DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF 3KVA PURE SINE-WAVE INVERTER


Content

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   GENERALIZED BLOCK DIAGRAM.

1.2   DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS.

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2:0   P 16F876A

2.1   ALGORITHM

2.2   TLP25O

2.3   TRANSISTORS

2.4   CLASS D AMPLIFIER

2.5   BATTERY TYPE AND CHARACTERISTICS.

2.5.1 CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF BATTERY.

2.5.2 CHOICE OF BATTERY

2.6   OTHER PASSIVE COMPONENTS

 

CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN AND ANALYSIS

3.0   PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

3.1   OSCILLATOR STAGE

3.2   DRIVER STAGE

3.3   CLASS D AMPLIFIER STAGE.

3.4   BATTERY CHARGER STAGE.

3.5   TRANSISTOR SWITCHING CIRCUIT.

3.6   COMPREHENSIVE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM.

 

CHAPTER FOUR: TESTING AND CONSTRUCTION

4.0   AY TESTING

4.1   CONSTRUCTION

4.2   PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED

 

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0   CONCLUSION

5.1   RECOMMENDATIONS

APPENDICES

 


 

ABSTRACT

A microcontroller based advanced technique of generating sine wave with lowest hannonic is designed and implement in this paper. The main objective of our proposed technique is to design a low cost, low harmonics voltage source inverter In this project we used PlC 16F876A microcontroller to generate 4 KHz PWM switching signal. The design is essentially focused upoi low power electronic appliances such as light, fan, charger; television, etc. For driving the MOSFET we used TLP25 as a MOSFET driver. The inverter input is 24VDC and its output is

22OVAC across a step up transformer.  -


 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Past years’ experience as regards erratic power supply in Nigeria has led to researches and findings, focused towards providing a lasting solution power supply since it is a basic necessity for socio-economic development. An attempt to provide solutions to this humiliating problem led to the mass importation and use of generators. This was a good alternative but expensive. The running cost is another necessary expense as long as this option is embraced The other disadvantages it exhibits are noise pollution and also the toxic smoke (carbon-monoxide gas) which it gives off while in operation. Hence, it is environmentally unfriendly.

This encounter led to an alternative which is environmentally friendly, cheaper, better, easier to run and maintain. It is known as POWER INVERTER. Power inverter is a power electronic device which converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) to ensure a constant power supply similar to the mains from PHCN.

Power inverter could use solar energy from sun as its source but due to the cost of solar panel, the scope of this project is restricted to u a rechargeable battery:

Square wave inverter is common but the focus of this project is on-pure sine wave inverter which could be used to run more sensitive loads like; Laser Printers, Laptop Computers, Power Tools, Personal Computer, Digital Clocks and Medical Equipment.    

Industries worldwide are posed with a major problem of power shortage. Also in developing countries, shortage of power is also a problem commercially and domestically. New offices have tremendous load on already existing power generation sources. When added to rapidly increasing private and domestic demand, the situation, especially in certain urban areas becomes devastating. Simply stated, our ability to consume power is growing faster than our ability to supply power Under such conditions, failure will occur unpredictably and without any warning due to the stresses on the inadequate sources of power.

This creates the need for alternative source of power, which could fill in the gap. and cover the lapses of power supply. The inverter is no new name in electronics, inverters have been in existence since the time of electronic circuits, but have undergone various modifications and improvement over the years

A UPS generates power for short time but mverters due to the use of many batteries are capable of generating power for hour’s even days depending on the capacity and no of batteries used, and this power could be very crucial since in some office set-up, a failure of about one minute could cause losses that could run into millions The ability of the inverter to change over automatically gives it an advantage and they find applications in the following areas which are;

1.         The computer field An unpredictable power failure can wipe out the Information stored in the memory bank of the complete data base system.

2.         Air traffic system: Radar and essential aircraft information are on constant display in air traffic control system, and mains failure could cause a break out of radar and lead to unprecedented disaster.

3.         Other processes like boilers, flame detectors, etc.

4.         Domestic uses include items like TVS, CD players, FANS, LIGHT POINTS etc.

The characteristic of an ideal inverter includes

(a)    The inverter must isolate crucial load from the main supply.

(b)    It must keep transient from load and also filter out the transient generated by the load.

(c)    Generate power corresponding to the mains supply at the main frequency and voltage.

(d)    Draw operating power from the mains supply during normal period td reduce cost.

(e)    The system should have an automatic battery charging capability.

(f)    It must have some form of protection like fuse or circuit breaker.

(g)    It must be able to sense the percentage of load to prevent overloading of the entire system.

This project attempts the design of an invert.er which already mentions characteristics and focusing on domestic needs.

The energy of the INVERTER will be sourced from batteries, which could be charged from A.C voltage generated from NEPA or a generator (in cases of prolonged power outage). With the present day technology batteries have pouched cells of usual capability, which fit nicely into inverter requirements of high drain, long, life and low maintenance. Below is the generalized block diagram for the entire system.


 

1.1      General Description of the Proposal System

The basic block diagram of the inverter is shown in Fig. 1.1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


FIG. 1.1. BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE INVERTER

1.2   DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

OUTPUT POWER: 3000V

OSCILLATOR WAVEFORM SINE WAVE

OUTPUT FREQUENCY: 5OHz± 10%

OUTPUT VOLTAGE: 220V ±5%

CHARGER TYPE: CONSTANT VOLTAGE

BATTERY VOLTAGE: 24VDC

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

The project is designing an economical and robust inverter for remote area power supply (RAPS). The system designed is capable of producing a sine wave AC.

Inverters have become an important device in our daily lives. Since there is abundant power shortage. It is really difficult for a common man to be able to survive in such condition. Therefore this device is used to get that power back and, also it is very affordable and efficient too.


 

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