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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A BATTERY CHARGER USING MICRO-CONTROLLER
With constant power outage, hike in the price of fuel, which could be used for combustible energy source; while having rising demand for power supply due to the increasing population of Nigeria and the world at large. A means to conserve and store energy becomes imperative. Batteries have taken the place of one of the main energy sources available in developing countries. These could be found as used in LED reading lamps, portable table fans, laptops, mobile phones, other portable devices and even in the common means of transportation for igniting the engine. Bearing all of these in mind, a means to replenish the lost charge from the battery becomes a problem statement. This project is targeted at designing a suitable battery charger with artificial intelligence to be able to charge these batteries at a high speed and with maximum effiCiency. Hence the objective here is to design with the aid of a micro-controller (89S52), LCD, op amps and step-down transformer a cheap, versatile, efficient and intelligent battery charger which will interest and appeal to the “cost-minded” consumer.
The general structure of the system is presented in this report. The function of each component and subsystem is explained and the hardware and software details of the device are explained as well.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 MOTIVATION FOR THE DESIGN
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 CHARGING A BATTERY
2.3 TYPES OF BATTERY CHARGERS
2.5 REMOTE SENSING
2.6 BATTERY CHARGER INSTALLATION
2.7 BATTERY CHEMISTRIES
2.7 BATTERY CHARGER SELECTION BY CALCULATION EXAMPLE
2.8 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO 8051 MICRO-CONTROLLER
3.0 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
3.1 CONSTRUCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
3.3 THE CHARGING TRANSFORMER
3.4 THE RECTIFIER AND FILTER CIRCUIT
3.9 FILTER CAPACITORS
3.9 CONTROL SOFTWARE PROGRAM DESIGN
APPENDIX : The program written in assembly language
As the world continues to advance technologically, man constantly seek better ways of doing things thereby reducing cost of living. The use of portable electronic devices is in the increase, the thought of electric and solar vehicles discusses the use of batteries as its major energy storage device, the use of inverters and uninterrupted power supplies (UPS) also require the capability of the battery to store charge temporarily. Hence batteries need to be recharged or replaced periodically in these myriad of equipments, but the better option will be to recharge the battery using any available means. The battery charger presented here brings a solution to the problem that has been presented by all these devices. The objective of this project is to create a battery charger with alphanumerical LCD module to monitor and display the values of voltage during charging, to charge most common rechargeable 12 volts batteries The design is separated into three basic parts, charging circuit, controller circuit and LCD monitoring screen. This charger is able to protect the battery from overcharge and discharging by regulating the battery current and voltage and providing optimum power transfer from the charger arid presenting the voltage value of the battery on the LCD. Using AT89S52 as a brain of the system, all the processes are managed by the controller including the data that displays on the LCD screen. Some of which are battery voltage, battery charging, battery frill and automatically stop the charging process before battery is overcharge. The finishing of the final design was done with aid of a readymade stabilizer casing, this was to reduce cost and improve aesthetic value of the design. Provision was made for also in the event of future improvements and evolutionary capability.
1.1 MOTIVATION FOR THE DESIGN
The market is saturated with a lot of battery chargers, both big and small with the constantly emerging technologies. Their complexities cost and efficiency levels all play a big role in the choice of the suitable charger for the desired application. The key motivating factor for the design and implementation of this project is to design a portable system with user-friendly interface, reasonable recharging time, durable and low cost design, with relatively simple circuitry.
Portability - portability is an essential feature of modem devices, hence it comes into play in this design. This means that the battery charger will be small in size and probably light weighted (3).
User-friendly interface - Since most of the users are not familiar with consumer electronics, it becomes imperative that this design be extremely user friendly, making use of intuitive graphic interfaces that opposes solely relying on written descriptions.
Reasonable recharge time - The recharge time is a crucial concern of the customer, and usually can be the deciding factor between designs. If the battery takes too long to charge, then the customer will not be able to efficiently maximize the use the charger. Hence this design makes provision for high speed charging. Durable design - The durability of this design will be a major requirement from the customer. A robust design will be more useful to our customers because of lengthened product life.
Low cost - Since the market is filled with chargers of different types already, low price has to be part of the considerations made to be able to get the product to a lot of users, especially in a developing country like Nigeria where cost is a major deterrent for prospective users
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Not many reasonable chargers are found in the market place, hence the problem this project targets to solve are as listed below:
1. To design a system that will charge battery optimally and must not overcharge the battery.
2. To design a system that must indicate the charging status of the battery, as this is an essential need of the consumer.
3. To design a system that must not drain the battery i.e. it must have control circuitry to keep the battery fully charged when not in use
4. To design a system with Cheap and readily available parts.
5. To design a system that can withstand the harsh environmental conditions of developing nations like Nigeria.