Related Topics

DISENGAGEMENT OF MILITARY FROM POLITICS (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA 1966 – 1998)


Content

ABSTRACT

This work takes a historical survey of military disengagement from politics in Nigeria. In the course of this work, efforts will be made at looking into the brief history of the Nigerian military establishment along with the beginning of the military in Nigerian politics.

The period of the study is from the military regime in 1966 of Major General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi to that of' General Sanni Abacha’s administration of 1998.  The study will examine the reasons for military intervention, military performance in office, there will be a review of some books of relevance used for the work. The political economy of Nigeria under the military will also be discussed. The Nigerian military and the ethnic struggle will be analyzed, while attention will be drawn to the impact of the military in the economic, social and political wellbeing of the country. Military process or pattern of disengagement and withdrawal from politics will all be discussed as this will form the major point of analysis.

The study however, will recommend ways and means to checkmate future military incursion into politics

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

                                                                                                                              PAGES

Cover Page……………………………………………………………………………..          i

Certification……………………………………………………………………………         ii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………..          iii

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………           iv

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………..           v

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of The Study……………………………………………………….          1

Scope of Study………………………………………………………………………            4

Objective of Study…………………………………………………………………           4

Methodology…………………………………………………………………………..         5

Statement of Problems……………………………………………………………         5

Organization of Study……………………………………………………………..         6

Endnotes……………………………………………………………………………….          8

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review…………………………………………………………………            9

Endnotes……………………………………………………………………………   16

 

CHAPTER THREE

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE NIGERIAN MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT

Genesis of the Military in Nigerian Politics……………………………..           20

Records of Successful and Unsuccessful Coups in Nigeria…….  …         23

The Military in Politics (Military and the Political Economy)….            23

The Military with Power and Ethnic Struggle…………………………           27

Endnotes………………………………………………………………………………           31

 

CHAPTER FOUR

MILITARY DISENGAGEMENT FROM POLITICS

Ironsi and Disengagement………………………………………………………          36

Gowon's Disengagement …………………………………………………………        39

Muritala Mohammed/0basanj0 Administration……………………….        42

Babangida's Adminstration……………………………………………………..         46

Sanni Abacha’s Administration………………………………………………..         51

Endnotes………………………………………………………………………………..         56

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY

Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………        60

Recommendations ………………………………………………………………….         63

Endnotes………………………………………………………………………………..         69

Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………        70

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In most African countries, the advent of the military into politics is a common phenomenon. Most African countries are ruled by military heads of states. Africa in general witnessed her very first military Coup in 1952 in Egypt, and since then, various African Countries at one point or the other have all been partakers of this form of administration. Nigeria is not an exception, in the 52 years of her political independence, the military have ruled for 29 years. According to Frantz Fanon, on his reason for military incursion into African politics considers it as one of the negative legacies of colonialism and this is based on the fact that prior to the arrival of' the Europeans, Africans had no standing army. The members of the communities had to volunteer during an expedition or war. However colonialism brought with it the need for the establishment of a standing army that was initially employed to protect and later to quell disturbances against colonial rule. This colonial army later constituted into an institution within the various components that made up the state.

The military in Nigeria has played a major role in the country's history, often seizing control of the country and ruling it through major periods of its history. Its last period of rule ended in 1999 following the death of the leader of the previous military junta, Sani Abacha in 1998.

The history of the military intervention in government is the history of coups and counter coups. Over the years, beneficiaries of the military rule would forcefully argue that the military was indeed an instrument for national development. Their reasons been issues such as state creation and the indigenisation decree of 1972 which they benefited much from. Both military and civilian leaders have regularly strived to sustain, with characteristic impudence and force the democratic distortions of the “mother country". They have done this through a series of very extra ordinary tricks, fraud, juggles, intimidation, patronage and outright bribery. Characterized by a chain of minute intrigues for shabby ends, the swallowing of public money and the mere show of` power and violence, each Nigerian regime has used the half-rotten bark of the national tree-of-life as coal while pretending to be irrigating and reviving it. Military involvement in African politics, considering the points outlined above, can no longer be considered an aberration. African armies were instrumental in the forcible destruction pre-colonial society and the imposition of colonial rule. This circumstance rooted in the class structure of the colonial society and in, the manner with which the colonial, regime deployed military force to protect, then to impose and finally to consolidate its occupation. It was in the circumstances of significant instances of resistance which accompanied the political. process that violence acquired its own dialects within the political system.

Be that as it may, Nigerians have come to realize that the worst democratic government is better than the best military administration due to the havoc created by the past military administration which has plungged the nation into oblivion. Having intervened from time to time, the military in each case has not been able to resolve the crisis of legitimacy and development under which civilian regimes have crumbled. Some of the problems have become compounded by military rule and this prompted continuous call for military disengagement.

Talking about political and economic instability, change in rule intermittently and many more vices which are not healthy for a young and growing nation, this work will also concentrate on the exploitative tendencies of the military while in office, which further under developed the Nigerian state. This study will equally help us to identify the factors and conditions which stimulate disengagement exercise in Nigeria, the various patterns by which various military regimes carried out their disengagement and thus provide an insight on how an enduring and lasting democracy can be achieved. Nigeria's transition to civil democracy have exhibited a recurring peculiarity, every transition has encountered difficulties because of the principal mid wife of the transition, the military ruler himself. As the wind of democracy is blowing with military regimes going out of fashion in most parts of the word, people wondered how and why military rule in Nigeria continued for such a long time. It is against this that the work has its foundation.

 

SCOPE OF STUDY

The study focuses on the activities of the military in power with emphasis on their various patterns of disengagement. This study has been designed in such a way that it talks about various aspects of the military and their activities. The brief history of the Nigerian military will be discussed which will take us to the genesis of the military in Nigerian politics. The various coups, military regimes and their disengagement, will be intensely discussed in the course of the study.

 

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The objective of this work is between military intervention and politics of disengagement in Nigeria. The spillover takes the focal point of this work. Explanations will be sought on why the military as a self corrective regime as they claim to be, end up over throwing one another. This will help us find out Why the military find comfort in political leadership and those who tend to perpetuate themselves in office which will lead to the reasons for and patterns of military disengagement.

 

METHODOLOGY

The source of fact and information to this work will rely on information obtained from research works, libraries, news papers, magazines, books, oral traditions observation will be used to substantiate our claims. This study will be descriptive and explanatory.

 

STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

For some decades now, Nigeria has witnessed so many different military interventions which have hindered the proper growth and development of the country. The military in Nigeria have played a major role in the country's history since independence. Various juntas have seized control of the country and ruled it through most of its history. Today we recount the much havoc that has been done by the activities of the military. As a result of these interventions, basic questions arise as to why and how the military came to power. Do they actually come to correct the ills of the civilian administration or do they come for their own personal interest? What are these factors that attract or bring the military into power? Flow has the military being able to affect the economic, social and political wellbeing of the country? Are they really an agent of change?

Due to the activities of the military, the Country has witnessed diverse political, economic and social instability, there have been changes in rules, banning and disbanding, all of which affect the structure of the country. Also how do those military administrations disengage from power? What patterns do they use? Do they actually disengage freely and permanently or do they just disengage partially only to resurface or work from underground? This writing is based on all the above stated questions.

 

ORGANIZATION OF STUDY

In order to examine the military in Nigerian politics; this work is divided into five chapters. Chapter one covers the introduction of the work, scope of study, objective of the work, methodology and statement of problem.

Chapter two examines various literatures available to the topic for discussion. This shall be a review analysis on military disengagement from politics.

Chapter three shall be the brief history of the Nigerian military, genesis, of military in Nigerian politics, the military in politics dealing, with the political economy of the military, the military and the power and ethnic struggles.

The pattern of military disengagement from politics such as lronsi's regime, Mohammed/Obasanjo's regime, Babangida's regime will be the focus of the fourth chapter.

Finally, the curtain of our discussion shall be the concluding chapter. There may however be recommendations and suggestions where necessary.

Order Complete Project