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ASSESSMENT OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT AND FACILITIES ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN WEST AFRICA SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL EXAMINATION (WASSCE)
This study is aimed at assessing and determining the effect of school environment and facilities on the academic performance of students in secondary schools West African Secondary School Certificate Examination. Survey method was used to survey the entire study area, Simple random sampling technique was used to select 25 respondents each from each of the four selected schools to ensure that every students of the selected schools have an equal chance of been selected or choosing for the research study, a total of one hundred was used for the research. The study investigated the effect of four independent variables (Gender, Age, Marital status, Job designation and religion) and four dependent variables which are students' attitude, academic performance, academic achievement, Effective use of facilities. The descriptive statistics of frequency counts was used for the analysis of personal data while standard deviation was used to analyze the data collected from the respondents. From the findings of this study, it was discovered that teachers should be acquainted with the need to improvise teaching and learning aids. It was also discovered that effective utilization of facilities will improve student's educational performances. It was found out that attitude. of school environment have significant relationship with their academic achievement. It is recommended that the result of the study would be helpful to policy makers on education and educationists in formulating policy that would help school administrators to create conducive and enabling environments that are capable of developing, promoting and enhancing positive and effective teaching and learning for students in secondary schools. School facilities should be strategically placed for student's utilization since they significantly influence their academic achievement. Teachers should be motivated by putting adequate facilities that would make their job easier. Based on this, it is concluded that if adequate facilities and conducive school environment were put in place it would help the teaching method and student learning, also improve students’ academic performance in West African Secondary School Certificate Examination.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Research hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope of study
1.8 Operational definition of terms
2.1. Meaning of school
2.2. Importance of the school
2.3 The school environment
2.4 Teachers’ influence on students’ academic performance in secondary school
2.5 The influence of peer groups on the academic performance of students in seconadry schools.
2.6 The influence of class size on students’ academic performance
2.7 School facilities and students’ academic performance
2.8 Impact of audio visual aids on the academic performane of secondary school students.
3.1 Research design
3.2 Research population of the study
3.3 Sample and sampling technique
3.3 Instruments for data collection
Validity of instrument
3.6. Procedure for data collection
3.7 Data analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Respondents’ Bio-Data
4.3 Section B: Research Questions
4.4 Hypothesis Testing
1.1 Background to the Study
There is no gainsaying the fact that education is very vital to the pace of social, political and economic development of any nation. This is why most nations of the world strive to devote a sizeable proportion of their Gross National Income to develop the educational sector. In Nigeria, between 7.6% and 9.9% of our annual expenditure is devoted to education (Durosaro, 2003). The proportion earmarked in the approved national budget is meant to finance capital and recurrent expenditure of schools. The physical structures which is capital intensive takes the larger part of the cost and since the physical environment of a school adds a lot of value to the school (Obong, 2007).
Egim (2003) observed in her study that the physical environment contributes either negatively or positively to the administrator’s role performance in the school. The school physical environment includes the buildings, classrooms, furniture, equipment, instructional materials, laboratories, libraries, play grounds, and so on. Others are walls, machinery, decorative objects, play fields, skating rinks, swimming pools, audio-visual equipment (Mckay, 1964 in Egim, 2003). Egim (2003) maintained that in a bid to expand the educational enterprise, educational planners are more interested in issues such as the number of schools, teachers, students’ infrastructural facilities like classrooms and school buildings. Little attention is paid to the quality of the environment (Obong. 2010).
The physical outlook of the school environment is very important in contributing to healthy academic exercise. It forms the fulcrum on which other activities revolve. This is because it creates an atmosphere of the mind for study. The challenge of developing and managing a school environment taking into consideration some parameters is a great one; one of such is the school location. Where a school is located can determine to a large extent the stability of the student’s mind for academic readiness.
A school located along air-traffic route, roadside (especially without a fence), in neighbourhood of industrial activities, markets, and so on will constitute a nuisance and interference with the students’ learning process. It will generate noise enough to badly affect the study adventure. As indicated by the National Teachers’ Institute (NTI, 2008; Mckay, 1964 in Egim, 2003) school supervision and sanitation. These are capable of affecting the quality of learning environment. This refers to all the strategies adopted by a school system in managing the wastes (noise, water, and other effluents), drainage pattern, and the facilities provided in the school. Equally crucial is the greening of the school environment. Sanitation Connection (2001/2002) maintains that a school management that provides sanitation and planting of flowers, trees and maintaining lawns, well cleared grasses, etc. improves quality of life and study environment. Aesthetics of a school environment is another aspect of managing a school environment. Regular painting and maintaining the quality of buildings, channeling of sewage, well planned landscape and trimming of flowers, clearing of grasses, proper disposal of refuse, sweeping and removing cub webs among others provides a relaxed atmosphere for the molding of minds. All these issues above constitute school environmental management strategies that could make a school a place to live and not to leave.
In spite of this all-important top burner matter, very little have been done in managing school environments for fruitful academic venture. It becomes necessary to conduct a study on the strategies employed in managing school environment in Nigerian secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There has been a lot of controversy over the question of academic performance of Nigeria secondary school students. The poor performance of students especially in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination has clearly lent credence to this study. The question of academic performance and students’ performance in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination is therefore a recurring issue, usually discussed both in and outside the academic circles. Based on the foregoing, this study examines the concept of academic performance as it relates to students background, learning resources and academic performance. In most secondary schools that a high percentage of students are performing very poorly in WAEC and NECO due to ill motivated behaviour of the students towards the education, lack of professional teachers, lazy teachers, lack of teaching and learning facilities and equipment. It is a known fact that each level of education as well as the subject being taught has their aims and objectives, if the aims and objectives of education especially that of teaching and learning in senior secondary schools is to be achieved, the school environment and learning facilities must be improved.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of school environment and facilities have on students’ academic performance in West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) in selected senior secondary schools in Surulere, Lagos State. Specifically, this study will;
1. Examine available learning facilities in Senior Secondary Schools
2. Find out the influence of available facilities on students academic performance in WASSCE
3. Assess impact of School physical environment on students’ academic performance in senior secondary school
4. Identify if school facilities effectively used aid teaching and learning in secondary schools
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were answered in this study:
i. Will available school facilities significantly improve secondary school students’ attitude towards learning?
ii. Will school facilities influence the performance of students in West African Senior School Certificate Examination?
iii. Will school environment facilities significantly influence academic achievement in secondary schools?
iv. Are school facilities effectively used to aid teaching and learning in secondary schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses are tested in this study:
i. H0: Available school facilities will not significantly influence
secondary school students’ attitude towards learning.
ii. H0: School facilities will not significantly influence the performance
of students in West African Senior School Certificate
iii. H0: School environment facilities will not significantly influence
academic achievement in secondary schools.
iv. H0: School facilities are not effectively used aid teaching and
learning in Secondary Schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is aimed at assessing and determining the effect of school environment and facilities on the academic performance of students in secondary schools. The findings of this study would be useful to teachers in acquainting them with the need to improvise teaching and learning aids. The result of the study would also help educationists and policy makers on education in formulating policy that would help school administrators to create conducive and enabling environments that are capable of developing, promoting and enhancing positive and effective teaching and learning for students in secondary schools.
1.7 Scope of Study
Since no single research can validly cover all areas of the topic, the
researcher aims to focus this research on the relationship between school facilities, school environment and performance in West African Senior School Certificate Examination. The study focus primarily on secondary Schools in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Academic Performance:- Knowledge attained or skills developed in school by test scores.
Secondary school :-( Also ‘high school’) is a term used to describe an educational Institution where the final stage of schooling known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specific age takes place. It follows primary education and may be followed by University (tertiary education).
Environment: Can be seen as the physical and social characteristics of the child’s home, neighbourhood and wider world.
School environment: These are objects and patterns of relationship that outside and within the school system that significantly influence or are influenced by teaching and learning situation such as teaching and learning material, classroom size, social group e.t.c present within and outside the school also the locality of the school.