CAUSES, PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DAMP ON BUILDING IN MAKOKO AREA OF YABA, LOCAL GOVERNMENT, LAGOS STATE
It has been clearly identified that one of the agent that easily deteriorate building structure, weaken the strength of the component of building and shorten the life-span of building is “DAMP”, which may occur in different dimension therefore, this project is centred on causes of damp, prevention of damp and the necessary treatment needed for the structure that has been severely affected with damp in makoko, yaba area of Lagos state. This research connotes that the main causes of damp are: rain penetration, rising damp, condensation, humidity, roof leakage and lack of drainage. To achieve the objective of this study, four research questions were raised. The survey research design was adopted using observation technique. A checklist was used for data collection. Based on the findings it was concluded that there is need to prevent and treat damp in building in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state so as to have an healthy environment and also to prolong life of structures. Recommendations were made for prevention and treatment of damp in this area based on the reviewed literature.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of content v
List of tables viii
List of pictures ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1
Statement of the problem 2
Purpose of the study 2
Research question 2
Significance of the study 2
Scope of the study 4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Causes of damp 7
Rain penetration 8
Rising damp 10
Roof leakage 17
Lack of drainage 19
Techniques and method of damp prevention in building 20
Treatment of damp in building component 21
Summary of the reviewed literature 28
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research design 31
Area of study 31
Population of the study 31
Sampling and sampling procedure 31
Instrument for data collection 32
Validation of instrument 32
Method of data collection 32
Method of data analysis 32
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULT AND
Research question 1 33
Research question 2 34
Research question 3 38
Research question 4 39
Summary of the findings 41
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
Summary of the study 42
Suggestion for further studies 47
Limitation of the study 47
Appendix 1 49
LIST OF TABLES
1. The check list of observed building showing the causes 33
of damp in building at makoko area of yaba local
2. Checklist highlighting effects of damp in makoko 34
area of yaba local government Lagos state.
LIST OF PICTURES
Picture 1: Growth of mold on wall 35
Picture 2: Bleaching and flaking of paints 35
Picture 3: Destruction of timber component 36
Picture 4: Roof leakage 36
Picture 5: Peeling of plaster 37
Background of the Study
Damp is the presence of unwanted moisture in the structure of a building, either the result of intrusion from outside or condensation from within the structure.
According to Don Prowler (2011) moisture in buildings is a major contributor to mold growth, unhealthy buildings, and poor indoor air quality. A high proportion of damp problems in buildings are caused by condensation, rain penetration and rising damp.
Dampness tends to caused secondary damage to a building. The unwanted moisture enables the growth of various fungi in wood, causing rots or mold health issues and may eventually lead to a sick building syndrome. Plaster and wallpaper loosens: stains from the water, salts and from mold mar surfaces.
In makoko metropolis of Yaba local government area of Lagos state, damp has been a major issues which affects building. And has put the life of the occupants at risk of health problem such as asthma, it also cause damage to their properties and also the deterioration of building. This project will help the people of makoko and its environs to know the causes of this damp, means of preventing the damp from occurring and the major problem or treatment needed for the buildings that has been affected with damp.
Statement of the Problem
Damp problems in buildings causes poor indoor air qualities, respiratory illness in occupants, falling of mortar from the affected walls, failure of building components and at times serious health effects in humans. Hence there is need to find out the causes, prevention and treatment of damp in building.
Purpose of the Study
The essence of this study is to:
1. Identify the causes of damp in buildings in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state.
2. Identify the effects of damp on buildings in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state.
3. Measures for preventing the damp in order to improve the life span of the buildings in makoko.
4. Proffer the proper treatment to the buildings that are affected by damp in makoko.
1. What are the causes of damp in buildings?
2. What are the effects of damp on buildings?
3. What are the means of preventing damp in building?
4. What are the necessary treatments needed for buildings that are affected by damp?
Significance of the Study
At the end of this research project the following people will be the beneficiary of the proffer solution to the problem: the landlords and landladies, the building occupants, the maintenance technicians, the builder.
Specifically this study will help the landlord and landladies (building owners) to know that damp that can deteriorates their buildings and they will be able to know and make the right choice of materials to demand for when their house is under construction or renovation. They will also appreciate the needs to employ professionals when constructing.
This study will help occupants to be aware of damp which can damage their properties, and be injurious to their health. It will also guide them in the choice of accommodation.
This study will serve as a guideline to the maintenance technicians who are required to carry out renovation/repairs in a building, to prevent the effects of this damp on such building and the right treatment needed for the houses that are affected.
The builder will benefit from this project due to the fact that this project will guide in the choice of materials to be used for construction which will serve as an antidote to the effects of damp in building, how to treat a swamping area (example foundation type) before building on it in order to prevent rising damp.
The Scope the Study
The scope of this study will be limited to the dampness effect in buildings at makoko. This project also enumerates the causes, prevention and treatment of damp in building in makoko area of yaba local government in Lagos state.