CORRUPTION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF IKEJA LOCAL GOVERNMENT)


Content

ABSTRACT

This project work examined corruption and local government administration in Nigeria. Corruption is a practical problem involving the outright theft, embezzlement of funds or other appropriation of the state property, nepotism and granting of favour to personal acquaintances. It has been argued that corruption involves behaviors which deviate from the moral and constitutional requirement.

Literatures on corruption and administration of local government were discussed. Survey design was employed with the use of a well structured questionnaire. Respondents were selected based on simple random sampling technique. A sample three hundred (300) was drawn for the purpose of gathering data. One Hundred (100) out of the Three Hundred (300) were selected from staff of Ikeja Local Government Council and Two Hundred (200) from residence of Ikeja Local Government Area.

Three hypotheses were formulated and tested with the use of Chi-Square analysis. The analysis resulted to rejecting all null hypotheses and hence accepting the three alternate hypotheses.

Based on decisions of the tested hypotheses conclusions were reached that Corruption in the local government administration is the brain behind non performance of local government administration development wise, also Inadequate revenue affects the council administration, and the accounting system of the local government encourage corruption. Recommendations were proffered  to Ikeja Local Government, State Government and Federal Government.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                               Pages

Title Page                                                                                         i           

Certification                                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                                       iii

Acknowledgment                                                                           iv

Abstract                                                                                          v

Table of Contents                                                                          vi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background of the Study                                                    1

1.2          Statement of the Problem                                                  4

1.3          Objectives of the Study                                                     4

1.4 Research Questions                                                               5

1.5      Statement of Hypotheses                                                6

1.6      Scope and Limitations                                                      7

1.7      Significance of the Study                                                  7

1.8      Definition of Terms                                                           8

1.9      Organisation of the Study                                                9

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW  

2.0          Introduction                                                                          10

2.1  Evolution and Development of Local Government in Nigeria 11

2.2      Theoretical Framework                                                       32

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0      Introduction                                                                                                 35

3.1      Research Design                                                                                          35

3.2      Population                                                                                                    36

3.3      Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                          36

3.4      Types of Data                                                                                               37

3.5      Data Collection Instrument                                                                      38

3.6      Data Analysis Technique                                                                           39

3.7      Limitations of the Methodology                                                             39

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.0      Introduction                                                                                                 40

4.1      Personal Characteristics of the Respondent                                        40

4.2      Response of Respondents to the Problem Areas.          44

4.3      Testing and Interpretation of the Hypotheses.              53

4.4      Discussion of Findings                                                        59

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0      Introduction                                                                           61

5.1      Summary                                                                                                                                                          61

5.2      Conclusion                                                                               62
5.3      Recommendations                                                                 62

5.4      Suggestions for Further Studies                                            64

References                                                                                          65

Appendix                                                                                                           69




CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Nigeria as a sovereign nation operates a federal system of government i.e the federal government, state government and the local government councils. The implication of this is that the three segments of governments are mutually interrelated in a unified effort to make life worth – while for the masses.

The country’s authoritarian leadership faced a legitimacy crisis, political intrigues, in an ethnically differentiated polity, where ethnic competition for resources drove much of the pervasive corruption and profligacy. While the political gladiators constantly manipulated the people and the political processes to advance their own selfish agenda, the society remained pauperized, and the people wallowed in abject poverty. This invariably led to weak legitimacy, as the citizens lacked faith in their political leaders and by extension, the political system.

Corruption may not be easy to define but, according to Odey (2002)    ‘‘contextualizes corruption in Nigeria as the air which every living person breathes in and out. According to him, nobody makes any effort to breathe in the air; it comes naturally. Corruption, in Nigeria, has become so naturalized that many of us simply becomes corrupt without making any effort and often even without knowing it.’’

(Paul-Sewa 2011) Nowadays, men and women have been selected or elected to undertake leadership position at the grassroots level in Nigeria primarily sorted out names to enrich their purses as quickly as they could and ultimately run the budget of their various localities aground without any visible development project to show for it. Development projects, if any are in place after been thoroughly inflated (Lawal, 2001).  

Many councils have turned to dens of robbers and cauldrons of corruption where large chunks of their monthly and special allocations are shared under different guises (Oyedele, 2008).

This project work is being undertaken with a view to discovering the corruption and administration to Local Governments with particular reference to Ikeja local government area of Lagos state.

Several reports suggest that corruption in local government administration across the country has reached an alarming rate. According to reports, local councils account for one veritable conduit pipe through which funds ordinarily meant to change the face of the rural populace are siphoned into private pockets.

Corruption is a practical problem involving the outright theft, embezzlement of funds or other appropriation of the state property, nepotism and granting of favor to personal acquaintances. It has been argued that corruption involves behaviors which deviate from the moral and constitutional requirement. (Paul Akpochafo 2010).

Corruption can be seen as a diversion of resources for the betterment of the community to the gain of individuals at the expense of the community. This is how it has affect the local government administration, as we all know local government administration is the management of affairs at the grass root level which presupposes that governance has been moved closer to the ordinary people of the community for them to participates and look after the local heritage of the people which will further bring development to the local populace, but due to incidence of corruption activities within the setup, it thus poses  a great threat and concern to the people which were denied of much desired social economic values and meaningful development they ought to have and be enjoying. (Paul Akpochafo 2010)

(Daily Independent 2011) There is a fundamental malaise in the local government system in the country and the problem is basically with the recruitment process as well as the winner takes all attitudes of the politicians. Since in independence, several local government councils have been created and the constitution of the Federal Republic Of Nigeria 1999 as amended the list to 774 local government areas while some states have  created additional local administrative units known as local councils developments areas.

Gathered from the internet “politicalcorruption.net”; There are several types of political corruptions that occur in local government, some are more common than the others and some are more prevalent to local government than to larger segments of the government.

Local government may be more susceptible to corruption because interactions between private individuals and officials happen at greater levels of intimacy with more frequency at more decentralized levels. Forms of corruptions pertaining to money like bribery, extortions, embezzlement and grafts are found in local government system, others are nepotism and patronage system.

It is a matter of concern to investigate and provide a solution on how to prevent and reduce this social ill (corruption) to the barress minimum.

1.2      STATEMENTS OF THE PROBLEM

Corruption as it affects local authorities in Nigeria. This social illness has its attendance effects on the people so much, this is because what the local people are suppose to have are being denied of them. No good roads, shoddy market stalls, dilapidated garages, no primary health care centre and so on, this and many more are what local government administration owed to the people but are not forth coming.

This calls for a great attention to alleviate people from suffering, to also seek to show legacy and accountability in local government discharge of duty.

 

1.3      OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to;

a)     Explain what corruption is and to trace the history of corrupt  practices in Nigeria.

b)    To explain what local government is and give its functions.

c)      Examine the types of corrupt practices in local government administration.

d)    To examine the effects of corruption in local government administration.

e)     To investigate why corruption is very common in local government administration.

f)       To suggest solutions on how to reduce corrupt practices in local administration.

 

1.4      RESEARCH QUESTIONS:

In order to achieve the purpose of this research study, the study will attempt to provide answers to the following research questions.

1)    When government disburses money into the coffers of local government authorities, how do they normally spend these funds?  

2)    Why has this arm of government perform less?

3)    Has there been an adequate generation of revenue at the local government level?

4)    Is there any form of administrative lapses that foster corruption practices?

5)    Is the revenue generated from local government properly managed?

6)    Does the accounting system of the local government encourages corruption?

7)    How does inadequate revenue affects the council administration?

8)    Would restructuring of the local government administration mitigate corruption in the council?

9)    Has the utilization of the Revenue Available to Ikeja Local Government produced positive or negative effects?

 

 

1.5      STATEMENTS OF HYPOTHESES

To provide answer to the research questions arising from this study, the following hypotheses are postulated.

 

HYPOTHESIS ONE

HO:     Corruption in the local government administration is not the brain behind non performance of local government administration development wise.

HI:       Corruption in the local government administration is the brain behind non performance of local government administration development wise.

 

HYPOTHESIS TWO

HO:     Inadequate revenue does not affect the council administration

 HI:      Inadequate revenue affect the council administration

 

HYPOTHESIS THREE

HO:     The accounting system of the local government does not encourage corruption

HI:       The accounting system of the local government encourage corruption

 

1.6      SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

In the course of conducting this research work it is expected that the following will constitute impediments to the effective conduct of the study

a)        Time constraint within which the study must be completed.

b)        Financial constraint

c)         Inaccessible and inadequate data

d)        Also, combining project work with several other activities is another stressful task that may not allow me to cover research materials extensively.

Nevertheless, I believe the above limitations will in no way affect the reliability and validity of the research study.

 

1.7      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:

It will benefit the target audience when reports of the ill of corruption practices is made known to people, it will thus serve as a guide to them when the quest of leadership selection is brought to bear. The people will be aware of what they ought to be enjoying that they were prevented from. 

 

 

 

1.8      DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

CORRUPTION: Wrongdoing on the part of an authority or powerful party through means that are illegitimate, immoral, or incompatible with ethical standards. Corruption often results from patronage and is associated with bribery.

EMBEZZLEMENT: It is the act of wrongfully appropriating funds that have been entrusted into your care but are owned by someone else.

SIPHONE: To take or steal something a little at a time. Taking something that was intended for someone else.

GRAFT: To take illicit or unfair advantage of an office or a position of trust for personal gain.

GRASSROOTS: The common or ordinary people especially with leadership or elite of a political party, social organization, etc

ACCOUNTABILITY: Accountability is the concept in ethics and governance with several meanings. It is often used synonymously with such concepts as responsibility,[1] answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and other terms associated with the expectation of account-giving.

 

 

 

 

1.9      ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY

This study will be divided into five chapters.

Chapter one, which is the introduction, various objectives intended to be achieved in carrying out this research work will be looked at. In addition, the research hypothesis as well as the scope and limitation of the study will be stated among other things.

Chapter two, which is the literature review examine the existing literatures on Corruption in the Nigeria government as a whole then narrowed to corruption in Local government administration with emphasis on Ikeja Local Government Council.

Chapter three, which is the structural composition of the study, Corruption and Local government administration will be discussed and the methods for this research work will also be explained in detail.

Chapter four contains data analysis. The data to be analyzed will be obtained from a structured questionnaire that will be administered to the staff of Ikeja Local government Council its inhabitants . These data will be analyzed through the use of Chi-Square analysis.

The summary, conclusions and recommendations will be presented in chapter five.

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