AUDIENCE PERCEPTION OF DIGITAL TELEVISION ON MUSICAL PROGRAMMES ON DSTV


Content

ABSTRACT

This study seeks to discover audience perception of musical programmes on DSTV, aims at understanding reasons on choice and taste of preferences for such musical programmes aired on DSTV and their derivable benefits to its audience.

This study adopts the survey research design. It samples perception and opinions of residents in Lagos metropolis. It analyzed and gives a detail report on the data gathered. The process involves drawing up of a questionnaire that revolves around the issue research in the study, to be administered to 200 members of the selected population (Surulere, Yaba, Victoria Island and Lekki). The theories adopted and utilized are the Cultural norms theory, Perception Studies theory and Uses and Gratifications theory.

The study reveals that majority of the audience watch entertainment programmes (musical programmes) on DSTV in Lagos metropolis and their dispositions to such musical programmes are influenced by personal relationships, past experiences and quality of the videos. Also, the study reveals in its findings that music is a form of relaxation as it helps calm nerves.

The study recommends that music channels and station owners airing musical programmes and videos should ensure that the messages conveyed across to music audience by the musicians/artistes shall be more appealing to the values and aspirations of its audience.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Pages

Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgments                                                                                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                                                                                  v

Table of contents                                                                                                                    vi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study                                                                                           1

1.2       Effective therapy for pain                                                                                           1

1.3       Reducing blood pressure                                                                                            4

1.4       Medicine for the heart                                                                                                5

1.5       Speeds post-stroke recovery                                                                                       5

1.6       Chronic headaches & migraine remedy                                                                      5

1.7       Music boosts immunity                                                                                               5

1.8       Music enhances intelligence, learning and IQ                                                6

1.9       Music improves memory performance                                                                        6

1.10     Music improves concentration and attention                                                              6

1.11     Music improves body movement and coordination                                                    6

1.12     Music videos                                                                                                               7

1.13     Statement of the problem                                                                                           7

1.14     Purpose of the study                                                                                                   8

1.15     Research questions                                                                                                      8

1.16     Scope of study                                                                                                                        9

1.17     Significance of study                                                                                                  9

1.18     Definition of Terms                                                                                                    9

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0       Introduction                                                                                                                10

2.1       Conceptual Clarification                                                                                             10

2.2       Television Broadcast                                                                                                   10

2.3       Digitization In Nigeria                                                                                                11

2.4       History Of Digital Television (Cable Tv)                                                                   11

2.5       Broadcast Programming And Programmes                                                                12

2.6       What Is Programming                                                                                                 13

2.7       What Is A Programme?                                                                                              14

2.8       Uniqueness Of Broadcast Programming And Programmes                                       16

2.9       Music And Musical Programmes                                                                                17

2.10     Musical programmes                                                                                                   17

2.11     Some types of musical programmes                                                                            18

2.12     Some Functions of Music in Broadcasting                                                                 20

2.13     Music as Discourse                                                                                                     21

2.14     Music as Communication                                                                                            21

2.15     Music as Entertainment                                                                                              22

2.16     Audience                                                                                                                     24

2.17     Perception                                                                                                                   24

2.18     Mtv Base Africa                                                                                                         27

2.19     Soundcity                                                                                                                    28

2.20     Theoretical Framework                                                                                               30

2.21     Cultural Norms Theory                                                                                               30

2.22     Perception Studies                                                                                                      31

2.23     Uses And Gratifications                                                                                             33

2.24     Empirical Review                                                                                                        36       

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0       Introduction                                                                                                                39

3.1       Research Design                                                                                                         39

3.2       Population of the Study                                                                                              40

3.3       Sample and sample Techniques                                                                                  40

3.4       Method of data Collection                                                                                         40

3.5       Instrumentation                                                                                                           41

3.6       Validity and Reliability                                                                                              41

3.7       Statistical Method                                                                                                       41       

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.0       Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of findings                                                     42

4.1       Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           42

4.2       Demographic Data                                                                                                      42

4.3       Findings of the Study                                                                                                 59

4.4       Discussion of Findings                                                                                               60       

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0       Summary                                                                                                                     61

5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                                  61

5.2       Recommendation                                                                                                        63

5.3       Limitation to the Study                                                                                              63

References                                                                                                                  65

Appendix                                                                                                                    67

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

            Music is perhaps the most popular form of art used in the world today for various goals. The uses of music seemingly are in exhaustible. It is used for praising, entertainment, relaxation, passing of information, mourning, teaching, blessing, cursing amongst many other interesting ways. However, music is a universal language that cuts across every land and clime.

Microsoft Encarta dictionary, 2009 edition describes music in many ways, they are as follows:

Ø  Sounds, usually produced by instruments or voices that are arranged or played in order to create an effect.

Ø  The art of arranging of making sounds, usually those of musical instruments or voices, so as to create an effect.

Ø  Music of a particular type, place, time, instrument or style e.g. Rock and roll music.

Ø  Pleasing sound or a group of sounds that create a desired effect.

 

            With the above mentioned definitions, it is easy to deduce that music is a whole lot of activities with sound as its main components.

            Music as an art has improved with the invention of new instruments, interactions of different cultures; thereby increasing the interest of all and sundry in societies worldwide. With the advent of the broadcast media (television and radio), the concept of music was taken to another level, as music became an important ingredient in broadcast. Its entertainment function became more interesting with the introduction of musical videos on television. Throughout history, in all cultures, music has been an integral part of human life. Archaeological evidence of musical instruments such as bone flutes and drums predates even agricultural tools. Music researchers have found correlations between music making and some of the deepest workings of the human brain. Research has linked active music making with increased language discrimination and development, math ability, improved school grades, better-adjusted social behaviour, and improvements in spatial-temporal reasoning, a cornerstone for problem solving.

Harvard psychologist “Howard Gardner has theorized that humans have several different types of intelligences—logical-mathematical, linguistic, and interpersonal. He believes that music intelligence is equal in importance to all of them.

Researchers have studied the benefits of music education for decades, consistently finding strong correlations between music and academic achievement. For example, positive results have been noted in standardized tests. Regardless of socioeconomic background, according to a 10-year study that tracked more than 25,000 middle and high school students, music-making students get higher marks on standardized tests than those who have little or no music involvement. The College Entrance Examination Board found that students in music programs scored 63 points higher on the verbal and 44 points higher on the math sections of the SATs than students with no music participation. Additionally, students performed better on other standardized tests such as reading proficiency exams.

Similarly, a study examining the relationship between participation in high or low-quality school music programs and standardized test scores showed that students in high-quality programs scored higher on both English and mathematics standardized tests than their counterparts who did not have high-quality instruction (Johnson, 2006). The researchers also found that students in exceptional music programs as well as low-quality instrumental programs still performed better in English and mathematics than those students receiving no music classes.

These findings were all confirmed in the first major study to compare data from four longitudinal studies. In this study, James Catterall, found that teenagers and young adults of low socioeconomic status (SES) who have a history of in-depth arts involvement show better academic outcomes than the low-SES youth with less arts involvement. These students have higher test scores in science, writing and math, as well as higher overall GPAs than students who lacked arts experiences.

Lastly, a study performed at the University of British Columbia emphasized that participation in music does not hamper achievement in other domains."Widespread notion is that instructional time spent on music courses is 'wasted' because it takes away from time used for academic 'core' subjects and thus slows down students' progress in those courses.

However our results imply that music participation benefits students in ways that are directly or indirectly linked to higher academic achievement in general.

Music is one of the few activities that involve using the whole brain. It is intrinsic to all cultures and can have surprising benefits not only for learning language, improving memory and focusing attention, but also for physical coordination and development. 
Of course, music can be distracting if it's too loud or too jarring, or if it competes for our attention with what we're trying to do. But for the most part, exposure to many kinds of music have beneficial effects:


 

 1.2      Effective therapy for pain

Overall, music does have positive effects on pain management. Music can help reduce both the sensation and distress of both chronic pain and postoperative pain.Listening to music can reduce chronic pain from a range of painful conditions, including osteoarthritis, disc problems and rheumatoid arthritis, by up to 21% and depression by up to 25%, according to a paper in the latest UK-based Journal of Advanced Nursing. Music therapy is increasingly used in hospitals to reduce the need for medication during childbirth, to decrease post-operative pain and complement the use of anaesthesia during surgery.

There are several theories about how music positively affects perceived pain:

-Music serves as a distracter.

-Music may give the patient a sense of control.

-Music causes the body to release endorphins to counteract pain.

-Slow music relaxes a person by slowing their breathing and heartbeat.

1.3       Reducing blood pressure

By playing recordings of relaxing music every morning and evening, people with high blood pressure can train themselves to lower their blood pressure and keep it low. According to research reported at the American Society of Hypertension meeting in New Orleans, listening to just 30 minutes of classical, Celtic or reggae music every day may significantly reduce high blood pressure.

 


 

1.4       Medicine for the heart

Music is good for your heart. Research shows that it is musical tempo, rather than style. Italian and British researchers recruited young men and women, half of whom were trained musicians. The participants slipped on head phones and listened to six styles of music, including rap and classical pieces, with random two-minute pauses. As the participants kicked back and listened, the researchers monitored their breathing, heart rates and blood pressure. The participants had faster heart and breathing rates when they listened to lively music. When the musical slowed, so did their heart and breathing rates. Some results were surprising. During the musical pauses, heart and breathing rates normalized or reached more optimal levels. Whether or not a person liked the style of music did not matter. The tempo, or pace, of the music had the greatest effect on relaxation.

1.5       Speeds post-stroke recovery

A daily dose of one's favourite pop melodies, classical music or jazz can speed recovery from debilitating strokes, according to the latest research. When stroke patients in Finland listened to music for a couple of hours each day, verbal memory and attention span improved significantly compared to patients who received no musical stimulation, or who listened only to stories read out loud, the study reports.

1.6       Chronic headaches & migraine remedy

Music can help migraine and chronic headache sufferers reduce the intensity, frequency, and duration of the headaches.

1.7       Music boosts immunity

Music can boost the immune function. Scientists explain that a particular type of music can create a positive and profound emotional experience, which leads to secretion of immune-boosting hormones. This helps contribute to a reduction in the factors responsible for illness. Listening to music or singing can also decrease levels of stress-related hormone cortisol. Higher levels of cortisol can lead to a decreased immune response.

1.8       Music enhances intelligence, learning and IQ

The idea that music makes you smarter received considerable attention from scientists and the media. Listening to music or playing an instrument can actually make you learn better and research confirms this. 

1.9       Music improves memory performance

The power of music to affect memory is quite intriguing. Mozart's music and baroque music, with a 60 beats per minute beat pattern, activates the left and right brain. The simultaneous left and right brain action maximizes learning and retention of information. The information being studied activates the left brain while the music activates the right brain. Also, activities which engage both sides of the brain at the same time, such as playing an instrument or singing, cause the brain to be more capable of processing information.

1.10     Music improves concentration and attention

Easy listening music or relaxing classics improves the duration and intensity of concentration in all age groups and ability levels. It's not clear what type of music is better, or what kind of musical structure is necessary to help, but many studies have shown significant effects.

1.11     Music improves body movement and coordination

Music reduces muscle tension and improves body movement and coordination. Music may play an important role in developing, maintaining and restoring physical functioning in the rehabilitation of persons with movement disorders. 

1.12     Music videos

            Microsoft Encarta encyclopedia (2009) describes music videos as a song length film or video production that combines the music of a particular musician or musical groups with complimentary visual images. Most music videos are broadcast on television, while some are sold in stores on video tapes or laser disc.

            With the expansion of digital TV (cable TV) channels in the 1980s and the introduction of Music Television (MTV) in 1981, music videos gained wide popularity.

 

1.13     Statement of the problem

Music has this ability to trigger powerful emotions, often in conjunction with a memory, but sometimes not. Music is not a one-size-fits-all experience. Not everyone likes music. And very few people like every type of music. In fact, most people I have talked with have certain genres, songs, or artists on their personal "no listen" list.

When someone told me music has fallen by the wayside in our culture today, I look at them funny. Sure, music has changed more fervently than it did, say, hundreds of years ago, but today, even though tastes and styles change more than most people change underwear, there are a lot of reasons why music is still here and more powerful than ever. To determine how audience view musical programmes on digital television is tasking as various genres and programmes have emerged.

We must not lose sight of this caveat that entertainment drives musicals and the society today, as one of the key elements of entertainment is musicals.

Television musical programmes constitute a large part of content in television programming, not only in Nigeria but many television stations of the world. Music is perhaps the biggest means of passing messages to the wider audience and its effects are numerous.

Therefore, this project is out to understand how audience perceive musical programmes, to investigate if music is indeed a motivator to its audience, to what extent does it benefit its audience i.e. know about audience perceptions, audience dispositions and preferences pertaining to musicals or musical programmes.

1.14     Purpose of the study

1.      This study seeks to discover audience perception of musical programmes on DSTV.

2.       The study aims at understanding reasons on choices and tastes of preference for such musical programmes.

3.      The purpose of the study is also to become aware of audience benefits from such musical programmes on DSTV.

4.      At the end, it is believed that a thorough study on musical programmes will help in discovering the benefits derivable to the viewers, the participants and society in general.

1.15     Research questions

The research questions for the study include:

1.      How do Lagos residents perceive television musical programmes on DSTV?

2.      To what extent do television musical programmes on DSTV benefit its audience?

3.      What motivates audience on musical programmes on DSTV?

4.      What is the communicative impart of musical programmes to the target audience?

5.      How often do audiences watch musical programmes on DSTV?

1.16     Scope of study

            Due to time constraint and limited funds to conduct a large scale research, this study would be limited to 200 selected audience who are residents in Lagos State (middle-aged, workers, housewives, youths, students (16 years and above) who are exposed to digital television (cable TV) and are aware of various  musical programmes on DSTV.

1.17     Significance of study

            This study is very important because it shall be of great benefit and importance to the audience in general (who are media message users of television musical programmes), the musical programme producers and presenters, Multi choice managers (DSTV), music video directors, musicians, students of mass communication particularly those studying radio and television broadcast, parents of youths and finally the society at large.

1.18     Definition of Terms

1.                  Audience: Media/television audiences as the interpreters, consumers and users of media/television messages.

2.                  Perception: Means being aware enough of a stimulus to attach meaning to it.

3.                  Programmes: are individual packages or materials produced and transmitted by a broadcast station as its service.

4.                  Musical Programmes: A broadcast programme format basically with the mass media function of entertainment.

5.                  Metropolis: A large busy city, especially as the main city in an area or country or a distinguished from surrounding rural areas.

 

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