CAUSES, PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DAMP ON BUILDING IN MAKOKO AREA OF YABA, LOCAL GOVERNMENT, LAGOS STATE


Content

ABSTRACT

 

It has been clearly identified that one of the agent that easily deteriorate building structure, weaken the strength of the component of building and shorten the life-span of building is “DAMP”, which may occur in different dimension therefore, this project is centred on causes of damp, prevention of damp and the necessary treatment needed for the structure that has been severely affected with damp in makoko, yaba area of Lagos state. This research connotes that the main causes of damp are: rain penetration, rising damp, condensation, humidity, roof leakage and lack of drainage. To achieve the objective of this study, four research questions were raised. The survey research design was adopted using observation technique. A checklist was used for data collection. Based on the findings it was concluded that there is need to prevent and treat damp in building in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state so as to have an healthy environment and also to prolong life of structures. Recommendations were made for prevention and treatment of damp in this area based on the reviewed literature.


 

TABLE OF CONTENT

PAGES

Title page                                                                                                  i

Certification                                                                                             ii

Dedication                                                                                                iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                   iv

Table of content                                                                               v

List of tables                                                                                             viii

List of pictures                                                                                ix

Abstract                                                                                                    x

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                       
Background of the study                                                                         1

Statement of the problem                                                                        2

Purpose of the study                                                                        2

Research question                                                                                     2

Significance of the study                                                                           2

Scope of the study                                                                                     4

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

Damp                                                                                                          5

Causes of damp                                                                                         7

Condensation                                                                                             7

Rain penetration                                                                                        8

Rising damp                                                                                              10

Humidity                                                                                                    15

Roof leakage                                                                                     17

Lack of drainage                                                                               19

Techniques and method of damp prevention in building                 20

Treatment of damp in building component                                      21

Summary of the reviewed literature                                                 28

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

Research design                                                                               31

Area of study                                                                                   31

Population of the study                                                                    31

Sampling and sampling procedure                                                  31

Instrument for data collection                                                          32

Validation of instrument                                                                  32

Method of data collection                                                                 32

Method of data analysis                                                                   32                       

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  PRESENTATION OF RESULT AND

                                 DATA ANALYSIS

 

Research question 1                                                                         33

Research question 2                                                                         34

Research question 3                                                                         38

Research question 4                                                                         39

Summary of the findings                                                                 41

CHAPTER FIVE:  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND

                           RECOMMENDATION

Summary of the study                                                                      42

Conclusion                                                                                       46

Recommendation                                                                             46

Suggestion for further studies                                                          47

Limitation of the study                                                                     47

References                                                                                        48

Appendix 1                                                                                       49

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

                                                                                           PAGES

1.   The check list of observed building showing the causes             33

of damp in building at makoko area of yaba local

government Lagos.

 

 

 

2.   Checklist highlighting effects of damp in makoko                      34

area of yaba local government Lagos state.

 

 


 

 

 

LIST OF PICTURES

                                                                                             Pages

 

Picture 1: Growth of mold on wall                                                  35                                                             

 

Picture 2: Bleaching and flaking of paints                                      35                                                     

 

Picture 3: Destruction of timber component                                   36                                                   

 

Picture 4: Roof leakage                                                                   36

 

Picture 5: Peeling of plaster                                                            37

 

 

 


 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Damp is the presence of unwanted moisture in the structure of a building, either the result of intrusion from outside or condensation from within the structure.

According to Don Prowler (2011) moisture in buildings is a major contributor to mold growth, unhealthy buildings, and poor indoor air quality. A high proportion of damp problems in buildings are caused by condensation, rain penetration and rising damp.

Dampness tends to caused secondary damage to a building. The unwanted moisture enables the growth of various fungi in wood, causing rots or mold health issues and may eventually lead to a sick building syndrome. Plaster and wallpaper loosens: stains from the water, salts and from mold mar surfaces.

In makoko metropolis of Yaba local government area of Lagos state, damp has been a major issues which affects building. And has put the life of the occupants at risk of health problem such as asthma, it also cause damage to their properties and also the deterioration of building. This project will help the people of makoko and its environs to know the causes of this damp, means of preventing the damp from occurring and the major problem or treatment needed for the buildings that has been affected with damp.

Statement of the Problem

Damp problems in buildings causes poor indoor air qualities, respiratory illness in occupants, falling of mortar from the affected walls, failure of building components and at times serious health effects in humans. Hence there is need to find out the causes, prevention and treatment of damp in building.

Purpose of the Study

The essence of this study is to:

1.           Identify the causes of damp in buildings in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state.

2.           Identify the effects of damp on buildings in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state.

3.           Measures for preventing the damp in order to improve the life span of the buildings in makoko.

4.           Proffer the proper treatment to the buildings that are affected by damp in makoko.

Research Question     

1. What are the causes of damp in buildings?

2.   What are the effects of damp on buildings?

3.   What are the means of preventing damp in building?

4.   What are the necessary treatments needed for buildings that are affected by damp?

 

 

Significance of the Study

At the end of this research project the following people will be the beneficiary of the proffer solution to the problem: the landlords and landladies, the building occupants, the maintenance technicians, the builder.

Specifically this study will help the landlord and landladies (building owners) to know that damp that can deteriorates their buildings and they will be able to know and make the right choice of materials to demand for when their house is under construction or renovation. They will also appreciate the needs to employ professionals when constructing.

This study will help occupants to be aware of damp which can damage their properties, and be injurious to their health. It will also guide them in the choice of accommodation.

This study will serve as a guideline to the maintenance technicians who are required to carry out renovation/repairs in a building, to prevent the effects of this damp on such building and the right treatment needed for the houses that are affected.

The builder will benefit from this project due to the fact that this project will guide in the choice of materials to be used for construction which will serve as an antidote to the effects of damp in building, how to treat a swamping area (example foundation type) before building on it in order to prevent rising damp.

The Scope the Study

The scope of this study will be limited to the dampness effect in buildings at makoko. This project also enumerates the causes, prevention and treatment of damp in building in makoko area of yaba local government in Lagos state.   

 

 

                                     

 

 

 

 

 

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