CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF RELEVANCE OF FINANCIAL INCENTIVES TO WORKERS MOTIVATION (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS)


Content

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

1.2            Statement of the Problem

1.3     Aim and Objectives of the Study

1.4     Relevant Research Questions

1.5     Relevant Research Hypotheses

1.6     Significance of the Study

1.7     Scope of the Study

1.8     Definitions of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review

2.1     In this chapter, the literature reviews are based on the appraisal of the relevance of financial incentives to workers motivation. The literature reviews were based on the following under listed:

2.2     Theoretical Framework

2.2.1  Goal Setting Theory of Motivation

2.2.2  Equity Theory

2.2.3  Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory

2.3     Conceptual Framework

2.3.1  Motivation

2.3.2  Type of Incentives

2.3.3  Monetary incentives

2.3.4  Non-monetary Incentives

2.4     Impact of Financial Incentives

2.4.1  Types of Financial Incentives 

2.5     Effect of Incentives on Workers Attitudes

2.6     Incentives Theories

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research Methodology

3.1     Research Design

3.2     Characteristics of Study Population

3.3     Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.4     Data Collection Instrument

3.5     Data Presentation

3.6     Data Analysis 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND FINDINGS

4.0     INTODUCTION

5.3     TEST OF HYPOTHESES

4.3     DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMEDNDATIONS

5.0     SUMMARY

5.1     CONCLUSION

5.2     RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

APPENDIX: QUESTIONNAIRE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0                                     INTRODUCTION

 

1.1     Background to the Study

Every organization whether big or small is formed to achieve  specific goal(s) and that such organization’s objectives can only be achieved through the employment and retention of qualified human resources at its disposal (Achie and Kurah,2016). In order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives, certain motivational factors must be put in place to spur employees to put in their best in their work place.  Linda (2001) posits that financial incentives mean any inducement involving the payment of money and reduction in price paid for goods or services or any award of credit.  In the theory of human behaviours, it is believed that everyone seems to inherit certain basic drives similar to those found in the nature of animals. People are often unaware of the urges, which lie in the conscious mind that forces people to act in certain ways. If this urge is suppressed, frustration occurs and unless something is done, the person suffers depression and his zeal is weakened. All incentive inclinations cause people to behave in certain patterns, this means that in every organization the employees behaviour determines the level of the incentives been given to them by the employer or the management. This seriously makes relationship between the employees and the employer to be threatened, unless the organizational incentives are understood and used properly.  The importance of financial incentives to higher productivity has influence the choice of this research works and data collected fully tried to analyze to come up with findings and recommendation that will stand the test of time.

Financial incentives and rewards positively affect on employees commitment or loyalty. Employees stay in an organization because of the cost for leaving the organization and benefits to be a part of the organization. Therefore it is important for the organization to maintain the relationship with employees in such manners which increase their loyalty with the organization. Financial incentives and rewards make continuation of the employment relationship because it create the basis for high levels of commitment so, firms must develop strategies that include financial incentives and rewards for example promotion, bonus, profit sharing or gain sharing and employees stock ownership etc (Development and Learning Organization, VOL.25 NO.1, 2011). Employees want their performance should be appreciated and by offering them appropriate rewards and benefit package is an effective way not only to achieve their organizational goals but also their continuation of relationship with talented employees. 

 

 

 

1.3     Statement of the Problem

Right from the beginning, management of organizations has always been faced with the problem of how to motivate worker in order to increase productivity that leads to profitability.  Wealth or profit minimization is the goal of most organizations. This is however only achieved when shareholders or investors funds are invested with a higher return on their investment, which is only possible when that organization is able to effectively motivate its workforce to make profit (Henry, 1998).

Whiting (1963) posits that most organizations actually fail due to their inability to adequately motivate their employees for higher productivity ironically; human resources form a greater percentage of the total assets of organizations.  The management of financial incentives is a very critical issue that should not be over looked, as its neglect can lead to disruption of work process, sales and service delivery loss and consequently financial losses.  The problem at hand therefore is to examine the organizations in Nigeria to see whether they really make use of financial incentive to their employees for higher productivity which transform to high profitability.  

 

 

 

1.3     Aim and Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to critically appraise the relevance of financial incentives to workers motivation while the specific objectives are:

i)                   To ascertain the extent of financial incentives operation in the University of Lagos.

ii)                 Look in to the various financial motivators in the University of Lagos.

iii)              To ascertain the manner in which financial incentives are carried out successfully in the University of Lagos

iv)              To determine the extent salary increase, and financial bonuses have influenced the workers motivation

1.4     Relevant Research Questions

The principal question of this research is what factors influence financial incentives with regards to workers motivation? This research will also try to provide answers to the following sub-questions in the course of this study:

1.     What is the extent of financial incentives in operation in the University of Lagos?

2.     What are the financial motivators in University of Lagos?

3.     What is the manner in which financial incentives are carried out successfully in the University of Lagos?

4.     To what extent has salary increase, and financial bonuses influenced the workers motivation?

1.5     Relevant Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis I

Ho:    Financial Incentives has no significant impact on workers motivation

H1:    Financial incentives has significant impact on workers motivation

Hypothesis II

Ho:   Salary increase and financial bonuses have no impact on employees’ motivation

H1 :Salary increase and financial bonuses have no impact on employees’ motivation

Hypothesis III

Ho:  Financial motivation does not have significant impact on employees’ productivity

H1:   Financial motivation have significant impact on employees’ productivity

 

 

 

 

1.6        Significance of the Study

The importance of this study will include but not limited to the following:

i)                   It will increase the understanding of strategies for improving engaging and motivating workers

ii)                It will promote an atmosphere of peace and a feeling of equity and employee-centric management.

iii)              It will also impart on the students generally.

1.7                 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study covers financial incentive in higher productivity with particular focus to the Staff of University of Lagos.  By choosing University of Lagos Staff, the researcher will be able to assess the impact of financial incentives which will enable him to ascertain its contributions, and impact on the motivation of their staff, which will also provide a basis for making objective conclusions.

 

 

 

 

 

1.8     Definitions of Terms

Motivation: Motivation can also be defined as one's direction to behaviour, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behaviour and vice versa.

Financial Incentives:Monetary benefit offered to consumers, employees and organizations to encourage behavior or actions which otherwise would not take place.

Employee: An employee contributes labour and expertise to an endeavour of an employer or of a person conducting a business or undertaking 

Productivity:Productivity is an average measure of the efficiency of production. It can be expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in the production process, i.e. output per unit of input. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Achie, S.T (2015) “Fundamentals and Application of Research Methodology”,

Ayo Sule Printers and Publishers, Zaria Nigeria.

Achie S.,T and  Kurah J.T (2016).  “The Role of Financial Incentives as a

Motivator in Employee’s Productivity in Nigeria Electricity Distribution Companies”.International Journal of Research in Business Studies and Management Volume 3, Issue 1, PP 1-8.

Banjoko&Matanm.I. (1984); “Identifying the Research Problems” In Imoisili

I.C (ED) Social Research Methods for Nigerian Students, Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria, Lagos.

Deci, E. (1975) Effects of Externally Mediated Rewards on Intrinsic

Motivation.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Linda Mcchilloch, (2001): The Human side of enterprise McGraw Hill, New

York.

Maslow k. (1954) Motivation & Personality Harper & Row, New York.

Michael Armstrong (2001) A handbook of Human Resource A handbook of

Human Resource Management Practice (8 Edition), Bath Press Ltd.

 

Management Practice (8 Edition), Bath Press Ltd.

Murry R. Spigel& Larry Stephens; (1979) outlines of Theory & Problems of

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Sola Fajana (2002) Human Resources Management: An Introduction Lobofln&

Co. Lagos.

Vroom V.H (1968 ); Work & Motivation, Wiley New York. http

www.unilag.edu.ng

 

 

 

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