EFFECT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS ON INVESTMENT DECISION MAKING (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)


Content

ABSTRACT

The statement of problem highlighted that the management is constantly faced with the problem of making alternative decision due to the fact that resources are relatively scarce. The research question were on factor affecting the use of financial statement analysis information, adequacy and accuracy of accounting information by managers in their decision making process. It was found that the employees of First Bank of Nigeria Plc, Awka, will be inspired for better performance when the board of directors gives maximum attention to their welfare and prompt payment of salaries as a motivational incentive, encouragement of free two-way communication etc. However, it was further found that these issues are not given the necessary attention as found by the study. It was recommended that the board of directors of First Bank of Nigeria Plc should give attention to the welfare of the employees as well as to encourage workers two-way communication and that necessary working tools and other logistics, be provided for the employees to enable them perform the work.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgements                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                   v

Table of Contents                                                     vi

 

        Chapter One: Introduction                                    1

1.1      Background to the Study                                         1

1.2      Statement of Problem                                              3

1.3      Research Questions                                                 4

1.4      Objectives of the Study                                            5

1.5      Statement of Hypotheses                                         5

1.6      Significance of the Study                                         7

1.7      Scope of the Study                                                   8

1.8      Limitations of the Study                                          9

1.9      Definition of Terms                                                  11

 

Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature          14

2.1      Introduction                                                             14

2.2      Definition of Financial Statement                            15

2.3      Objectives of Financial Statement                            17

2.4      Users of Financial Statement                                   19

2.5      Forms and Content of Financial Statement             22

2.6      What is Financial Statement?                                  27

2.7      Purpose of analyzing Financial Statement                       28

2.8      Definition of Management                                        30

2.9      Management Decision: Proper Analysis of

Financial Statement as a Basis                                        32

2.10  Analytical Techniques and Tools of

Financial Statement                                                35

2.11  Classification of Ratios                                            38

2.12  Computation of  Ratios                                            40

2.13  Limitations of Financial Ratios                                        47

2.14  Usefulness of Financial Statement Analysis            47

2.15  Limitation of Financial Statement                            48

 

Chapter Three: Research Method and Design       49

3.1      Introduction                                                             49

3.2      Research Design                                                      49

3.3      Description of Population of the Study                    49

3.4      Sample Size                                                             50

3.5      Sampling Technique                                                50

3.6      Sources of Data Collection                                       51

3.7      Method of Data Presentation                                   52

3.8      Method of Data Analysis                                          52

 

Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis

and Hypothesis Testing                                         53

4.1      Introduction                                                             53

4.2      Presentation of Data                                                53

4.3      Data Analysis                                                           61

4.4      Hypothesis Testing                                                  64

Chapter Five: Summary of Findings,

Conclusion and Recommendations                       68

5.1      Introduction                                                             68

5.2      Summary of Findings                                              68

5.3      Conclusion                                                              69

5.4      Recommendations                                                   69

References                                                               71

Appendices                                                              73

 

 

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background to the Study

 

1.2      Statement of Problem

In fact, it is not surprising that in most cases of performance evaluation in the business organization, there is always an expression of dissatisfaction. In this research, some of the problems associated with it are; different accounting policies adopted by companies make comparison difficult. Financial ratios are expressed in figures and this may be misleading unless one remembers the principle upon which they are based. Ratio analysis is derived using historical data and there is a question as to whether or not the data provides relevant basis for making predictions.

1.3      Research Questions

1.     Does different accounting practices adopted by firms affect making comparison of ratios?

2.     Does the information generated using ratio analysis derived from historical data provides relevant basis for prediction?

3.     Does the ratio expressed in figures be misleading when you do not know the principles upon which they are based?

4.     Does the changes in the general price level affect ratios derived from financial statement?

1.4      Objectives of the Study

The following are objectives of the study:

1.     To find out if different accounting practices adopted by firms affect making comparison of ratios.

2.     To ascertain if the information generated using ratio analysis derived from historical data provides relevant basis for prediction.

3.     To determine if ratio expressed in figures cannot be misleading when you do not know the principles upon which they are based.

4.     To determine if the changes in the general price level affect ratios derived from financial statement.

 

 

1.5      Statement of Hypotheses

Hypothesis One

HO:   Different accounting practices adopted by firms do not affect making comparison of ratios.

HI:    Different accounting practices adopted by firms affects making comparison of ratios.

Hypothesis Two

HO:   Information generated using ratio analysis derived from historical data do not provide relevant basis for prediction.

HI:    Information generated using ratio analysis derived from historical data provides relevant basis for prediction.

Hypothesis Three

HO:   Ratio expressed in figures cannot be misleading when you do not know the principles upon which they are based.

HI:    Ratio expressed in figures cannot be misleading when you know the principles upon which they are based.

 

Hypothesis Four

HO:   Changes in the general price level do not affect ratios derived from financial statement.

HI:    Changes in the general price level affects ratios derived from financial statement.

1.6      Significance of the Study

One importance merit of the research is that it would help the management of First Bank of Nigeria Plc, Awka branch and interested firms to identify their strength and weakness and also work vigorously towards achieving its corporate objectives.

It could be a source of information and reference material to other researchers both in business enterprises and institution.

Finally, it will also assist investors, shareholders and other interested persons to appreciate the importance of financial statement analysis about investment, disinvestment and asset management.

 

 

1.7      Scope of the Study

There are several firms engaged in business activities, but for the purpose of the study, we will restrict our research to Guinness Nigeria Plc, Benin City. It is centred on financial statement analysis as a tool for effective decision making and it is limited to Guinness Nigeria Plc management and staff and with a total sample size of 50 between 2010 – 2014.

 

1.8      Limitations of the Study

The research was operated with some limitations which ought to be stated for proper appreciation of study. These limitations include:

i.            The availability of financial and resources is limited being that the researcher is a student and has no source of income/finance except her pocket money.

ii.          The respondents showed a certain reluctance to answer some questions especially those pertaining to their company’s decision making.

iii.        Given the time space in which the researcher had to do this work, it was not possible to touch every aspect of this subject matter.

1.9      Definition of Terms

The following are the terms used in this research work:

i.            Accounting: This is the collecting, compilation, recording and analyzing of a business financial transaction, the preparation of financial reports and the presentation of such report to management to assist in decision making.

ii.          Annual Reports: This shows the financial result of operational plans for future communications to its shareholders and other interested parties.

iii.       Financial Statements: This is a document of record used by a firm to communicate its financial information to those who have interest in the company.

iv.        Income Statement: This is also known as operating statement. It reflects the effort of management operating decision on business performance and the resulting profit and loss for the owners of the business over a specified period of time.

v.           Assets: This described as the economic resources, i.e. things of value owned by a firm.

vi.        Liabilities: These are debts payable in the future by the firm to the creditors.

vii.      Ratio: This is the indicated quotient to two in mathematical expression.

viii.    Ratio Analysis: This is the systematic use of data interpreting financial statement so that the strength and weakness of the firm, as well as the historical performance and current financial condition can be determined.


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