Related Topics

CHILD PROSTITUTION: APPRAISAL OF ITS IMPLICATION, INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSES AND CHALLENGES


Content

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of content

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

1.1     Background to the Study

1.2     Statement of Research Problems

1.3     Objectives / Purpose of the Study

1.4     Aims of the Study

1.5     Justification of the Study

1.6     Scope of the Study

1.7     Significance of the Study

1.8     Research Methodology / Data Sources

1.9     Limitations of the study

1.10   Organization / Structure of the Study

1.11   Definitions of Terms

Notes and References

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review Notes and References

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Justification and Implications of Child Prostitution

3.1     Contemporary Global Economic Reality

3.2     The Family Unit and General Societal Condition and Expectations

3.3     Social Implications of Child Prostitution

3.4     Economic Implications of Child Prostitutions

3.5     Health Implications of child Prostitution

Notes and References

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Child Prostitution and the Global Community

4.1    Domestic Institutional Responses and Challenges Towards Addressing Child Prostitution

4.2    International Institutional Responses and Challenges Towards Addressing Child Prostitution

Notes and References

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

Bibliography

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

Recent years has witnessed a continuous deterioration of the domestic and international economy. The Nigerian economy prior to the 1980s was generally considered as healthy and productive. Unemployment was hardly spoken of since most Nigerians and family heads were engaged in one form of employment or the other, thus being able to provide materially for their families.

The down-turn in the Nigerian economy became significantly noticeable especially from the 1980s during the president Shehu Shagari administration 1979 - 1983. This period witnessed a dramatic decline in the fortunes of the Nigerian economy due largely to a combination of factors ranging from mismanagement, corruption of government officials, decline in the global crude oil prices to as low as $10 among others.

Despite measures taken by that government and successive governments both military and civilian, the Nigerian economy continuous to experience decline. In view of the reality of a steadily worsening economy, social challenges like family collapse, immorality, youth delinquency child and adult prostitution, sexually transmitted diseases, crime among others have become the order of the day with very sad consequences.

The rise in child prostitution especially in recent times, is a clear testimony of the fallen moral standard in the country. As in Nigeria, this situation is global in dimension i.e. not restricted to Nigeria. The world over, the declining economy has thrown up those challenges earlier identified.

Internally or at home, girls as young as 14 years are fully engaged in prostitution or as commercial sex workers. Same goes for girls in other countries of the world who desperate to make a living due largely to parental neglect or inability of their parents to adequately take care of their material needs, engaged themselves as prostitutes or sex workers, some even fending for their families.

The phenomenon of child prostitution thus cannot be ignored as it portends great danger for the society, morally, socially and health wise both presently and in the future. This explains efforts at both national and international levels at addressing this ugly and unfortunate trend.

 

1.1 Background to the Study

Child prostitution as already noted is a steadily increasing but disturbing phenomenon in Nigeria. Nigeria like other countries especially in Africa and Asia, places more emphasis on protecting and providing materially for female or the girl child.

This emphasis on providing and protecting female children from abuse stems from cultural or traditional values which frowns on any form of immoral behaviour or conduct on the part of females generally, seeing them as only meant to be given out in marriage to eligible suitors.

It is thus considered as taboo for a young girl to engage in sexual activities without the benefit of marriage. Young girls are expected to keep their virginity until marriage since such brings pride to their parents within the community.

The prevailing situation in recent times both in Nigeria and globally is an upsurge in child prostitution. This disturbing trend could be linked more closely to the declining Nigerian and global economy which have made it practically impossible for many heads of families to provide materially for their families.

In a situation of unemployment and inflation, poverty can only be the result. It is given this situation that families experience breakdowns, crimes increases and sad enough, children become prostitutes or sex workers so as to provide for their material needs which their parents fails to provide. In some situations, children assume the role of breadwinners for their families.

It is within this background that the study attempts to examine the implications of this trend for the society at large and the child prostitute in particular, while also considering how such trends are being addressed by governmental and non-governmental organizations and the challenges encountered in so doing.

 

1.2     Statement of Problems

The following shall be statement of problems for the study:

·                    Since child prostitution is the product of an ailing national and global economy, is the fight against child prostitution not futile without addressing its underlying cause which is the bad economy?

·                    Considering the fact that not all children from poor homes are prostitutes or sex workers, can the poor economy be wholly responsible for the problem of child prostitution?

·                     If child prostitution persists despite well-meaning efforts of governmental and non-governmental organizations to stamp it out, does that not indicate that perhaps this problem is being addressed wrongly?

·                     Since child prostitution persist despite well-meaning efforts both by governmental and non-governmental agencies to stamp it out, does that not suggest that a return to strict traditional moral code of conduct or a return to traditional values may be a better and more effective option at addressing this situation?

·                     Can the issue of child prostitution be successfully addressed in the face of an internet connected society?

 

1.3     Purpose of the Study

It is the purpose of this study among others to closely and critically examine the phenomenon of child prostitution, while equally appraising its implications and institutional responses and challenges.

The study is equally a determination to examine the causes leading to or giving rise to child prostitution both in Nigeria and internationally since it is a global problem.

The study is also determined at examining the implications of child prostitution for the society as well as for the prostituting child. The responses of government and other non-governmental organization towards addressing this problems as well as challenges encountered in addressing or perhaps putting an end to this situation are what the study purposes to discuss or critically examine.

 

1.4     Aims of Study

The study basically aims at a detailed examination of child prostitution especially in Nigeria and globally. It is equally the aim of the study to identify those factors or justifications for child prostitution as well as its implications for the society.

It is equally the aim of the study to examine efforts by governmental and non-governmental organizations at checking or curbing child prostitution, arresting those organizing or encouraging this criminal form of business, prosecuting and equally punishing them.

The study aims to identify the mode of recruitment of children into prostitution, the challenges of checking this criminal enterprise by law enforcement agents both locally and internationally.

 

1.5     Justification of the Study

The study is justified considering the increasing or alarming rate at which children are being recruited into prostitution both locally and globally. The study can also be justified in view of the social, health and economic implications of child prostitution since it impacts negatively on the girl prostitute, her family and the world generally.

Equally justifying the study is the need to know and appreciate efforts made by governmental and none-governmental organizations both locally and internationally at stamping out or checking this form of crime while also punishing those responsible for it.

 

1.6     Scope of the Study

The study primarily addresses the issue of child prostitution and an appraisal of its implications, institutional responses and challenges.

That being the case, the study addresses the causes of child prostitution, its socio-economic and health implications for the child prostitute and the nation and by extension the world generally.

Within the scope of the study is an examination of the state of the Nigeria economy especially in the 1980’s being the era of the shagari’s government being the period the Nigerian economy experienced a decline from which it had never recovered till date.

The study has within its scope an examination of the responses of governmental and non-government organizations towards addressing this problem as well as challenges encountered towards addressing this problem as well as challenges encountered which may be making it difficult in achieving results as desired. 

 

1.7     Significance of the Study

The study is significant considering the fact that it helps us understand and better appreciate the causes of child prostitution nationally and globally.

Also significant about the study is the fact that it helps us appreciate the place and role of traditional Nigerian and African values in checking the social and moral attitudes of youths within the society.

More importantly, the significance of the study is better appreciated considering the fact that it reveals the social, economic and health implications of child prostitution, while equally calling attention to the responses of governmental and non-governmental organizations at addressing this issue.

The nature of these responses, the extent to which they have been effective or ineffective in addressing this issue as well as challenges encountered in addressing this problem are all discussed in the study for better understanding and appreciation, thus making the study the more significant.

 

1.8     Research Methodology I Data Sources

In developing the study, the historical and analytical approaches shall be adopted. In other words, the study shall be developed historically, where sensitive or important issues arises, these shall be subjected to critical analysis or appraisal for better understanding and appreciation.

Data or information for developing the study shall be sourced from textbooks, newspapers, magazines, journals as Well as the internet.

 

1.9     Limitations of the Study

The study may be limited by the challenge of verifying the accuracy of statistical data provided by our sources.

Equally capable of limiting the study is the challenge of determining the actual number of girls engaged as prostitutes or sex workers in Nigeria and globally. Whatever statistics or figures given may simply be a matter of assumption as this may not represent the true position.

The study may equally be limited by the challenge of actual measuring or determining the level of responses from governmental and non- governmental agencies towards addressing this issue as well as the level of successes recorded in this effort.

Equally limiting the study is the problem of determining the extent to which identified challenges to addressing the issue of child prostitution has hampered such efforts or perhaps if the lack of success may be due to the inefficiency of personnel of such agencies.

 

1.10   Organization/Structure of the Study

The study is divided into five chapters:

Chapter one discusses the Introduction, Background to the Study, Statement of research Problems, Objectives/Purpose of the Study, Aims of the study, Justification of the Study, Scope of the Study, Significance of the Study, Research Methodology / Data Sources, Limitations of the study, Organization of the Study.

Chapter two reviews relevant Literatures to the study.

Chapter three examines global economic situation, societal conditions and expectations and Implications of Child Prostitution.

Chapter four discusses the domestic as well as international institutional responses and challenges towards addressing child prostitution.

Chapter five is the Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations.

 

1.11   Definitions of Terms

UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund: An agency of the United Nations charged with the responsibility of improving the general well-being of children globally.

UNESCO - United Nation Educational and Scientific Organization: An agency of the United Nations with the responsibility of advancing educational and scientific progress and co-operation among member states for the overall improvement of the world's population.

ILO - International Labour Organization: It is an agency of the United Nations saddled with the task of improving the working conditions and environment within which people work, while equally protecting them from exploitation and exposure to harmful substances detrimental to their health and overall productivity.

NAPTIP - National Agency for the Prohibition in Trafficking in Persons:

An agency of the federal government established to check the trafficking in person’s especially young girls and women out of the country either for prostitution or other forms of domestic slavery.

WOTCLEF - Women Trafficking and Child Labour Eradication Foundation: Founded by Mrs. Titi Abubakar aimed at checking the trafficking of children for prostitution or domestic slavery.

FIDA - Federation of Women Lawyers: An association of women lawyers in Nigeria with the task of rendering legal services to women and children who are victims of trafficking, prostitution or forced labour.

NCWS - National Council of Women Societies: An organization comprising all organizations in the country engaged in issues pertaining to the protection of children and women from being trafficked either for the purpose of prostitution or as domestic labour;

The Hague Convention: An important legal instrument of the U.N for the prevention of the international trafficking in persons.

The Rome Statute: It is a legal instrument of the International Criminal Court aimed at punishing those found guilty of crime against humanity.

The ILO Convention: This Convention is a legal instrument that prohibits and seek to eliminate all forms of child labour including prostitution.

Optional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child:

This provides guarantee against transactions pertaining to children for the purpose of prostitution or child labour.

Optional protocol to the Convention on the right of the child in Armed Conflicts: An international legal instrument that protects and prohibits the recruitment of children into armed conflicts either as soldiers or prostitutes.

 

The United Nations Convention on Transnational Organized Crime: An international legal instrument that criminalizes and punishes child trafficking and prostitution.

The United Nations Protocol: Is equally a legal instrument that criminalizes punishes child trafficking and prostitution.

HIV / AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: A disease that is global in nature transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person, contact with infected blood or body-fluid. It renders the infected persons' immunity useless, making such one susceptible to all forms of infection.

WHO - World Trade Organization: A world body that regulates trading activities globally among member nations with a view to enhancing free trade.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes and References

1)                J.O. Osakwe, "The Economic Situation Pre-August 1985". Cited in J.O. Osakwe (ed): Seven Years of ISS. Lagos, daily Times of Nigeria PIc. 1993. P.


Order Complete Project