ASSESSMENT OF LEVEL OF AWARENESS OF TUBERCULOSIS DISEASE IN A WORKPLACE ENVIRONMENT


Content

ABSTRACT

The Federal Government set aside a day annually for STOP-TB-DAY The purpose of the day is to create awareness about Tuberculoses (TB) and other issues surrounding it. These other issues include the causes, diagnosis, treatment, impact of the disease condition globally and efforts put in place by various bodies to tackle the menace.

 

Tuberculosis control is the responsibility of all individuals, that is: TB patients, families’ health workers, community members’ development partners, the media, government agencies, non governmental organizations etc. Hence, this project was developed. The aim of this project “Assessment of the level of awareness of Tuberculosis in a workplace environment” is to support the National strategic plan to control TB and support the implementation of the DOTS treatment program aimed at the cure and eradication of tuberculosis.

During the course of the research work, the following questions arose:

1.                  To what extent do the people (workers) know the disease called tuberculosis?

2.                  To what extent do the people (workers) know about the detection and transmission of tuberculosis?

3.                  To what extent can tuberculosis affect other parts of the body?

4.                  To what extent are they knowledgeable about the new method of treatment known as DOTS and Tuberculosis detection procedures.

5.                  To what extent are the people aware that cure can be complete and free?

6.                  To what extent are they aware of the relationship between

           Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS and other factors that fuel Tuberculosis.

Data were generated through questionnaires and interviews. Generated data were analyzed and presented in form of tables and charts

A review of previous studies on tuberculosis was carried out and compared with the findings in this project.

 

Findings show the need to create awareness/enlightenment campaign on the reality of TB complete cure, free treatment and provision of improved DOTS therapy for treatment.

In conclusion there is need for a wide spread enlightenment campaign on Tuberculosis with emphasis on its associated issues such as causes, diagnosis, free treatment, impact of disease condition globally and efforts put in place by the various bodies to tackle the menace.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certification                                                                                      i

Dedication                                                                                         ii

Acknowledgement                                                                           iii

Abstract                                                                                             iv

Table of Contents                                                                

CHAPTER ONE

1.0             INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

1.1.1   Global and Regional Incidence

1.1.2   Statement of the Research Problem

1.1.3   The Research Questions

1.1.4   Objective of the Study

1.1.5   Significance of this Study

1.2       Literature Review

1.2.1   History

1.2.2   Folklore

1.2.3   Tuberculosis

1.2.4   Symptom

1.2.5   Transmission

1.2.5   Diagnosis

1.2.6   Progression

1.2.7   Treatment

1.2.8   Prevention

1.2.9   Vaccines

1.2.10.            Epidemiology

1.2.3   Review of Previous programs/Studies

CHAPTER TWO

2.0             Methodology

2.1             Introduction

2.2             Approaches to the Research Design

2.2.1       Research Method

2.2.2       The population

2.2.3       Size of Sample

2.2.4       Sampling method

2.4.           Data Gathering Methods

2.5.           Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER THREE

3.1             Introduction

3.2             Presentation of Data

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Interpretation of Finding

4.1       Meaning of Findings

4.2       Relationship between Findings and previous Studies.

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0             Conclusion

5.1             Recommendation

References

Questionnaire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Research Question 1:          To what extent do the workers know the disease called Tuberculosis?

Research Question 2:          To what extent do they know the transmission of the disease and the detection?

 

Research Question 3:          To what extent can TB affect other parts of the body apart from the lungs?

 

Research Question 4:          To what extent are they knowledgeable about new method of treatment known as DOTS treatment and the TB detection procedures.

 

Research Question 5:          To what extent are they aware that treatment can be complete and free?

 

Research Question 6:          To what extent are they aware of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and TB and factor that fuel TB.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF DIAGRAM/FIGURES

Figure 1:        World TB incidence                                                                        8

Figure 2:        Scanning electron micrograph of                                                 

                        Mycobacterium tuberculosis                                                         9

Figure 3:        Tuberculosis spread by aerosols created by

                        Coughing or sneezing.                                                                     10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                    CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0             INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Tuberculosis is a serious public health problem which should be everyone’s concern. Tuberculosis has been found to be on the increase in Nigeria. There is evidence that delays in diagnosis and commencement of treatment worsen the risk of complications, death and enhances TB transmission. Lack of information delays treatment and care. HIV is said to fuel the emergence of TB development. Other predisposing factors that have been linked with TB include poverty, overcrowding, cigarette smoking, malnutrition and other condition that may suppress individual’s immunity. Hence the need for a wide spread awareness creation about the disease stressing that TB is curable and treatment is free.

The World Health Organization is committed to providing technical support to the National Tuberculosis control programme in order to ensure progress towards the achievement of global targets.

Over one third of the world populace is exposed to the TB bacterium and someone in the world is merely infected with TB bacilli every second. 5-10% of people who are infected with TB bacilli (but not infected with HIV) become sick or infectious at some time during their life. People with HIV and TB infections are much more likely to develop TB. Not everyone infected develops the full blown disease (asymptomatic). Latent TB infection is most common. However one in ten latent infections will progress to active TB disease which if left untreated, kills more than half its victims.

1.1.1   Global and Regional Incidence

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that the largest number of new TB cases in 2005 occurred in South East Asia Region and it accounts for 34% of incident cases. In 2004, WHO reported that in the developing countries, mortality and morbidity statistics included 14.5 million chronic active TB cases, 8.9 million new cases and 1.6 million deaths. In 2005 the highest number of death and mortality per capital resulted from TB in African Region.

The TB epidemic in Africa is very high. In Nigeria, HIV prevalence rate is at 4.4 percent, meaning an average of 5.6 million people are infected living with the virus, Nigeria is now at the verge of a looming epidemic of tuberculosis.

The Director General of Nigeria Institute of Medical research, Dr. Oni Idigbe recently said “Nigeria is now at the threshold of tuberculosis epidemic, ranked one with highest cases of TB cases in Africa and growth in the world”.

The fear is the multiplier effect of TB infections cannot be over emphasized, because one case has the potential of giving birth to 120 cases per annum making everybody vulnerable. Breathing in air within the same vicinity exposed to TB bacteria could lead to transmission.

In August 2005 in Maputo, the World Health organization (WHO) Regional Committee for Africa comprising Health Ministers from 46 member states declared Tuberculosis an emergency in the African Region. The declaration made in resolution, urges member states in African Region to commit more human and financial resources to strengthen DOTS programmes and scale up collaborative interventions to fight the co-epidemic of TB and HIV.

Globally, TB is second only to HIV/AIDS as a cause of illness and death of adults accounting for nearly nine million cases of active disease and two million deaths every year. Africa accounts today for more than a quarter of this global burden with an estimated 2.4. Million TB cases and 540,000 TB deaths annually.

1.1.2       STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

In the late 1970s and early 1980’s, African countries like Tanzania, Mozambique and Malawi were among the first to apply what became known as the global TB control strategy now known as DOTS  for its TB control.

However, in the past 15 years, global TB control soared in the region due to link with HIV/AIDS, poverty and weak health systems. Although countries like Nigeria have made efforts to treat the rising tide of TB cases, the country is still being outpaced by the epidemic. Recognizing the TB problems as hug, and that it can be effectively treated and cured, the disease is yet to be brought under control. Medical authorities cannot over connect alone; they need help and there is need for an aggressive campaign for the awareness and enlightenment on the disease and the associated issues that include the causes, diagnosis, treatment, impact of disease condition globally and efforts put in place by various bodies to tackle the menace.

The specific action called for by the committee is:

i.              Improvement of quality of staff involved in TB control

ii.           Rapidly improve TB case detection and treatment success rates with expanded DOTS coverage at National and district levels.

iii.         Scale up interventions to manage TB and HIV together including increased access to anti-retroviral therapy for TB patients who are infected with HIV.

iv.         Expand national TB partnerships, public private collaboration and community participation in TB control activities.

1.1.3       THE RESEACH QUESTIONS

In view of the above problem, the need to improve awareness of TB as a disease and other issues surrounding it is of great importance. Hence the need to assess the level of awareness of the various efforts.

To resolve the above problems following questions arose:

1)           To what extend do the workers know the disease called tuberculosis?

2)           To what extent do the workers know about the detection and transmission of tuberculosis?

3)           To what extent can tuberculosis affect other parts of the body?

4)           To what extent do they know or knowledgeable about the new method treatment known as DOTS and Tuberculosis detection procedures.

5)           To what extent are the people aware that cure can be complete and free?

6)           To what extent are they aware of the relationship between Tuberculosis and HIV and other factors that fuel Tuberculosis?

1.1.4       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of this study are:

§    To assess the level of awareness of the disease called tuberculosis.

§    Highlight the danger of being infected by the deadly disease called tuberculosis.

§    Highlight the danger of being infected by the deadly disease called tuberculosis.

§    Highlight that TB is curable and early detection is very important

§    Highlight the importance of treatment of TB infected HIV persons.

§    To highlight the importance of updating, acquiring knowledge about recent developments in the prevention and elimination of tuberculosis as a disease.

§    Create awareness on the importance of prevention of TB disease.

1.1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS STUDY

The significance of this study is to:-

1.            Improve the health of the Nigerian populace and it workforce.

2.            Enhance and improve awareness of the danger of living with the TB disease

3.            Improve productivity and safe guard health of personnel in a work place.


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