- THE EFFECT OF GOVERNMENT EXPORT PROMOTION POLICIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPORT BUSINESS IN NIGERIA (A STUDY OF THE NIGERIAN EXPORT PROMOTION COUNCIL [NEPC])
- THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A Study of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc)
- THE EFFICACY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION [ICT] ON ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A Case Study of First Bank Nigeria Plc.)
- IMPACT OF LABOUR TRAINING ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA ECONOMY (A Study of Nigeria Postal Service)
- THE EFFECT OF MANPOWER TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON OGRANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A CASE OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC.)
- THE ROLE OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA (A case study of PZ Nigeria limited Isolo)
- THE IMPACT OF LABOUR TRAINING ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA ECONOMY (A Case Study of Nigeria Postal Service)
- THE EFFECT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE (MTN NIGERIA COMMUNICATION LIMITED IN LAGOS)
- THE IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON EMPLOYEE'S PERFORMANCE (A case study of First Bank Nigeria PLC)
- EFFECT OF GOVERNMENT EXPORT PROMOTION POLICIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPORT BUSINESS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIAN EXPORT PROMOTION COUNCIL)
EFFECT OF COMMUNICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (A Study of Power Holding company of Nigeria [PHCN])
The focus of this study is on “The Effect of Communication on Organizational Development. Effect of communication has been noted to bridge the relationship gap between employers and employees at work- this in turn reduces the level of industrial conflict among the staff thus maximizes the amount of effort begin invested in the production process.
The population for this research consists of the cross section of employees drawn from Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) Oshodi District, Lagos. Instruments used for the collection of data include interviews and questionnaire, reference to business journals. This research made use of both primary and secondary data; the secondary data used was generated by consulting relevant textbooks. While the primary data, to be collected would be from members of staff using questionnaires and interview method. The questionnaire was divided into two sections. Section A is meant to generate fact on age, sex, academic, qualification, marital status, managerial level and years on the job. The second section contained questions to which the respondents are expected to agree, disagree, and neutral.
It is recommended that the concerned officials and managerial member of the organizational board should allow subordinates to express their feelings through communication without concern i.e., they should create an avenue that encourages upward communication.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi-vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 6
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 6
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 7
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 8
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 9
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 10
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 10
1.9 STUDY PLAN 11
1.10 DEFINITION OF THE STUDY 11
1.11 METHODOLOGY 14
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 COMMUNICATING 15
2.2 NATURE OF COMMUNICATION 18
2.3 COMMUNICATION DEFINED 20
2.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNICATION 23
2.5 COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION 26
2.6 TYPES OF COMMUNICATION 29
2.7 STEPS IN COMMUNICATION 32
2.8 BENEFITS OF COMMUNICATION 36
2.9 THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT 37
2.10 PROBLEM OF COMMUNICATION 39
2.11 CORRECTIVE ACTION 43
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION 50
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 50
3.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 51
3.4 DATA SPECIFICATION 51
3.5 QUESTIONNAIRE DEVELOPMENT 52
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 54
3.7 POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE 54
3.8 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE 55
3.9 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 56
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS 57
4.2 ANALYSIS ACCORDING TO RESEARCH QUESTIONNARE 60
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY 73
5.2 CONCLUSION 75
5.3 RECOMMENDATION 76
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Employee of whatever status needs to participate in the coordination of resource of the organization. Simultaneously an individual also needs to participate in communication.
The reciprocal process of sharing information through symbols, principally the word communication itself denotes the exchanging of ideals and since man is both sharing of feeling and ideals are necessary to sound judgment.
Therefore, communication is essential to sound management, the success of any organization career depends upon the personnel, which ever cannot be successful without proper communication.
An individual employee always observe, analyse and interpret the effects of words upon people as well as the influence of people upon words. Whatever one’s job or ambition, one should learn to apply management purposes and functions to communications. One should realize that his/her success as a person/employee depends on his/her ability to issue, transmit and fulfill messages, upon his/her attaining profit and profit through useful words that produce appropriate action because action speaks louder than voice (body language). One should also know that without effective writing, speaking, reading and listening, even that decision may result in the worst action. Again one should know that often the most exasperating employee/subordinate/worker is the person who does not share his potentially profitable, ideas, through efficient language, with his co-workers and his company.
An approach to the study of communication tends to explain that various department in an organization and similar area of specialization function largely as information processes that need to be integrated so that management can achieve its purpose of goals and resources, which also include that important resources behaviour.
Lucy (1998) stated that informal communication takes place at all levels from discussions, telephone calls, meetings, observation and so on. The informal network called grapevine, is flexible and can convey nuances, which are lost informal communications. Delighting informal communication more speedier and can cater for local problems more readily than formal communication.
Since information must be communicated at the workplace, to prevent misinterpretation, there is need for improvement in communication in an organization.
Although, information to a large extent determines communication by Lucy laid emphasis on an ambiguous communication which may not lead to appropriate decision and might have negative impact to the organization. Communication therefore, in an organization must produce efficient result.
Donna (2005), opined that one can improve chance for conversational success by considering some factors which add value to an organizational communication. Organizational setting as one of the vital factors to be considered, question such as where will the conversation take place? Is it public or private? Are there other things going on that will distracting? Must be considered. Considering the internal influence, considering the interest level of other person to know how much information it is required of the person to know. Considering the language needed, considering what one needs to accomplish by initiating the conversation, considering the long term impact of the words, tone and gestures that are used and finally, considering the external factors which as a result brings about noise, distractions that may impact how the message is relayed and received.
Therefore, organization to a large extent must improve their communication to facilitate the effective performance and organizational efficiency. This will aid better decision for the attainment of their goals and objectives.
Moreover, in an organization, the main objective is to achieve its target and this can be done effectively through communication within the organization. Leading is impossible without communication between persons. The leader in man-to-man relationship exerts his influence only by conveying ideas, feelings and decisions to his followers.
The followers in turn have to communicate with the leader to management in order for him to be able to appreciate their personal feelings and problems. The need for an effective communication in any organization cannot be overemphasized.
Chester, viewed communication as the means by which people are linked together in an organization to achieve a common purpose and that in the process an organization exchange ideas and information regarding the operations of an organization. It is that interchange of ideas, facts. Thoughts and emotions by two or more people by the use of words, letters and symbols.
Since effective communication is essential to any organization string to improve its relationship with the outside world. Relationship could be built and could be destroyed but everything depends on communications realize the critical importance of meaningful communication, too many organizations devote vast resources to methods that are not maximizing their returns on interest.
As top notchers, since communication is important factor in an organization, management must communicate to their subordinates in a way and manner that will enable them to achieve their set objectives and goals through a good communication mechanizing.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Information is communicated on daily basis within the organization. The channels of communication within the organization determine the quality of information of the end-users. If the channel is faulty the message may be distored and not properly understood. This may consequently affect the decisions arising there from.
a) This research work is aimed at tracing the communication between organization of the employees within the organization.
b) This research work is set out to see how performance of the employees binged on organizational communication. The style level and communication determine the appropriate response from the respondents.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Communication is essential for internal functioning of enterprises because it integrates the managerial functions.
Thus, the primary objective of this study is to examine the effect of communication on organizational development. Other objective are as follows:
1) To provides a vehicle by which one can implement a plan to achieve to co-ordinate.
2) To provide a means by which members of an organization can be motivated to execute the plans willingly and enthusiastically.
3) It is the process by which management functions of planning, organization, decision making and controlling are achieved.
4) It is also the activity that managers devote most of their time to and the ability to communication effectively is one of the important qualities of a successful manager.
5) Communication is an essential part of our lives, everybody and everybody we send or receive message and information.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1) It is anticipated when this study is completed, it will serve as useful reference source of future researchers and formulation of policies by subordinate and management on how communication can enhance organizational performance.
2) A lot of Nigerian managers do not possess communication skills. This study is designed to give them a few pointers.
3) This study is also designed to show importance of communication in relation to how it affects managerial efficiency ultimately of organizational goals and objectives.
4) The study will also offer useful and reasonable suggestions on how communication enhances the organizational performance derived from the organization as a whole.
5) There are also few organizations in Nigeria that can boast of having an effective communication network. This is not as a result of ignorance. It is hoped that this study will bring to light the importance of good communication network within and outside the organization.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) Can lack of communication between workers and management lead to industrial conflicts?
2) Does effective communication of employee function and duties in the organization increase the employees output?
3) Does effective communication improve the organizational performance.
4) What has been the effective of communication process on organizational performance?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Lack of communication between workers and management cannot lead to industrial conflicts
Hi: Lack of communication between workers and management can lead to industrial conflicts
Ho: Effective communication of employees function and duties cannot increase the employees output
Hi: Effective communication of employees function and duties can increase the employees output
Ho: Effective communication cannot improve the organizational performance.
Hi: Effective communication can improve the organizational performance.
Ho: Communication process has no effective performance in an organization.
Hi: Communication process has effective performance in an organization.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is set out to discuss “the importance of communication on organization performance”. It will reveal various communication mechanisms on a specified organization, Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN). The thesis will cover the variables of communication and the importance derivable from it facilitates the achievement of the company’s aims and objectives.
Also, this study will stress ho communication gap be carried out in order to achieve the target of the organization, this will also highlight the litigations of communication.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Limitations and constraints are:
1) To interview some of the managers is a difficult task and the research have to pay several visits to the company the to tight schedule and often managers are always absent on seat.
2) Improper filling of the questionnaires, some of the questionnaires are not find useful for the study.
3) Behavioural influences and abstraction.
1.9 STUDY PLAN
The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance of communication on organizational performance and to shed more light on how to curtail the breakdown gadget of communication. Copies of researcher designed questionnaire were administered to the staff of PHCN, Oshodi District.
In analyzing the data collected, simple percentage is used, while tail test (t-test) was used to test the hypothesis. The first hypothesis states that lack of communication between workers and management can lead to industrial conflict while the second hypothesis states that an effective communication of employee’s specific function and duties cannot increase the employee’s output.
On the basic findings, recommendations were also made for states and policy makers which will make communication on organizational performance to be more effective and efficient.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In an organization, communication is the means of actualizing a goal. It is a means by which organized activity is modified. Through effective communication, behaviours can be notified and change affected, information is made productive and goals are achieved. Organization requires information about finances, prices, competition, raw material, labour, technology, business environment and governed activities. This information forms the basic decision making. Communication is highly essential for functionary of the organization because it integrates all the managerial function. Through communication with the external environment, the organization (management) is made aware through information of the needs and demand of customer, and the availability of supplies, the chain fears of the community within which they operate and government regulation.
This study is justified and defined a communication is the transfer of idea the sender to the receiver. Communication is an indispensable management tool. Any means that an individual uses to transfer meaning, ideas, feeling, emotion or attitude to others is communication. There are speechless messages that are transmitted by facial expressions, by the use of the eyes, body movement, gesticulation of the hands, shaking the head in approval of disproval, smiling or frowning. These are sometimes accurate ways of expressing oneself that the conventional oral or within manner.
Good management recognizes the fact that it has to transmit skills and knowledge to those in the organization through its direction, control, organization ability, decision making, and coordinating techniques. The quality of communication skill possessed by a manager determines his degree of accomplishment.
Moreso, information received from external environment of the organization will help to improve services rendered to the public. Communication is also defined as the transfer of information, ideas, fact or message from one person to another. It also defined message exchange of understandable message or idea between two or more person, with the use of words, letters, symbols, signs and gestures.
Effective communication occurs when the message is properly encoded by the sender and understood by the receiver.
Effective communication is very important because it is the means by which the various activities or management function are link together in an organization. Communication is also the means by which the various function of management are accomplished.
Instruments to use for the collection of data will include interviews and questionnaires, reference to business journals. This research made use of both primary and Secondary data, the primary data used will be collected would be from members of staff using questionnaires and interview method. While the secondary data will be generated by consulting relevant textbooks.
Data analysis was first done by descriptively using simple statistical tool of mean and standard deviation. But since the study predominately qualitative in nature non paramedic methods were adopted in carrying out analysis. The t-test statistics will be used to test the hypothesis.