DETERMINATION OF THE LEVEL OF ETHANOL IN ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES PRODUCED IN NIGERIA AS AN INDICATION FOR SAFETY STANDARD


Content

Abstract

This project is a survey of level of alcohol in beverages produced in Nigeria and to ascertain the compliance of the producers in accordance with accepted values on WHO recommendation. Six brands of alcoholic beverages (Guilders, star Harp, Heineken, Stout and Legend) were bought in Awka in Anambra state. The samples were analyzed for level of alcohol (Ethanol) using acid dichromate reaction and visible spectroscopy methods. The result obtained for bottom fermented beers; Guilders 5.1, star 5.3, Harp 5.2, Heineken 5.1, top fermented beer Stout 7.2 and Legend6.5 were compared with the European Brewing convention standard of 5.1+0.2 and 7.3+0.2 for bottom and top fermented beer respectively. The result showed , permissible levels for each of the six samples analyzed which are within acceptable limit except for legend stout with alcohol content of 6.5 against 7.3+ 0.2 which is the European Brewing convention standard for top  fermented beer. The six samples are within the acceptable limit.

 

 

Table of Contents

Title page                                                                   i

Certification                                                               ii

Dedication                                                                 iii

Acknowledgement                                                      iv

Table of Contents                                                       v

Abstract                                                                     vii

List of Tables                                                             viii

CHAPTER ONE

 Introduction                                                         

1.1   Background of Study                                           1

1.2   Statement of the Problem                                    3

1.3   Objective of the Study                                          4

1.4   Significance of the Study                                     5

1.5   Scope of Study                                                     5

1.6 Research Question                                                  6

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

2.1   Alcohol content of Beverages                                9

2.1.1        Alcohol Strength                                                   15

2.1.2 The OIML Scale                                     16    

2.1.3        Standard Drinks                                            17

2.1.4        Effects of Alcohol on the Body                               18

2.1.5        Alcohol Intakes and Health                                   23

2.1.6 Ethanol and the Brain                          26     

2.1.7 Ethanol and Cancer                           29

2.1.8  Ethanol and the Heart                           30

2.2   Other Effects of Ethanol                          31

2.2.1 Oxidation of Ethanol                                              33

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and Methods                                                  

3.1   Materials                                                  38

3.2   Collection of Sample                                        39

3.3    Methods                                                  40

3.3.1   Preparation of Standard Ethanol Solution    41   

3.3.2          Preparation of Acid Dichromate Solution               41

3.3.3  Measuring the Absorbance                            42

CHAPTER FOUR

Results                                                                    43

CHAPTER FIVE     

Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1   Discussion                                               47

5.2   Conclusion                                              48

5.3   Recommendation                                     48

Reference                                                                 50

Appendix 1                                                      53

 

List of Tables

Table 1:            Types of alcoholic beverages and their energy   values.

Table 2:            The approximate alcohol content of beverages in the OIML scale.

Table 3:            Effects of various levels of Alcohol in the body.

Table 4:            Standard ethanol solutions and blank preparations.

Table 5:            Results of absorbance of blank, standard solutions and  test samples.

Table 6:            Results of weight percent of samples as determined from the graph.

Table 7:            Alcohol content of samples.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the study.

        An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol (commonly called alcohol), also called ethylalcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol or drinking alcohol. It is a volatile flammable colorless liquid. It is a powerful psychoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs. It is best known as the type of alcohol found in alcohol beverages and thermometer. In common usage, it is often referred to simply as alcohol or spirit (Brain and Allan, 2005).

        Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes, beer, wines and spirits. They are legally consumed in most countries and over 100 countries have laws regulating their production and consumption. In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person may legally buy or drink the minimum age varies between 16 and 25 years, depending upon the country and the type of drink. Most nations set it at 18 years of age. Alcohol beverages are valued on account of their flavour and their stimulating effect and hardly at all as a source of energy; nevertheless, it is worth nothing that the energy value of dry wine is about equal to that of milk. The three classes of alcoholic beverages are all made from carbohydrate materials by fermentation and their particular ingredient used and the way in which it is processed chiefly determines the character of the drink. The starting material used depends upon the product required. For example whisky is made from grain, Rum from molasses, wine from grapes, beer from malt and cider from apples (Morris Jacobs, 2009). The production and consumption of alcohols occurs in most cultures of the world, from hunter gatherer people to nation states.

 

 

1.2   Statement of the Problem.

        Alcoholic beverages are often an important part of social event in these cultures. In many cultures, drinking plays a significant role in social interaction-mainly because of alcohol’s neurological effects. Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that has depressant effect. A high blood alcohol content is usually considered to be legal drunkenness because it reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Alcohol can be additive, and the state of addition to alcohol is known as alcoholism (Bamforth, 2006).

        Alcohol-specifically ethanol (ethyl alcohol, EtOH, CH3CH2OH) is the most socially accepted additive drug, which can have life threatening health hazards, its pleasures are very widely acknowledged and form a bond of community for the majority of adults in Western countries. References to those pleasures from a kind of “standing joke” physical and mental discordination (disorientation are viewed with bemused affection).

1.3   Objectives of the study

The main objective is to analyze and determine the level of ethanol beverages made in Nigeria.

The specific objective that will achieve the following

1.  To ascertain the quality of alcoholic beverages produced in Nigeria.

2.  To identify if there is proper monitoring and quality control

Alcoholic beverages are a standard lubricant (anxiety-reliever) at social gatherings and those who refuse to consume ethanol run the risk of being social outcasts.

1.4   Significance of the Study

        Health benefits are frequently claimed for alcohol when consumed in moderation. Most of the claimed benefits are associated with reducing cardiovascular disease. However alcohol health implication vulmently out weights its health benefit. This project is a survey of level of alcohol in beverages produced in Nigeria and to ascertain the complains of the producer in accordance with accepted values of EBC/WHO recommendation

1.5   Scope of the Study

        The scope of the study include the sampling and analysis of made in Nigeria Alcoholic beverage to determine the level of ethanol using acid dichromate reaction and visible spectroscopy methods.

To compare the results with that of WHO acceptable standard.

1.6   Research Questions

1.  What are the methods employed in the determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages.

2.  What are the effect of alcohol to the human health.

3.  Does made in Nigeria alcoholic beverages meets the international acceptable standard.



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