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EFFECT OF DEMONSTRATION METHOD AND GUIDED DISCOVERY METHOD ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study was conducted to identify the Effects of Demonstration and Guided Discovery methods on the student’s academic performance in Biology.
The sample consisted of 120 SSIII Biology students selected from four senior secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State based on random sampling techniques. A quasi experimental research design was used.
The instrument used to collect data was an achievement test of 30 items on the human digestive system. All the sample students were pre-and post-tested using the achievement test.
One hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data collected were analyzed using the student’s t-test statistics. The result indicated that there was a significant difference in the academic performance of students who were taught with demonstration method and those who taught with guided discovery methods in Biology with students exposed to demonstration method achieving better than those exposed to guided discovery.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of content vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 3
1.2 Purpose of the Study 6
1.3 Statement of Problem 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Research Hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 8
1.8 Limitations of Study 8
1.9 Definition of terms 8
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Teaching methods 9
2.2 Demonstration method 12
2.3 Guided discovery method 15
2.4 Students’ attitude towards biology 19
2.5 Factors affecting student’s attitude and performance in biology 21
2.6 The influence of teachers’ effectiveness to students
academic performance to biology 25
3.1 Research Design 34
3.2 Population of the study 31
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 31
3.4 Research Instrument 32
3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument 32
3.6 Administration of the instrument 33
3.7 Method of data Analysis 33
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Data Analysis 35
4.2 Discussions of Results 45
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 46
5.2 Conclusion 47
5.3 Recommendations 48
Appendix I 58
Appendix II 66
Appendix III 71
It has been observed that the educational system in Nigeria has been experiencing some setback due to our political instability which is one of the major problems faced by the sector. It can be said that little attention has been given to this sector as a result of the non-chalant attitude of our political leaders. Education, the underlining factor of the social life that help people create meaning out of the environment as well as been able to influence the environment to their own benefit.
Man is greatly dependent on science and technology, this is because the future hope for a better scientifically and technologically developed countries which lies in science education. A sound knowledge of science education is very important for the management of our natural resources, provision of adequate food and healthy environment. For instance, Biological sciences is essential to all forms of life including plants and animals and other living and non-living components. It also plays important role towards achieving self–reliance in the life of individual (Dutta, 1996; Umeh, 1999).
Every develop nation is as a result of science and technology been embraced in their school curriculum. In the teaching of science subjects certain methods is being recommended as the appropriate method to be used. These methods stipulated in the science curriculum is to enable the effective teaching and learning of science subjects. Some of the cardinal objectives of the biology curriculum for senior secondary school syllabus are to prepare pupils to acquire meaningful and relevant knowledge in biology, also to acquire reasonable and functional scientific attitudes. In accordance with the objectives, the contents and contexts of the syllabus also place emphasis on guided-discovery, techniques and skills coupled with conceptual thinking.
Most teachers use methods apart from the methods stipulated in the curriculum by the Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) and it has contributed to the low performance of student in biology. The repeated records of failures in biology tend to pose some attitude in students towards the teaching of biology by the teacher in the explanation of biological concept.
The attitudes of the teachers toward the teaching of biology as a science subject has failed to achieve the stated objectives of biology as stated in the curriculum.
1.1 Background Of The Study
From the perspective of promoting standard based science education, the teaching method employed plays important role in learning important ideas and skills if standard based education is to become a reality in the nation classroom (Tyson, 1997).
Methods are the tools of the teacher for reaching the set goals and objectives. The effective teacher has multiplicity of methods at his disposal and must be prepared to select the ones which will be most effective for leading the learner to desired behaviour. Educational methods is a process of cognitive, affective and psychomotive development whose aim is to mould the learner towards a total contribution to the development of the learner and the community (Durosaro, 2002). In achieving this by the teacher, there is the need to improve on the instructional methods in teaching biology.
Therefore, this study is set out to investigate if appropriate teaching method used in teaching biology could yield a better performance. Such teaching methods are demonstration methods and guided-discovery.
Demonstration method is always accomplished by telling or explaining a concept by the handling or manipulating of real things, equipment or materials or showing pictures. Demonstrations are useful because they provide concrete reference for objects or events. Students relate terms and concepts to those events which they have observed. If this method is used to carryout a study on students’ performance in biology, it will be observed that student will be able to identify some difficulties they faced in learning biology when they were given problem to solve. Demonstration method is an effective means of supplementing and clarifying the content being taught.
Guided-Discovery method likewise is an instructional strategy in which the learner tends to learn more or have better understanding of biological concepts because they are guided to discover things by themselves. Discovery learning, when encouraged in the science class also aids problem solving because learning by discovery starts with problem solving (Akanbi and Opasina 2000). Discovery also causes creativity in the student which is one of the major objective of science teaching.
These two methods have a positive effect on the students’ level of academic performance but certain factors have been attributed to the poor achievement or performance of students in biology. These include the level of the teacher’s knowledge in biology, in the principles and methods of teaching, inability of the teacher to understand his/her student during teaching process or inadequate infrastructure/ teaching aids.
There is tendency that each of these two methods will create an effect on the academic performance of student in biology. This project work tends to identify the effect created on the academic performance of students in biology using demonstration method and guided-discovery method.
1.2 Purpose Of The Study
This study aim to;
- Determine the effect of using Demonstration method in teaching biology.
- Determine the effect of using Guided – Discovery method in teaching biology.
- Find out students’ level of understanding biological concepts.
- Investigate students’ performance in biology using each of the methods.
1.3 Statement Of Problem
Since teachers lack adoption of educational methods in teaching biology, poor performance of students in biology will be inevitable, if a teacher does not have content pedagogical knowledge of biology, it tends to contribute to the poor academic performances of students in biology. Also inadequate infrastructure or teaching aid may lead to ineffective teaching and learning. The question is that, does the method used in teaching of biology affect student’s performance? This is a problem which this study intend to solve.
1.4 Research Question
To guide this study, the following research questions are stated.
- What is the academic performance of students taught with Demonstration Method and Guided-Discovery method?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The hypothesis is formulated to guide the study:
Ho: There will be no significance difference between the academic performance of students who are taught with Demonstration Method and those who are taught with Guided – Discovery Method.
1.6 Significance of Study
This research work will provide the effects of demonstration and guided-discovery method of teaching in biology and its contribution to the academic performance of the students. Findings will highlight the strengths of implementing these methods thereby informing teachers of those factors to reckon with in teaching the student.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
This study will cover schools in Alimosho Local Government due to proximity of the area to the university and my residence.
1.8 Limitation Of Study
The study is restricted to some selected schools within the Local Government Area of study due to time, distance, and transportation factors.
1.9 Definition Of Term
Demonstration Method–an instruction that shows or explains how something works or is done using illustration, picture, chart etc.
Guided discovery Method – is a method whereby the teacher guides the students to discover things on their own e.g through questioning.
Methods – are the strategies the teacher uses to reach the set goals and objectives of an instructional process.
Teaching Principles – are the set rules that guide the teaching profession.