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ASSETS REVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT OF BANKING CAPACITY BY BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF GUARANTY TRUST BANK OF NIGERIA)
The research is on assets of revaluation and assessment of borrowing capacity for selected banks in Nigeria. The study proposes that asset valuation occurs to signal available borrowing capacity via increase in collateral values and the time of increase in secured debt that the economic benefit associate with an asset revaluation will be greatest for banks when they are experiencing time of declining cash flows from operations. The study also looks at whether the incidence of valuation coincides with increase in level of secured borrowing due to the lenders demand for current value of assets offered as collaterals. Results there is significant difference between methods of valuations and declining cash flows experience from operating activities of banks. The evidence also indicate that there significant difference between asset revaluation and borrowing capacity by banks. Based on this findings, the researcher believes that there are adequate legal regulations to curtail indiscriminate assets revaluations by firms, and also assets value of a firm is the most important determinant of its borrowing capacity. Finally, assets revaluations performed by independence valuer is more reliable than that performed by the directors of the firm.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Approval Page iii
Table of Contents viii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 3
1.3 Research Questions 3
1.4 Objective of the Study 4
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 7
1.8 Limitation of the Study 8
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms 9
Chapter Two: Literature Review 10
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Revaluation of Fixed Asset 11
2.3 Reasons for Revaluation 11
2.4 Methods of Revaluation of Fixed Assets 13
2.5 Determinants of Borrowing Capacity 15
2.6 Assessing Financial Needs 17
2.7 Importance of Bank Lending 19
2.8 Regulation of Bank Lending in Nigeria 22
2.9 Repayment of the Advance 24
Chapter Three: Research Method and Design 25
3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 Research Design 25
3.3 Description of Population of the Study 25
3.4 Sample Size 26
3.5 Sampling Techniques 26
3.6 Sources of Data Collection 26
3.7 Method of Data Presentation 27
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 27
Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis and
4.1 Introduction 29
4.2 Presentation of Data 29
4.3 Data Analysis 30
4.4 Hypotheses Testing 40
Chapter Five: Summary of Findings, Conclusion and
5.1 Introduction 48
5.2 Summary of Findings 48
5.3 Conclusion 49
5.4 Recommendations 49
Appendix I 52
Appendix II 53
1.1 Background of the Study
Asset valuation has always been a major subject of studies accounting standards, as the issue is closely related to measurement and disclosure of corporate income. Prior research has found support for contracting, political cost and information asymmetry explanations for management’s decision to revalue non-current assets (Cotter & Zimmer, 2005). They further argued that the economic benefits associated with asset revaluation by firms are greatest for such firms when they are experiencing times of declining cash flows from operations.
Evidence also indicates that firms are more likely to record re asset revelation when they intend increasing their secured borrowings and that most non-year-end revaluations emanate directly from contracting with lenders (Cotter & Zimmer, 2005).
According to Osanyame (2006), when a request for, a loan is received, it is important to ascertain the credit worthiness of the borrower, i.e. the firm memorandum and articles of association need to be pursued to see if there is any precluding clauses or limitations on borrowing. The importance of this examination has been covered in law relating to banking in which a banker has to be knowledgeable.
The failure by banks in the assessment of the borrowing capacity of firms have been a major stumbling block for the industry. Many banks have work under, due to this singular act which leads to the granting of loans to firms disgusting their financial reports with grand figures of revalued asset so as to increase their borrowing capacity.
The banking sector of the Nigeria economy has witnessed many banks going under most of which has been their inability to recoup loans borrowed to firms and interest from such.
The proper assessment of the borrowing capacity of firms need to be ascertained by banks, bearing in minds the revalued figures of the assets stated in the financial reports and their actual current market values.
1.2 Statement of Problem
It has often been argued that, in order to continually uphold the issue of reliability and relevance, the financial statement must show the true financial position of an entity. In a bid to ensure that these characteristics are achieved, the need for revaluation of assets became necessary. Also, the value of assets available tends to affect the borrowing capacity f firms.
1.3 Research Questions
The following are the research questions of the study;
i. Do firms undertaking asset revaluation most likely to experience decline in cashflow operation than firms that do not revalue?
ii. How does the revaluation of assets undertaken with the main aim of boosting the firm borrowing capacity?
iii. Is there adequate legal regulation to curtail indiscriminate asset revaluation by firms?
iv. How is the asset value of a firm the most important determinant of its borrowing capacity?
v. To what extent is the assets revaluation performed by independent value reliable than the performance by directors?
1.4 Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study are stated below;
i. To ascertain if the firms undertaking asset revaluation most likely to experience decline in cashflow operation than firms that do not revalue.
ii. To ascertain if the revaluation of assets is the main aim of boosting the firm borrowing capacity.
iii. To examine if there is adequate legal regulation to curtail indiscrimination of asset revaluation by firms.
iv. To ascertain if the asset value of a firm the most important determinant of its borrowing capacity.
v. To determine to what extent the assets revaluation performed by independent value reliable than the performance by directors.
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
HO: Firms undertaking asset revaluation are not likely to be experiencing declining cashflow operation than firms that do not revalue.
HI: Firms undertaking asset revaluation are likely to be experiencing declining cashflow operation that firms that do not revalue.
HO: The revaluation of assets is not undertaken with the main aim of boosting the firm borrowing capacity.
HI: The revaluation of assets is undertaken with the main aim of boosting the firm borrowing capacity.
HO: There is no adequate legal regulation to curtail indiscriminate asset revaluation by firms.
HI: There is adequate legal regulation to curtail indiscriminate asset revaluation by firms.
HO: Asset value of a firm is not the most important determinant of its borrowing capacity.
HI: Asset value of a firm is the most important determinant of its borrowing capacity.
HO: Assets revaluation performed by independent value are not reliable than the performance by directors.
HI: Assets revaluation performed by independent value are reliable than the performance by directors.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research work will be paramount use to the following groups:
Lenders: The research work centers are how assets revaluation affects the borrowing capacity of firm. It seeks to unveil the critical avenue through which assets revaluation tends to affect the borrowing capacity of a firm. It explains the need for lenders to further assess the cash flow from operating activities in analyzing the borrowing capacity of firms.
Business organization: Due to the sensitive nature of assets revaluation, it is necessary or firms to understand the underlying mechanism for assets revaluation, it timing, benefits and problems. This research work, thus provides a rich source of such information. It also brings to the awareness of business organization. The legal regulations put to prevent indiscriminate revaluation by management.
Shareholders/Stakeholders: Business organizations are managed on behalf of its shareholders/stakeholders. The separation of ownership and control of business organization necessitates the need to put in place mechanism to mitigate. Incentive problems and conflicts interest between owners and managers of Business organization. The shareholders are therefore required to have a balanced understanding of the concept of assets revaluation as its affects the borrowing capacity of the firm. The reason is that, reserve.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The concept of assets revaluation is of universal importance to both the accounting field and other social science courses, Its effects on the firm’s financial position and ability to obtain debt financial (financial leverage) makes on issue that cannot be neglected.
This research work is designed to explain the concept of assets revaluation and assessment of borrowing capacity (the need for assets revaluation,, the types of revaluation-their benefit and setback, the legal and other regulations governing assets revaluation, the factors affecting asset revaluation and assessment of borrowing capacity and the effect of financial leverage and cash flow on the borrowing capacity of a firm.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The major limitation of this study is the constraint of time and finance as the study was conducted amidst tight schedule of both strict budget and time constrains in which many wants compete for limited resources.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Asset Valuation: An asset valuation shows that estimating market value of a financial asset or liability.
Borrowing Capacity: The ability of a firm to borrow funds and pay back such at the stipulated time with interest without experiencing any decline in cash flow.
Safety: This shows the bank consideration of its lending decision.
Liquidity: Is the ability of the organization to meet short term maturity obligations.
Fair Market Value: Is the cash price an item would sell for between a willing buyer and willing seller assuming they both have knowledge of the relevant facts and they have no compulsion to buy or sell.