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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 1000WATTS AUDIO AMPLIFIER
An audio amplifier is a device for increasing the audio power of a signal by use of an external source, it is designed to meet up with the amplification demand in concerts and for adresssing large number of people and for musical system. The circuit is designed for stereo sound system.This device is designed to deliver appreciable power to load. Audio amplifier may be called upon to supply power ranging from few watts in an audio amplifier to many hundreds and thousands of watts to a load (speaker). In audio amplifier the load is usually the dynamic impedance presented to the amplifier by the power delivered to the load over a wide range of frequencies. The power amplifer in a radio transmitter operates over a relatively narrow band of frequencies with the load essentiallyconstant impedance.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Project 1
1.2 Statement of problem 3
1.3 Purpose of the project 4
1.4 Significance of the project 4
1.5 Scope of the project 5
1.6 Limitation of the project 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Materials Used 8
2.3 Transformer 9
2.4 Capacitor 10
2.5 Transistor 11
2.6 Diode 12
2.7 Resistor 13
2.8 Mosfet 14
2.9 Light emitting diode 15
2.10 Fuse 16
2.11 Switch 17
2.12 Heat sink 18
2.13 Intergrated circuit 19
2.14 Vero Board 19
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODLOGY
3.1 Preliminary Ideas 20
3.2 Selection Process 20
3.3 Operational Stage 20
3.4 Contruction 23
3.5 Sequence of Operation 23
4.1 Testing 26
4.2 Safety Precautions 27
4.3 The amplifier Housing/casting 27
4.4 Faults in amplifier 29
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMEDATIONS
5.1 Summary 32
5.2 Conclusion 32
5.3 Recommendation 33
1.1 Background of the Project
It is essential to have an historical perspective of live music amplification and public address including the trends that shaped how amplified music is heard if we wish to be in command of how we manage it. The following is an abridged overview of the background of an amplifier.
Many centuries back people found it difficult to be heard over some few metres away from them while addressing their audience. If a croud of twenty to thirty thousand are to be addressed together, then the person addressing have to go through stress.Some means were also involved in order to solve this problem of being heard from long distance, in the case of addressing a very large croud some people were placed at strattegic point. And at times the group is shared into hundreds for conviniency sake, and after addressing them he starts all over again with the other group with the same messagebut still yet it was not easy and it was altogether rigorous. Not all performers express interest in how they are heard by their audience. This motivated the need for more research and for man to pursue a new technologies which will increase his reliability and efficiency. This will actually involve passing information energy over distance by electrical means.Man in search of the audio boosting instrument developed an aspect of communication called “Public Address System (PAS)”, which helps an individual to address or communicate to a large group of people.Public Address System as its name implies is a system whereby an impute (voice through a microphone) is connected to the output (amplifier)in order to increase what was initially sent to the system. For instance a clergy man can address his congregation, an entertainer such as singer can communicate to his\her audience, a politician can address his supporters and so on.The Public Address System (PAS) comprises of a microphone which converts sound energy to electrical energy, an amplifier which increase the strenth of the electrical signals and a loudspeaker which reconverts the electrical energy of the signals to sound energy.In the PAS, the sound energy at the loudspeaker has greater power than at the microphone hence, the sound is more louder.This reduces the stress of the individual using the microphone from shouting. The power output of the speaker depends on the power rating of the loudspeaker and that of the amplifier.
Moreover, an amplifier may be defined as a system or an electronic circuit which accept signals at its input and gives out signals at its output greater than the signal at its input in amplitude or power or current.The output signal is similar to the input signal in shape, form and frequecy.
To amplify means to make bigger.English dictionary explains amplify as to render somthing larger,more extendedand or intense and to increase the amplitude of something.
Amplifier according to English dictionary: means any thing that renders larger or more intence oran applianceor circuit that increases the strenth ofa weak electrical signal without changing the other characteristic of the signal.
Therefore an audio amlpifier is a device that accepts a varying input signal and produces an output signal that varies in the same way as the input but has a larger amplitude. The input signal may be a current,a voltage,a mechanical motion or any other signal;the input signal is usually of the same nature.
In a device such a radio receiver, several amplifier boost a weak input signal untill it is powerful enough to drive a speaker
1.2 Statement of problem
Since information must be passed from one place to another and being heard effectivly and clearly is the major problem in communication, because to say that a meaningful communication has taken place is to say that what is produced from the voice is clearly heard by the audience. Also in the case of entertainment, eg ;musical concert, what is sang must be heard by the people in attendant and not just 50 people or 100 but at times it ranges from 1000 to 20,000,ordinary voice will not do for such task.
Then the problem therefore is lack of device that will make louder the voice and music for a larger number of people (up to about 20000) either in the church,moque,musical concerts or seminar to hear very clearly and audibly.
1.3 Purpose of the project
Therfore the purpose of this project is to construct a reliable 1000watt Audio amplifier that is suitable for addressing a large number of people and that can be effectively produce even in this depressed economy.In other words,this project is intended to eradicate the problem that is faced concerning audibility of words,and to amplify all the audio signals from the microphone and any other source of sound connected to it and to provide solution to most of problems being faced by the audience.
1.4 Significance of the project
This project is very useful because of its significance, it is designed in order to handle and cover a very big occasion that its attendace is large and it would be able to carry up to about ten (10) loudspeaker conviniently.It would be very useful in bringing out the best sound that is suitable to human hearing .And in order to to save the stress that is passed through when addressing large number of people.This project is also durable and not too heavy, therefore it can be moved from place to place easily.one other significance of this project is that it is cheap and economical to produce.
1.5 Scope of the project
The scope of this project covers the design and construction of an audio amplifier which will form part of Public Address System (PAS)and help in good sound production by increasing input signal which is originaly received.
1.6 Limitation of the project
The actual voltage for which it was designed is what should be used, because anything greater than that will cause overheating and will eventually result in damage of the component.