EFFECT OF ADOLESCENTS’ PERCEPTION AND AWARENESS OF HIV/AIDS ON SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN LAGOS STATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS


Content

ABSTRACT

The study attempted to examine the effect of awareness of HIV/AIDS on students’ perception of HIV/AIDS infection in selected secondary schools in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State. In this study, some relevant literature review was carried out under sub-headings. Also, the descriptive research survey was used in the assessment of the opinions of the selected respondents with the use of the questionnaire and the sampling technique. A total of two hundred and fifty (250) respondents were selected and used in this study to represent the population of the study. A total of four (4) null hypotheses were generated and tested with the application of the independent t-test and Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significance.

At the end of the data analyses, the following results were obtained:

(1)         Hypothesis showed that there is a significant effect of counselling on students’ perception towards HIV/AIDS infection.

(2)         Hypothesis two revealed that there is a significant gender difference in students’ perception of HIV/AIDS infection.

(3)         Hypothesis found that there is a significant difference between students who have positive perception towards HIV/AIDS and those who have negative perception towards HIV/AIDS infection.

(4)         Finally, hypothesis four indicated that there is a significant relationship between sex education and students’ attitudes towards HIV/AIDS infection.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                           iii

Acknowledgements                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                              v

Table of Contents                                                                                vi

 

CHAPTER ONE:    INTRODUCTION                                                   1

1.1         Background to the Study                                                             1

1.2         Statement of the Problem                                                           3

1.3         Purpose of the Study                                                                  6

1.4         Research Questions                                                                     6

1.5         Research Hypotheses                                                                  7

1.6         Significance of Study                                                                   8

1.7         Scope of the Study                                                                     9

1.8         Definition of Terms                                                                     9

 

CHAPTER TWO:    LITERATURE REVIEW                                          11

2.1         Meaning of HIV/AIDS                                                                  11

2.2         Nature and History of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDs)    17

2.3         Concept of Counselling and Other Forms of Information on

Awareness of HIV/AIDS                                                              24

2.4         Guidance Service towards Awareness of HIV/AIDS                         31

2.5         Objectives of Guidance Services in Schools                                    38

2.6         Adolescents’ Attitude/Perception towards HIV/AIDS                       40

2.7         Adolescents’ Sexual Behaviour                                                      45

2.8         Summary of the Review                                                               55

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                 57

3.0         Introduction                                                                              57

3.1     Research Design                                                                         57

3.2     Population of the Study                                                               57

3.3     Sample and Sampling Technique                                                  58

3.4     Research Instrument                                                                   58

3.5     Procedure for Data Collection                                                      59

3.6     Procedure for Data Analysis                                                         59

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS          60

4.1         Introduction                                                                              60

4.2         Hypotheses Testing                                                                              60

4.3         Summary of the Findings                                                             64

 

CHAPTER FIVE:    SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND

RECOMMENDATIONS                                           65

5.1         Introduction                                                                              65

5.2         Summary of the Study                                                                 65

5.3         Conclusions                                                                               66

5.4         Recommendations                                                                      67

References                                                                                 69

Appendix                                                                                   76

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

The topic of human sexuality is inter-disciplinary in nature. It covers all aspects of becoming and being a sexual, gendered person and includes biological, psychological, social, economic and cultural perspectives. The impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the country as well as the urgent need to stop its spread, caused a desperate search for a programme of education that will target the scourge. This according to Adara (2002), ushered in the new paradigm on adolescent reproductive health education in which the adolescent is given the opportunities to develop a perspective on sexual health that includes appreciation of self and others or opportunities to express desires and feelings in a healthy context (Anyikwa, 2002).

The Resolutions and Programmes of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) made it imperative that adolescent reproductive health issues among other issues of human population should take centre stage in schools. Moreover, recent scourge of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria brought about the urgent need to deal with adolescent reproductive health issues without further delay. In 1998, for instance, 60% of all reported cases of HIV/AIDS came from the age group 15 – 24 years (NERDC, 2001). Thus, concepts of Sexuality Education (SE) were accepted as critical to helping young people with the acquisition of adequate knowledge, skills and responsible behaviours in order to prevent and reduce Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) including the dreaded HIV/AIDS.

Adolescence is a critical period when young people are undergoing many physical changes and adjusting to their changing bodies and emotions. They want to make some sense of their confused state. They need information about what is happening to them through adequate knowledge about sex and its consequences. Studies show that adolescent’s pregnancy and early marriage are major causes of school dropouts in the country. Adolescents are also more vulnerable to HIV infection due mostly to indiscriminate and unprotected sex. Young people need sexuality education programmes that model and teach positive selfworth. They need to receive clear, accurate and protective messages about sexual decision making, healthy relationships and healthy sexuality. Sexuality is more than just “sex”, it is about biology, gender roles, body image, value, beliefs, attitudes, sexual behaviour, interpersonal relationships, decision making and communication and so on (Awoyin, 2005).

According to Adekoya (2005), secondary school students are mainly adolescents. Adolescence is a critical period, which determines their reproductive health for life. At this period, many of them have become sexually active and they lack adequate information on the consequences of unprotected sex. They are very vulnerable to STI’s and HIV infections and their sexual and reproductive behaviour are guided by the misconceptions and fears of physical, social and mental changes they undergo as well as relationship problems. Thus, it is suggested that relevant curricula content should be reviewed to reflect emerging societal issues like adolescent reproductive health issues and key concepts in sexuality education like: human development; relationships personal skills; sexual behaviour; sexual health, society and culture as well as other skills and knowledge that serve learners as they continue to face choices and situations in the real world (Humphrey, 1990).

With the establishment of counselling in schools, adolescents in all strata, are now very much aware of causes and effect of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. Due to creation of enlightenment on important issues, adolescents no longer show negative attitudes towards counseling and other enlightenment strategies, rather, they embrace it knowing that the school uses it as an instrument of assistance and remedy to the problem of individuals. For example the knowledge of the dangers of HIV/AIDS which counselling has brought to many adolescents, has made them to be careful and mindful of their sexual activities bearing in mind that through sex HIV/AIDS could be contacted (Apata, 2003).

Not only through counseling, HIV/AIDS awareness to adolescents can be created through other means like the radio, television, newspapers, magazines and other sources of information communication technology (ICT). Through these media, adolescents are now at the disposal of information concerning the causes and effects of HIV/AIDS endemic disease. With these information at the disposal of the adolescents in school, they come in contact with necessary information on how to avoid the contact of the dreaded disease that has become thorn in the flesh of the government and private organizations (Uzor, 2000). With adequate information, awareness is created on how to abstain from sexual contact with the opposite sex, or at worst how to use condom in the absence of abstinence. This information dissemination has prevented the contact and spread of HIV/AIDS by the youths in Lagos State schools and outside of it.  

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Sexually transmitted diseases such as Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome (AIDs) has defied all aspects of remedy through medical sciences. The spread of the disease is very alarming in the larger society.

Regrettably, people who have been counselled by experts in counselling and through other enlightenment means have not heeded to the advice given to them on how best to embark on safe sexual relationship. This is because, many people today especially adolescents, have not changed their sexual behaviour. Majority of the students, inspite of the information given to them on the dangers inherent in contacting HIV/AIDS, still believe that sex cannot give them HIV/AIDS. Others believe that whether being aware of the danger or not, they should engage in active sexual life and this is where the problem of continued spread of HIV/AIDS among students lies. Many people show negative attitude towards the use of counselling and other means, as an instrument of assistance for social, psychological and health problems. People who have contacted HIV/AIDS infections rather have the problem of inhibition, fear and the negative mental orientation that make their cases worse and eventually result to their death.

Negative attitude to sex education and marital guidance by many people are the main causes of the wide spread of HIV/AIDS in the society. This study therefore investigates the effect of adolescents’ perception and awareness of HIV/AIDS on sexual behaviour in Lagos State secondary schools.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of students’ perception and awareness towards HIV/AIDS infection in selected secondary schools in Surulere local government area of Lagos State and other enlightenment strategies be used to effect positive behaviour change towards sex related matters by adolescent students.

1.4       Research Questions

The following research questions will be raised in this study:

1.            Will there be any significant effect of counselling on the perception of students towards HIV/AIDS?

2.            To what extent will students’ exposure to information affect their perception towards HIV/AIDS?

3.            Will there be any gender difference in the perception of students towards HIV/AIDS due to information dissemination?

4.            Is there any difference between the perception of students who are exposed to awareness of the effect of HIV/AIDS?

5.            How can we differentiate between students who have positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS infection and those who have negative attitudes towards HIV/AIDS infection?

1.5       Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be formulated to guide the conduct of this study:

1.            There is no significant effect of counselling on students’ perception towards HIV/IDS infection.

2.            There is no significant gender difference in the perception of students towards HIV/AIDS infection.

3.            There is no significant difference between the students who have positive perception towards HIV/AIDS and those who have negative perception towards HIV/AIDS infection.

4.            There is no significant relationship between sex education and students’ attitude towards HIV/AIDS infection.

1.6       Significance of Study

This study will be of immense benefit to the following:

1.            Students: Students will benefit from this study because its findings and recommendations will give them an insight into the problem of HIV/AIDS and how to prevent the spread.

2.            Parents: This study will serve as a reminder on the importance of giving sex education to their children at an early age before they engage in heterosexual relationship.

3.            Teachers: Teachers will also benefit from this study because it will afford them the opportunity to use counselling method to help students. With this study teachers would appreciate the use of counselling and teaching as a remedy to the spread of HIV/AIDS.

4.            School Counsellors: Counsellors would benefit from recommendations of this study because it will help them to have more insight into the use of counselling to help students out of their sexual problems.

5.            The Society: The society will be aware of the dangers of being infected with HIV/AIDS. This will enable the public to develop a cautious attitude towards HIV/AIDS.

1.7       Scope of the Study

The study will cover the effect of adolescents’ perception and awareness towards HIV/AIDS infection in Surulere local government area of Lagos State.

1.8       Definition of Terms

Operational definition of terms were carried out in this study thus:

1.            HIV: This is a term that means Human Immuno Deficiency.

2.            AIDS: This means Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

3.            School Counsellors: School counsellors are counselling experts who are in the school environment in order to offer counselling and guidance services to students and others (Amanze, 1990).

4.            Technique: According to Advanced Learners Dictionary, this means technical or mechanical skill in art, something of method of doing something expertly, method of artistic expression in music painting etc.

5.            Attitude: This refers to manner of placing or holding the body, way of feeling, thinking or behaving.

6.            Gender: This means grammatically grouping of words (norms and pronouns into classes (masculine, genuine and neutral).

7.            Infection: Infecting or being infected; contacting a disease, especially by agency of the atmosphere or water, contagious disease, influence that infects.


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