration in public schools.
1. To ascertain whether school location will influence effective teaching and learning of physical education and sports.
2. To ascertain whether school facilities will influence effective teaching and learning of physical education and sports .
3. To ascertain whether application of modern management techniques (supervision) will influence effective teaching and learning.
1.7 Research questions
The following research questions were formulated and answered during the course of this study:
1. Will school climate influence effective teaching and learning of physical education and sports?
2. Will school location influence effective teaching and learning of physical education and sports?
3. Will school facilities influence effective teaching and learning of physical education and sports?
1.8 Research hypotheses
The following research questions were postulated to guide this study
Ho1: School climate will not influence effective school administration in public schools.
Ho2: School location will not influence effective school administration in public schools.
Ho3: School facilities will not influence effective school administration in public schools.
1.6 Significance of the study
This study may be of benefit to various school administrators, ministries of education and other affiliated government agencies.
The outcome of study may facilitate school resource manager towards effective school administration in public schools.
The study may help to ensure that school location is considered first in order to influence effective school administration in public schools.
The research study outcome may ascertain provision of school facilities towards effective school administration in public schools.
The research study outcome may help to utilize all types of modern management techniques like: school supervision, management by objectives, decision making, and other management tools that will influence effective school administration in public schools.
The study may help various school administrators to understand the benefit of effective school environmental factors at various levels of education. It may enable school administrators to know the best management techniques to adopt in order to have sound school effectiveness.
It may also enhance school administrators to understand their position on their job towards effective routine supervision of teachers, non-teaching staff, and students’ academic performances.
The Ministry of Education may also benefit from this study through proper planning and implementation of good policies to various school management.
1.7 Scope of Study
The scope of this study is on impact of environment factors on effective teaching and learning of physical education in Lagos state, delimited to secondary schools Lagos Education District(IV).
1.8 Definition of terms
The following terms have been defined as they were used during the course of this study:
i. School: this is an environment where students are taught. A typical example is a secondary school.
ii. Performance: this is an obligation or responsibility required from a staff by the superior officer.
iii. Quality: this is the degree of conformity or the process of complying with the required standards.
iv. Supervise: this is to be in charge of a group within and outside academic monitoring team and be responsible for making sure that they do their work properly.
v. Quality control: this is the practice of maintaining the standard requires in order to be efficient.
vi. School supervision: it is a process of evidence gathering in order to provide assessment on how well a school is performing.