- THE EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS, IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AJEROMI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
- SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF HOME CONFLICT AS PREDICATORS OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE
- EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS, IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AJEROMI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
- EFFECT OF CHILD-ABUSE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF ADOLESCENTS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS
- EFFECTS OF TEACHERS’ EXPERIENCE IN THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS
- SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AS A PREDICTOR OF STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN LAGOS STATE
- SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF HOME CONFLICT AS PREDICATORS OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ALIMOSHO LAGOS STATE
- THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN IKEJA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
- IMPACT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA ON STUDENTS' ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
- EFFECT OF STUDENTS’ ABILITIES, CLASS SIZE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BADAGRY LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)
BIZARRE BEHAVIOR AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN EDUCATION DISTRICT 6 OF LAGOS STATE
The study of bizarre behavior, can be described as worrisome and continue in our schools unchecked. More of a necessity given the level of moral decadence prevalence our society in recent times. This study was carried out to examine the implications and consequences of bizarre behavior aimed both at improving academic performance and reducing such behavioral tendencies found among students with lower academic performance offended more frequently, committed more serious and persisted in their academic life. In addition our children and youth deviate from normal school norms and values thereby blocking the growth and fulfillment of other student’s potentials and other variables. These had far-reaching implication on their future and academic performance. Data was gathered using questionnaires, sampling techniques and procedures were done within the study area. Data generated was analyzed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and t test to test about 5 hypothesis generated. The research design adopted is an experimental survey design method, while the sampling method was simple stratified random sampling technique. The result reveals that indescent dressing, truancy, absenteeism, clubbing and partying are all factors affecting academic performance, while there is no gender difference in terms of bizarre behavior and their academic performance. The study therefore recommended that general physical appearance of the students is very important and that positive dressing and appearance values should be inculcated in the children. A standard school uniform policy and teacher’s appearance are very strong factors. There should be a very strong parent – teacher relationship, counseling, co-curriculum activities that are of academic and moral importance.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of content vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Theoretical framework 6
1.3 Statement of the problem 29
1.4 Purpose of the study 31
1.5 Research questions 31
1.6 Research hypothesis 32
1.7 Significance of the study 32
1.8 Scope of the study 35
1.9 Limitation of the study 36
1.10 Definition of terms 36
CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 38
2.2 Bizarre behavior and academic performance 38
2.3 Truancy and absenteeism and academic performance 43
2.4 Fighting and bullying and academic performance 50
2.5 Clubbing and partying and academic performance 54
2.6 Gender with regards to bizarre behavior and
academic performance 58
2.7 Summary of the review 60
CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 62
3.2 Research design 62
3.3 Area of study 62
3.4 Population of the study 65
3.5 Sample and sampling technique 65
3.6 Instrumentation for data collection 65
3.7 Administration of instruments 67
3.8 Scoring of instruments 68
3.9 Procedures for data analysis 68
CHAPTER FOUR – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 71
4.2 Descriptive analysis of Bio-Data 71
4.3 Hypothesis testing 73
4.4 Discussion of findings 78
CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 84
5.2 Summary 84
5.3 Conclusion 85
5.4 Recommendations 86
5.5 Suggestions for further research studies 88
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
From time immemorial, the alarming rate of bizarre behavior among Nigerian youths particularly in the public school had increased tremendously. In the last decade, government negligence, and socio-economic factors have contributed to the increasing neglect of youths in the society. No doubt, the obvious effects of this is the risk in criminal tendencies among our secondary schools students many of whom are alienated not only from their families but also from the entire society. Smoking, fighting bullying and stealing have proliferated among young students in our secondary schools.
Consequently, bizarre acts in our schools continue unchecked, dressing mini, bushy and devilish haircut, ear notching, use of designer hair ring among male and female students are common sight. Worse and common is extortion of money from the junior ones by the senior ones under duress.
Hence bizarre behavior can be regarded as that behavior on the part of children and youth which may be regarded as deviation of youth and children of school age from accepted or established norms and values or reasonably ways of life in the schools as a subsystem of the society Adedokun (2004).
Bizarre behavior is typically defined as psychological disorder in which are in one way or the other maladaptive. This is because they threaten the well being of the individual student, youth around them, block the growth and fulfillment of the students potential which are within the secondary school age range between 10 and 20 years. It is also a term used to connote anti-social and personality disorders, an act done by children or youths, which when committed by adults would be a crime (Denga 2001)
Howels (1986) defines bizarre behavior as someone who has fallen out of his culture and deficient in socially accepted and adaptive behavior. He explained further that the deviant behavior may be viewed as part of a rebellion against schools, culture, norms and society in general
Dunken (1988) sees bizarre behavior as a realm of cultural criticism, lawlessness and non-conforming behavioral tendencies of our youth and children He sees behavior of this nature among our school youth as antisocial personality disorder and therefore call them as non conformist.
Bowlby (1974) in his book “Maternal Care and Mental Health” wrote on children in schools and their life pattern, in his research, he came to a conclusion that, unless there is a warm intimacy and continuous relationship between the school and home, whatever that disrupt and disturb the good relationship. This could lead to delinquency in our children.
In the encyclopedia of the social sciences, the status of a “child offender” is well defined. Bizarre behavior is not a crime and rejected youngsters cannot be charge with such crime and must be adjudge delinquent such “child offender” must be counseled, corrected and rehabilitated.
In general abnormality or abnormal behaviors observe in secondary school students which are bizarre and disruptive in nature, focuses on people who are consistently unable to adapt and function effectively in a wide varieties of school conditions and activities. One that goes against common or majority or presumed standard of behavior in the school environment, feeling of strangeness, depressed, isolation, loss of feeling, guilt, lost of reality and all other sensation recognized and labeled by an individual as out of the ordinary, out of common sense and of no moral justification for such bizarre behavioral tendencies in our secondary schools.
These inabilities to adapt and function can be affected by a number of pre-disposing variables including school physical condition, school administrative life-style, learning condition, peer group, home background/upbringing and parental responsibilities which are both educational and environmental in nature.
No doubt, today we talk about secret cults (cultism), examination malpractices, rapping and other highly criminalized vices, tendencies in our tertiary institutions, all these violates socially and educationally acceptable standards.
It is therefore very disheartening to see and read negative reports about the attitude of the young school students particularly the male involvement and the high incidence of destructive behavior. These acts were hitherto very common in Lagos, Ogun and some other states in Nigeria including Africa and all over the world. It may be attributed to many factors such as loss of moral values, high level of parental literacy, teachers neglect, poor home background, parental neglected, child abuse including unfavorable school structures and environment. Chukwuede, (2002) supports this view when he post that most of the children of low-income earners and low socio-economic background indulged in bizarre behavioral tendencies more often irrespective of their age, sex, class and administrative style of schools.
From the above, this study examines bizarre behavior, implications and consequences on students academic performance. Studies have pointed out that bizarre behavior is more a product of bad parenting and parental irresponsibility than social and economic factors. For instance, Denga (1999) lamented that poor dressing among young male school students have psychologically imposes other problems like flying the uniform polo, sagging and mini-skirt, which consumes much of the students serious school time that necessitated the poor academic performance in schools, in public examinations such as Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSSCE), West African Examination Council (WAEC), and National Examination Council (NECO), in recent time and drop-out syndrome noticed among the secondary school age students
There are many things students does that we find strange and unexplainable nowadays we see various body tattooing and ear piercing and branding among younger generation of students. Their life style of dressing may seen bizarred to adults and teachers including school counselors and administrators. Bizarred behavior that usually has no rational basis and even unexplainable to the students, however seems to indicate that the individual student is confused and this frequently brings on hallucination.
On the other hand destructive behavior are characterized by behavior which are schizophrenic and anti social in nature, are very common sight including personality disorder such as bad dressing, indecent dressing, bushy hair, sagging, use of wrong socks, examination scandals, including youthful display of high handedness, bullying extorting, gangsterism, damage to school facilities and display of thuggery among our school youths, in their late teens and early twenties.
It should be kept in mind that parental roles in child development and education are vital. A child needs good reading, teaching and learning environment, mental relaxation to perform better with good parenting at home, provision of secure, stable and effective study condition that stimulate intellectual development. A child needs from parent and teachers, a positive involvement in positive learning that effect positively on their academic performances. Fan & Chen (2001).
Parental help and responsibilities which are armed at greater cognitive competence, greater problem-solving skills, greater school enjoyment, better school attendance and fewer behavioral problems at schools. In effect a more powerful indicator and predictor of achievement at teens must be geared towards, good parental interest and perception of their roles and responsibilities in full filling it.
This study therefore examines the home and learning environment as a factors, a breeding ground that expose students to bizarre acts, as well as responsible for their poor academic performance among the Secondary School students in Oshodi/Isolo Education District Six of Lagos State.
1.2. Theoretical Framework
There have been various theoretical approaches and background carried out by various scholars on bizarre behavior of our youths of school age and its implication Our main concern was the academic performance of students most especially at the active secondary school stage including how these behaviors can be controlled such studies were very paramount. Therefore the various work by some of these scholars would be reviewed to enable us understand various positions that have already been taken.
Adetola and Ademola (1985) maintained that the criminal disposition among the young people in our society is a reflection of changing structures of the society. He went further to maintain that delinquent behavior are either antisocial or criminal, and also refer to them as either violent or not violent behavioral tendencies by the youth (age of below 17) According to him societal, technologies instruments, and value system are changing and all these combine to create new directions and demands.
Ogundare (1995) in his own view, tired to link the concept of delinquency of our school children with “idleness” he maintained that an idle had or mind is the “devils workshop” hence most of the school age children must be well occupied in the school to discourage the school been made a “breeding ground” for bad behavior. He therefore suggested that the roles of schools and parents has very significant, positive influence that inculcate the right moral value in them, getting them well occupied at school and at home, shun materialism and male a delinquent free society.
Bagot (1982) in his study, found that poverty (parental background) was a vital factor among the causes of bizarre behavior of our youth in Liverpool. Among the 200 convicted and studied, 48% of the students were from parental background without any source of income, while 29% of them are from broken or separated home and 12% were from people who are either taken as house help or staying with grandma.
Shittu (2004) discover in his research that stable home and school environment, good parenting, role modeling and good school infrastructural facilities supported by strong economic home background are very important germane that could enhance academic success of a child.
Stanley (2001) Argues that if parent of one or both partners in a marriage were divorced when they were children, the partners themselves are likely to divorce. One reason he gave was that children of divorced parents have low esteem, poor interest and aptitude to school living and learning. These impacted negatively on the academic performance of such affected children.
Parental involvement has, the greatest positive effect at Secondary level of education in curbing bizarre behavior, thereby raising their academic performance. Symon (1999) also found that parental interest in their child’s education was the single most powerful prediotor of achievement at high school age. Desforges (2003) also research into parental helps in learning processes and strong contact with schools and teachers significantly led to higher academic performance, greater school enjoyment, better school attendance and fewer or totally eliminate negative behavioral problems at secondary schools this improve parents and teachers perception of that roles and increase their level of confidence in fulfilling it.
1.2.1 Bizarre Behavior in Perspective
Bizarre Destructive behavior is a diagnoses applied to persons who routinely behave with little or no regard for the right, safely or feeling of others this pattern of behavior is seen in secondary school age children or young adolescent and persist into adulthood. People diagnosed with Bizarre behavior in school population act as if they have no conscience. They move through society as predators paying little attention to the consequences of their actions. They don’t understand the feelings of guilt or remorse. Deceit and manipulation characterized the interpersonal relationship.
Bizarre behavior is described by Moeller and Gerard (2007) as a disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the right of others that begins in childhood or school age or early adolescent and continues into adulthood.
In United State population. Bizarre disorder is estimated to affect 3% of boys and 1% in girls. The percentage may be even higher among inmates or person treated for substance abuse.
Men or women diagnosed with this behavioral disorder, demonstrate few emotions beyond contempt for others. Their lack of empathy is often combined with an inflated sense of self-worth and a superficial charm that tends to mask an inner indifference to the needs or feelings of others. Some studies indicate students with this can only mimic the emotions associated with committed love relationship and friendships that most people feel naturally.
Students reared by parents with this behavioral disorder are more likely to develop this than members of the general population. Students with the disorder may be antisocial, living in poverty, suffering from a concurrent substance abuse disorder, or piling up extensive criminal records, as bizarre destructive disorder is associated with low socioeconomic status and urban backgrounds. Highly intelligent students with bizarre destructive behavior however, may not come to the attention of the criminal justice or mental health care systems and may be underrepresented in diagnosed statistics.
Some legal experts and mental health professionals do not think that this mal-adjusted behavior classified as a mental disorder, on the grounds that the classification appears to excuse unethical, illegal, or immoral behavior. Despite these concerns, juries in the United States have consistently demonstrate that they do not regard a diagnosed of their as exempting a person from prosecution or punishment for crimes committed.
Bizarre disorder is seen in 3% to 30% of psychiatric outpatients. The prevalence of the disorder is even higher in selected populations, like prisons, where there is a preponderance of violent offenders. A 2002 literature review of studies on mental disorders in prisoners stated that 47% of male prisoners and 21% of female prisoners had antisocial personality disorder.
similarly, the prevalence of Antisocial is higher among patients in alcohol or other drug abuse treatment programs than in the general population
1.2.2 Causes and Scope of Bizarre Behavior
Causes of bizarre behavior
Studies of adopted children indicated that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of both biological and adopted children of people diagnosed with the disorder have an increased risk of developing it. Children born to parents diagnosed with this disorder but adopted into other families resemble their biological more than their adoptive parents. The environment of the adoptive home, however, may lower the child’s risk of developing bizarre behavior
Researchers have linked this disorder to childhood physical or sexual abuse, neurological disorders and low IQ. But, as with other disorder. Persons diagnosed with bizarre disorder also have an increased incidence of substance-related disorders.
Bizarre destructive disorder is said to be genetically based but typically has environmental factors, such as family relations, that trigger its onset. Traumatic events can lead to a disruption of the standard development of the central nervous system, which can generate a release of hormones that can change normal patterns of development. One of the neurotransmitters that have been discussed in individual with this disorder is serotonin.
While it has been shown that lower levels of serotonin may be associated with this disorder, there has also been evidence that decreased serotonin function is highly correlated with impulsiveness and aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Impulsivity is not only linked with irregularities in metabolism but may be the most essential psychopathological aspect linked with such dysfunction. In a study looking at the relationship between the combined effects of central serotonin activity and acute testosterone levels on human aggression, researchers found that aggression was significantly higher in subject with a combination of high testosterone and high cortisol responses, which correlated to decreased serotonin levels. Correspondingly, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder classifies “impulsiveness or failure to plan ahead “and irritability and aggressiveness” as two of the seven criteria in diagnosing someone with this disorder.
Robert D. Hare (2008) has suggested that the rise in bizarre Destructive behavior that has been reported in the United States may be linked to changes in cultural mores, the latter serving to validate the behavioral tendencies of many individuals. While the rise reported may be in part merely a byproduct of the widening use (and abuse) of diagnostic technique. It has been plausibly suggested that the erosion of collective standards may indeed serve to release the individual with latent such behavior from their previously prosocial behavior. There is also a continuous debate as to the extent to which the legal system should be involved in the identification and admittance of patient with preliminary symptoms of bizarre tendencies.
Some studies suggested that the social and home environment has contributed to the development of bizarre destructive act. The parents of these children have been shown to display such behavior, which could be adopted by their children.
Scopes of bizarre behavior
i. Substance Abuse Disorder
Researcher have linked bizarre destructive behavior to substance related disorder it is not uncommon for a person with a substance abuse disorder to lie to others in order to obtain money for drugs or alcohol. Behavior that characterize substance abuse disorder among secondary school ages may include drug abuse, smoking cigarette hemp, including hard substance that affect mood. This may in the long run lead to depression anxiety and mood swing that co-occur if untreated students with substance-abuse disorder are at risk for developing or worsening a myriad of other mental cases and students may be at risk for self mutilation or dying from homicide or suicide
Theories regarding the life experience that put people at risk for substance abuse disorder include a history of childhood physical environment sexual and emotional abuse neglect deprivation abandonment per association who engaged in such abuse or having a parents who is either alcoholic druggist or antisocial.
ii. Destructive Disorder
The manual of the American Psychiatric Association notes that any abuse or neglect combines with erratic parenting or inconsistent discipline appears to increase the risk that a child will be diagnose with destructive disorder. Destructive Behavior common among secondary school age students may include damage to school furniture breaking of school window, Louvers willful destruction and burning school building including school buses in protest or for jus no rational reasons. Since there is no specific definite test that can accurately asses the presence of destructive behavioral disorder. Counselors’ and health care professionals conduct a mental health interview that look for the presence of antisocial symptoms and was positive. But if the cultural context of the symptoms is not considered, the disorder may be falsely diagnosed as being present
iii. Conduct Disorder
Conduct disorder is misbehavioral in nature and may include misconduct tendencies which may include fighting in and outside the school, malpractices in both internal and external examination, telling lies, using false names and conning of others for profits or pleasure. They cheat others, extort to gain money or power, selling illegal material in the school such as drugs, phones, sett, memory card and quick tendencies to exploit others. This on set is before age 15 years. The American Psychiatric Society add that person who shows sign of conduct abuse with accompany attention deficit disorder have a greater chance of being diagnosed with bizarre destructive behavior at school age. Conduct disorder is a destructive behavior characterized by initiating fighting, betting, and other offensive behavior common with male students of school age as far as breaking school rules are concern
iv. Oppositional Deviant Disorder
Behavioral deviancy is considered bizarre in that they are considered different from its normal state or path e.g youth of school age may be appositionally deviant sexually or may refuse to follow the path of school procedures, rule, regulations including instruction, students found outside the school with uniform roaming about the street without proper exit are grossly deviant. Although deviant behavior can be quite resistant to treatment the most effective intervention tends to be a combination of firm but fair programming that emphasizes teaching the deviant students skills that can be use to live independently and productively within the rules and limits to society medication may not directly treat the behavior that characterize deviant disorder according to people with deviant behavioral disorder experience in the long run a remission of symptoms by the time they reach 50 years of age.
This is a form of social aggression some theories about the socio-biological risk factors of deviant disorder include dysfunction of certain gene, hormones or damage to part of the brain. Diagnoses often associated with deviant disorder often include antisocial disorder, attention deficit disorder and reading and memory disorder. Secondary school student in this category are bizarredly in form of disobedience, negativism provocative to authority figures more commonly seen in boys than girls and age onset is three in children.
v. Personality Disorder
Personality disorder is a persistent pattern of thought, feeling dressing that is significantly different from what is considered normal within the persons own culture and professional group. Personality disorder as a type bizarre behavior based on commonality of symptoms. It is considered as a totality of various self behaviors, personal in nature.
Personality disorder among our secondary school students can be well identifiable such as all forms of indecent dressing appearances such as tattooing, branding, nose and ear notching and piercing. Indecent dressing among our school children may include tattered uniform, flying of polo shirt, dressing mini, sagging, labeling signs on uniform, wrong school socks, cap and sandal including all forms of incomplete and dirty appearance, other forms of personality disorder which are bizzarre in nature are dissocial.
vi. Anti-Social Behavior
These behaviors among students is dominated by anxiety, anger inhibited and pervasive pattern of misbehavior and violation of the right of other school mates it is characterized by lawlessness, restlessness, bullying, show of gangsterism and supremacy. A nti social disorder is a dramatics shown of all forms misbehavioural tendencies, disregard to school rules, procedures, jumping school protocols students exhibits behavior which are purely eccentric, erratic and counter – social in all its ramification in the school environment
Dissocial or Anti-social behavioral tendencies also includes smoking of cigarette and use of the influence of seniority to harass the junior ones and bullying on them. The occurrences of antisocial behavior is not exclusive during the course of schizophrenia or a manic episode
1.2.3 Theory of Bizarre Behavior
A. The planned behavior Theory (By:- Grizzel J and Godin G.)
The theory suggest that unexplained behaviour is dependent on one’s intention to perform the behaviour. Intention is determined by an individual attitude, i.e beliefs, value about the outcome of the behaviour and subjective norms i.e. belief about what other people think the person should do or general social pressure. This theory also viewed bizarre behaviour as determination of an individuals’ perceived behavioural control and individual perception of their ability or feeling of self efficacy to perform the behaviour. This relationship is typically dependent on the relationship and the nature of the situation it acquired and learnt.
The attitude towards the behaviour, intention and the perceived behaviour control are models of this theory. The intention to perform the bizarreness’ has been shown to be the most important variable in predicting the behaviour which are often linked with ones personal motive. For perceived behavioural control to influence behavioural change in bizarre behavioural change, much like with self efficiency, a person must perceive that they have the ability to perform the behaviour. Therefore as Grizzel suggests that perceived control over opportunities, resources and skills needed are an important part of the behavioural change process.
Intention to perform a bizarre behaviour, suggest that it may be important to present information to help shape positive attitudes of students towards the behaviour and stress subjective norm or opinion that support the behaviour.
B. The Transtheoretical Theory (By Prochaska J.)
The transtheoretical Theory proposes that behaviour which are maladaptive are consequence of changes as a process of six stages. He behave that individual including students are bizarre and are propelled by unresolved conflicts, anxiety, unconscious conflicts, not by a singular factor rather than the interaction of various factoral stages. These are:
- Pre – Contemplation:- Is the stage in which the individual behaves abnormally for just no course and are not ready to reason for any change.
- Contemplation stage: is the where people are aware of their bizarre behaviour.
- Preparation stage: is when the individual is ready for the consequences of their action this are more to action stage when the bizarre maladaptness becomes visible and practical. Under the Maintenance stage the action continues with just no remorse or feeling for others and their action. This goes for a long time. In the school system student not only maintain there bizarre action but they bring in or imitate others into the click. It takes the interaction of stakeholder in education to come in the Termination stage and moves towards eradication of such attitude. They view attitude as not something stable or predisposed to the individual, but as something that might change based on internal or external cue.
The Trans theoretical theory proposed different solution assessment at such as personal testimonies, media campaign, drama, increasing awareness, feedback, education instruction. It also involve making cognitive and emotional of individual self image and values, providing healthy models, family interventions and documentaries that might impacted positively one ones overall environment.
C. Humanistic Theory (Abraham Maslow & William Glasser)
This theory of bizarre behavior is need motivated based on human generation of wants and self directed.
It further said that bizarre behavior is in the human self based on need which are driving forces that put the individual, who lacks some needs into bizarreness and delinquency. From the human angle, human needs such as needs for independent and freedom from parents, peers, fears, teachers and frustration from not belonging in. According to Marie Montessori, proposed that individual learn all behavior including delinquency and bizarre behavior from human social interaction and involvement with others and concept in interaction. Specifically the twin process of reinforcement and punishment drives the acquisition and maintenance of behaviors and the supporting beliefs, attitudes and values. The model of humanistic theory focuses on the control and responsibility that people have for their own behavior. It concentrates on what is uniquely human viewing people as basically rational and oriented towards the human world to get along with life and others. It also view people as having an awareness of life and constantly searching for meaning and self worth. The theory argues that, as long as human unexplained behavior are hurting to others, they do not feel personally show concern for their action. However the shortfall of the humanistic theory lies in it advance, uncomtemporary, unverifiable and unscientific in nature.
D. The Strain Theory
This theory implies that the individuals turn to bizarre and delinquent because of their frustration with school failures and this was further emphasized in the control theory. It proposed that social relation between an individual and other constrains influence bizarre behavior.
This contributes to the idea that the individual with low esteem and mind set lacks the social and intellectual resources successfully to enter the class culture that is identify as a goal thus, when low esteem children enter the middle- class institution of school, they fail because they lack the necessary socialization that middle class children have had to succeed in schools. The formation of the social bund consists of an effective attachment to others, a commitment to socially approved course of action, involvement in those courses of action and believes in the legitimacy of conventional order. The theory emphasis a developmental like progression in the scope of the social bund as children move from the bond with their parent to a bond with the school and then to other larger social institution. The implicit is the assumption that events weakening these relationship increase the likelihood of delinquency and bizarreness. The perspective seems to strongly support this study. It event further to explain that bizarre behavior is learnt within the individuals social context ranging from school as a social environment, family and community in interception
E. Psychobizarreness Theory (By Rote and Seligman)
This is an integrative theory of psychopathology. This was put together by rote (2000) in which he describes neurotic disorder as bizarre behavior. In his book, the rationality of psychological disorders he claims that these symptoms are coping mechanisms, which students constantly and rationally select when confronted with unbearable level of stress. The theory integrates the various forms of therapy into one theoretical model accounting for their efficacy in conscious and rational terms. The theory distinguishes bizarre behavior consisting of neuroses and psychoses and non- bizarre behavior deviations such as simple phobia. The theory went further to say that bizarre behavior on set is sudden and gradual in displaying dramatic disruptive behavioral change which is a progressive deterioration, it is rarity i.e low and the individual is unaware of the underlying causes with stigmatization of the behavior as a reflection of a mental or physical illness. The theory diagnose as bizarre if it meets all the above criteria. The theory further stated that, bizarre behavior daily pre occupy the students attention and severely disrupt their function, regardless of the presence or absent of certain stimuli and constitute a burden on the family and society.
Although, the theory addresses, neuroses, psychoses and simple phobia, it represents the basic concept psychobizarreness and will focus on the development and treatment. This theory also integrates the various forms of therapy into one theoretical framework and model according to their efficacy of conscious rational terms.
F. Differential Association Theory (Edwin Sutherland)
He describe the theory of differential association as a process of social learning in which criminals and law-abiding people learn their behavior from association with otters. In 1939 he published a book on “Principles of criminology” and said people imitate or other wise internalize the quality of this association. According to his theory- Delinquency and bizarreness are learnt behaviors that are acquired form interacting with others who participate in criminal lifestyle, so that the deference between offenders and non-offenders lies in individuals choices. In order words the offenders and non offenders strive for similar goals but they choose different avenue to achieve those goals. The theory went further to say that these choices are based on the lessons they take from exposure to certain kinds of life experiences.
In particular those with strong attachment to bizarreness are more likely to become delinquents and people who grow up in criminal milieus will adopt deviant values that can result in delinquency and crime.
Although different association theory has been criticized for relying on variables that are difficult to operationalise, it remains a potent and influential theoretical approach to explaining delinquency and bizarreness. The major differences between criminality and bizarreness according to the theory lies in the roles of people and groups in associating with the society at large and the effects it had on the society
1.2.4 Theory of Learning
The refers to provision of basics scientific explanation of how learning takes place as developed by psychologist in contemporary world.
Learning can be defined as relatively permanent change in behavioral performance which will come as a result of experience, exposure and practice. The extent to which a permanent behavioral changes may occur is dependent largely on practice, reinforcement, contiguity, meaningfulness, similarity, experience and intelligence
Basically there are five basic learning theories that provides scientific backing as follows-
i. Cognitive Development Theory (By Jean Piaget)
The cognitive development theory by Jan Piaget emphasizes age in predicting cognitive ability in learning. The learning theory gave recognition to ages and that it correlates with cognate development of an individual. He describe four major developmental stages through which one has to proceed in learning in a fixed proceeding and succeeding order. These are:
a. Sensory motor (Birth to 2years) Here Childs learning activities are essentially sensory and motor activities.
b. Pre-operational (2years to 7 years) At this time the child’s reasoning is egocentric and proceeds from particular to practical.
c. Concrete Operational (7 years to 11 years) He learn to classify object, order object into series and conserve.
d. Formal Operational stage (11years to 15years) At this stage, the child require though structure sufficient to deal with his world. The child can understand abstract relationship.
ii. Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura)
This theory of learning was put together by Albert Bandura in late 1960s has work was considered as part of the cognitive revolution in psychology. His social learning theory stressed the importance of observational learning, imitation and modeling which can be modified by reinforcement.
In 1977 he published a book that, human learning will be exceedingly laborious and hazardous, of people had to rely solely on the effect of their own actions to inform them.
He went further to state that human including students learn by imitation or observing the behaviour of other through modeling. This learning theory is also known as imitative learning theory or observational learning theory modified by reinforcement.
In teaching and learning methodology, this theory states. “ To teach is to model and demonstrate, to learn is to practice and reflect:. This theory propose that people learn through contact.
iii. Cognitive Insight Learning Theory (cognitivism) (By the Gestalt) Toman kohler
The Gestalt learning theory was developed in Germany in the early 1900s. The German word “Gestalt” emphasizes the whole of human experience.
Cognitivism as a Learning theory explain that human generate knowledge and meaning through sequential development of an individual’s cognitive abilities such as the mental processes to recognizes, recall, analyze, reflect, apply, create, understand, and evaluate. The cognitivist learning process is an adoptive learning of technique, procedures, organization and to develop internal cognitive structure that strengthens synapses in the brain. The purpose in education is to develop conceptual knowledge, techniques, procedures and algorithmic problem solving using verbal linguistic and logical/mathematical intelligences.
This learning theory relates to early stages of learning where the learner solves well-define problems through a series of stages. It provide demonstrations and describe principles to explain the way we organic our sensation into perception. Cognitive learning theory is used to explain such topics as intelligence and memory it play a major role in influencing instructional design.
The Gestalts view learning as an internal mental process, including insight, information processing, memory and perception. This therefore means that the individual learner is more important than the environment.
The cognitive insight learning theory emphasis the roles of understanding, insight and intellectual interpretation in the learning process. They regard learning as trial-and-error problem solving. The learner perceive the problem situation as a whole, the brain works things out by constructing a cognitive-like map for alternative courses of action. These alternative courses as contemplated guide him towards a final response.
iv. Operant Conditioning Learning Theory (Instrumental Learning Theory) B.F. Skinner
This is another major step in learning research by Burrhus Frederic Skinner He founded the notion of operant conditioning as originated by Pavlov. Born in USA on March 20, 1904, and died in August 18th 1990. His learning theory was the most celebrated in modern psychology. Skinner thought that the type of conditioning learning theory, only explain a small portion of human and animal behaviour and that responses through human learning do not result from obvious stimulus but reinforcement, which has been introduced by Thorndike and this skinner developed more further.
He based his learning theory on change in knowledge base on the organism, everyday activities in the process of “Operating” on the environment. The organism encounter a special kind of stimulus called a reinforcing stimulus, this has effect on increasing the behaviour occurring just before the reinforce, this is operant conditioning, where there is reinforcement of the behaviour by a reward or punishment. The behaviour is followed by a consequence and the nature of the consequence modifies the organism’s tendency to repeat the behaviour in the future.
For a behaviour to be learnt and permanent, there must be a reinforcing stimulus results in an increase probability of that behaviour reoccurring in the future and a punishment decreasing its likelihood. This is an instrumental learning theory applied to the classroom teaching-learning processes systematically. This case movements, speech, studying, dancing etc are all parents. He believes that the goal of education was to train learners in survival skills for self and society. With this teachers must reinforce good behaviours with reward and extinguish bad behaviour. This theory of learning have shaped much of contemporary educational approaches such as applied behaviour, analyses, curriculum based measurement and direct instruction in children and adult learning.
Skinner invented a box and place hungry rat inside, presented the rat with lever and light. The rat soon learned that pressing one of the lever would deliver a piece of food. The rat also learn to discriminate between light and dark, learning that food would not be delivered when light was off.
v. Classical Conditioning Learning Theory (Ivan Pavlov)
This learning theory was by Ivan petrovich pavlov born to a priest in September 14 1849 in 1936 in Ryazan, former Soviet Union, in 1904, a Noble prize winner.
His paper and work on classical conditioning was groundbreaking. In 1927 Pavlov began work and describe all learning in term of classical conditioning where the behaviour becomes a reflex response to stimulus. Learning is the acquisition of a new behaviour through conditioning. Pavlov began experimenting with dog and different stimuli and response using the bell sound and generated some terminologies to describe has observation as uncondition stimulus such as food and generate unlearned behaviour such as salivation when eating. Salvation was called an uncondition response because it was not learnt. The bell formerly a neutral sound to the dog, became a conditioned learned stimulus and salivation a condition response. He found that the shorter the time between the stimulus and the response the move quickly a conditioned response. He refer to the time between stimulus and response as “contiguity” of the stimulus.
His work threw more light into scientific discovery on which it begin to build a theory of learning. Today the school setting is developing through the pavlovian studies and positive development in the teaching learning process. This learning theory is also known as signal learning theory. All the major signals motor reflexes are grouped as classical such as eye blink salvation etc are all reluctant today in the classroom teaching – learning process. It view the learning process as a change in behavior and will elicit desired responses through such device as behavioral objectives, competency – based learning, skill development and training.
vi. Constructivism Learning Theory (John Dewey and David Kolb)
The constructivist learning theory gave the foundation of all learning theories as put together by John Dewey and David Kolb. It has many varieties and these are active learning, discovery learning and knowledge building, all promoting students constructing knowledge for themselves. Built on the work of Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner, constructivism emphasize the importance of the active involvement of learners in self knowledge discovery and building new ideas or concept based upon current knowledge and past experience. It ask why students do not learn deeply in listening to a teacher or reading from a textbook. To design effective teaching environment, it believe one needs a good understanding of what children already know when they come into the classroom.
The constructivism is a learning theory to explain how knowledge is constructed in the human being when information comes into contact with existing knowledge that had been development by experiences. Constructs are the different types of filters we chose to place on our realities to change our realities from chaos to order.
Teaching and learning in constructivism is applicable to talk based learning such as discovery, hands-on, experimental and other collaborative project based task. According to John Dewey the curriculum should be designed in a way that builds on what the pupils already knows and is allowed to develop with them. This draws heavily psychological studies of children cognition.
1.3 Statement of the Problems
In recent time, the rate of students delinquency had been on the increase, in our Public Secondary Schools in Lagos State. This is a big concern to administrator, teachers and all other stakeholders as they put the major blame on parental irresponsibility and our ever decreasing moral values in our society, such as indecent dressing, fighting, bullying, extortion, examination malpractices tattooing, ear piercing, stealing, truancy, sex offences including damage of school infrastructure, are all becoming very alarming in our secondary schools.
Behavioral mal-adaptiveness , most especially bizarre destructive behavior are becoming alarming in our Senior Secondary Schools and this calls for concern, to the extent that if nothing concrete is not done fast, our educational standard will be diminishing together with a fall in level of school administration.
In Nigeria, lack of official monitoring statistics on School, students delinquency, makes it almost impossible to estimate the extent of the behavioral problems particularly in Lagos State. Then different incidence occurs and reported everyday pertaining to Senior Schools Students involvement in bizarre destructive behavior. A poor parental care with gross deprivation and care due to divorce or death, or absconding of one of the parents, the child’s behavior and schooling may be affected as the mother alone may not be financially buoyant to purchase books, bags, socks and uniforms. Such child may play truancy, absentism, fighting and indecent dressing, thus their performance in schools may be adversely affected (Shittu, 2004).
The victims of abuse of maltreatment are more likely to play truant in schools. They may also more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol, run away from home, engages in teenage prostitution, and commit sexual assault crimes. This shows that child’s exposure to multiple forms of violence, including domestic violence, child abuse, and generally family climates of hostility, doubles the risk of youth violence and delinquent acts as well as their poor academic performance in school.
Similarly, educationist and psychologists argue that the most important factors in children adjusting well in life is continued positive contact with both parents over a long period of time. Thus parents are to blame for their children’s misdemeanors because they are charged with the sole responsibility of rearing up responsible school children. According to them, where any child is deprived of this joint parenting, the society will faced with a degree of lawlessness and chaos that such children will pose to the generality of the community. It could therefore be said that juvenile delinquency as bye-product of home and learning environment has other consequential effects on students academic performance, social adjustment and also, their relationship with fellow students in schools.
No doubt, the monitoring and investigation department of the Ministry of Education had been making effort aimed as reducing if not totally eradicating bizzared behavior in our schools through regular visit and standardized quality control system. And so what has happened.
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between bizzared behavior and academic achievement among Secondary School students in Oshodi – Isolo Local Education area of District 6
Specifically this study is aimed at finding out:-
1. The relationship between improper dressing and academic achievement
2. The relationship between truancy/absentism and academic achievement.
3. The relationship between fighting/bullying and academic achievement
4. The relationship between stealing, gambling, extorting and academic achievement.
5. The relationship between male/female (gender) bizarre behavior and academic achievement.
1.5 Research Questions
1. Do students who dress improperly differ significantly from these who dress well with regards to their academic performance.
2. Do students who are play truancy and absentism differs significantly from those who are regularly and punctual with regards to their academic performance.
3. Do students who fights and bully differs significantly from those who are gentle quiet and obedient with regards to their academic performance.
4. Do students who steals, gamble and extorts differ significantly from those who don’t steal, gamble, and extort with regards to their academic performance.
5. Do male students who are bizarre differs significantly from females students with regards to their academic performance.
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1. There will be no significant difference between bizarre behavior and academic achievement.
2. There will be no significant differences among student who are involve in truancy and absenteeism and academic achievement.
3. There will be no significant differences among student who are involve in fighting and bullying with regard to their academic achievement.
4. There will be no significant difference among student who are involve in clubbing and partying with regard to their academic achievement
5. There will be no significant difference in students bizarre destructive behavior among male/female gender students and their academic achievement.
1.7 Significance of the Study
For the society and education to achieve the prescribed goals, certain obligations and expectations must be met and parental roles are very important in his aspect of educational survival. In this situation, it is necessary for the individual students, schools, parents, government and non-governmental agencies to be conscious of the implications and consequences on students educational achievement, social well, being and adjustment. This is so because of its devastating effects on society generally. As Amaike (2005) argues that where any child is deprived of standard adequate parenting, the society will be faced with some degrees of lawlessness and delinquent that such child will poss. to the generality of the community and the entire country at large.
Although many studies have been carried out on the issues of students bizarre behavior but it seems that the problem is on the increase with little or no government interference most especially Ministry and Department of Education. This will therefore serve as a good tool, a novel attempt in this area as the trend of bizarre behavior and poor academic performance of students posing huge problem to schools, parents, government and stakeholder in education in Oshodi-Isolo Local (Education six) Area in particular, Lagos State and Nigeria in general.
It will also assist all Ministries of Education both states and federal in formulating the right and appropriate policies that will be put in place, a round peg in a round hole towards checks and eradication of such juvenile behavior in our Secondary Schools.
This research project will therefore in no small measure, serve as guide to the education district and zones in their monitoring and inspectoring duties towards schools where such behavioral tendencies are common and are put under check.
School administrator’s roles cannot be over emphasized because they are implemententors of government policies and programmes geared towards education. Educational advancement, therefore becomes incomplete with them in isolation. School administrators will therefore benefit from it as a good working tool, bring to light show more concern of such behavior among teachers and liaise with the parents through Parents Teachers Association (P.T.A).
No doubt school counselors and psychologist will gain and see it as an additional responsibility and help towards enhancing their guidance services through proper identification, referral, rehabilitation of bizarred destructive students.
Further more our practicing teachers cannot be in isolation since they are in direct contact with these students. It is therefore hope that class teachers, subject teachers including year tutors will benefit immensely from this research study by way of identifying common bizarre destructive behavior among the students they teach. Making the parents aware, and offering the necessary solution in conjunction with the school administrators and counselors.
The benefit accruable to the parents cannot be over emphasized, it will no doubt create awareness and enlightment of such bizarre behavior in their children / wards bridge the gap between them and the school. It will change the orientation of parents towards the effects of bizarre and destructive behavioral tendencies, thus making all students see the school as a change agent positively. It will create awareness among parents and the general populace on the consequences of family disorganization, poor parenting as it affect the educational performance of Secondary School Students. Parents can now monitor closely their children and wards more and better.
In addition, there has been an improved emphasis on bizarre behavior in Nigerian Schools, thus curriculum planners as well as Non-Government Organizations (N.G.O.s) that are working towards emancipation of good quality education and right will find this research work useful, a working instrument to good policy implementation.
It is also expected that any enthusiastic readers and researchers can get relevant data from this study. Perhaps, new ideas and information will be added to growing body of knowledge through this study. The entire society at large will find this research study very useful.
1.8 Scope of the study
This study is limited to all the Secondary Schools Students (male/female) in Oshodi-Isolo Local Education Area of Lagos State. The researcher will concentrate only on the public Secondary Schools.
1.9 Limitation of the study
This research study will be confronted with perceived hindrances which may limit its applicability and this has to be controlled so as not to influence the internal and external validity of the research. Care must be taken when selecting sample size because the size is too large. The use of questionnaire must be well worded and well interpreted.
Other forceable hindrances are limited time, finance, and the school calendar that may not favor the time the questionnaires are to be administered. Other conditions may include delay in getting adequate and reliable information about target students.
However these limitations will be properly controlled and noted. As such the researcher hope to present a dynamic, objective and systematic research work
1.10 Definition of Terms
Delinquency:- An immoral or illegal act that the society does not approve by breaking the law especially a young person.
Deviance:- This refers to behavior or characteristics that violates of cultural norms.
Criminal:- Someone involve in or has been proved guilty of a crime, wrong, dishonest and unacceptable behavior which are against the law.
Mal-adaptive:- Any behavior or action that is unable to form good relationship with other people
Deviant:- Someone who is different from what is considered and accepted as way of life
Gangsterism:- A type of antisocial behavior of a violent group of criminals
Hallucination:- To see strange object or hear some things that are not really there or strange. It could be an hallucination of sight, ear or taste.
Schizophrenia:- A serious metal illness in which someone’s thought and feelings are not the reality of life (not based on what is really happening).