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- FINANCE AND AUDIT PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC ORGANISATIONS (A STUDY OF THE NIGERIAN POLICE FORCE)
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EFFECT OF PENSIONS FUND MANAGEMENT ON RETIREES IN NIGERIAN POLICE FORCE
Pension as a scheme is designed to cater for the welfare of the pensionable retired workers. The working lives of employees move continuously towards a certain direction i.e from employment, to growth, to retirement. The main aim of this research is to ascertain the Effect of Pension Fund Management on Retirees in Nigerian Police Force. The study covers the existing administrative system of the centralized police pension offices and their various attempts to satisfy the increasing needs of retirees all over the federation. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of pension fund management of retirees in Nigeria and so ascertain the problem of weakness in the administration system. Two hypotheses were tested, the null hypotheses was rejected and the alternative accepted. Questionnaire were formulated based on the hypotheses and were distributed. The recommendation was that more competent officers should be recruited to handle the growing need in the pension office and that then commission should intensity effort at ensuring timely remittances of benefits to the Retirement savings Accounts (RSA) by firms, Employees and employers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background of the Study
Statement of Problem
Objective of the Study
Statement of Hypotheses
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitation
1.8 Brief Historical Background of the Police
1.9 Definitions of Terms
2.1 Historical Background
2.2 History of the Police Pension Office the Police and Other
2.3 Prospect of the Police Pension Office
2.4 Review of the Past literature
2.5 Funding of Pension Civil Service
2.6 Schedule Service
2.7 Pension and Gratuity of Deceased Officers
2.8 Operational Structure and Forced Organization
2.10 Force Management Improvement in Performance and Ethical
2.11 The Need for Sanity in the Police
2.12 Supervision and Job Performance in the Police
2.13 Theoretical Framework
2.14 The Objective of the New Contributory Pension
Scheme in Nigeria
Sources of Data
Population of the Study
Sample & Sampling Techniques
3.6 Research Instruments
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
3.8 Validity of the Instrument
3.9 Administration of the Instrument
3.10 Method of Data Analysis
4.2 Distribution of Respondents to Bio data Information
4.3 Hypothesis Testing
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria's first ever legislative instrument on Pension Matters was the pension ordinance of 1951, which had retrospective effect from January 1, 1846. (That was in the colonial era).
National Provident Fund (NPF) scheme established in 1961 as the first legislation enacted to address private organized establishments Pension Matters in Nigeria.
It was followed 28 years later by the Pension Act No. 102 of 1979, as well as the Armed Forces Pension Act No. 103 of the same year.
Taken after the Armed forces experience, the Police and other Government Agencies pension schemes were established under pension Act No. 75 of 1987.
This was followed by the Local Government Pension Edit which culminated in the establishment of the Local Government Staff pension board in 1987. In 1993 NSITF scheme was established by Decree No. 73 of 1993 to replace defunct NPF scheme with effect from 1st July, 1994 to cater for workers in private sector of the economy against loss of Employment Income in Old Age Invalidity or Death.
With the provision these schemes mentioned above. Nigeria has been faced with the problem of paying retirement benefits for more than two decades and also there was crisis in the administration and management of retirement benefits (Gratuity and Pension) in Nigeria in both public and private sectors for instance.
§ Pay-As-You-Go pension in the public sector has totally collapsed due to lack of fund because it is noncontributory and not funded In advance by the government.
§ The Private Sector and many Federal Government parastatals that are assumed to have a strong and well organized pension schemes are shadow of themselves, they are grossly underfunded or unfunded at all.
This explain why the established NSITF scheme for Private Sector does not live up to expectations.
§ Consumption of every disengagement benefits collected at the point of changing jobs among the private sector employees will lead to unpleasant situation if there is nothing to fall back on (Provident Scheme).
§ There is no standard guidelines on retirement benefits (Gratuity and Pension) and social security’s administration in the country which is also a problem facing Nigeria at old age upon retirement sectors.
There are also some pension crisis faced by the pensioners and these include;
1. Unfunded arrears of about N3 trillion?
2. Pensioners not being paid entitlements regularly
3. Existence of Ghost pensioners in the public service
4. Pensioners dying on verification queues
5. Unstructured and unfunded private sector schemes
6. Diversion and mismanagement of existing pension funds by the Board of Trustees (BOT) and managers of the funds
The following above are some of the problems and pension crisis affecting the public and private sectors in Nigeria. It is. not only the private and public sectors that has pension fund problems, also the Nigeria police force are been affected by their mismanagement of pension fund which affects their retirees. Since the case .study is centered round the Nigeria police force we can now take a look at that.
Many critics feel that management and leadership style of the Nigeria Police Force is ineffective while others strongly believe that caliber of people at the managerial positions constitute a services draw back to the police force as an organization.
A good number of such criticisms were reflected on some of the Nigeria dailies. The Nigeria Voice for instance on page 7 to 15th July, 1991 was captioned "the Nigeria Police Force, an abandoned establishment. Several other critics highlighted on the pages of newspaper are enough to keep the mind of a concerned citizen wondering whether the public force in Nigeria has got efficient management system.
It is on this premise that the researcher moved with concern for the entire population and families of policemen and women in the country, delves into investigating the activities of the pensions fund offices and how they affect retirees of the Nigerian police. Taylor (1917) advocated for the selection and placement of the right workers in the right job. By doing so the conflict between management and labour will be removed.
Paul Hawkan defend management as "Good Management is the art of making problems so interesting and their solutions so constructive that everyone to get work and deal with them."
Koontz and Donnell (1976) viewed management from the essential functions of management which are planning organizing, staffing, directing and leading and controlling.
Breach (1970) defined management as "social process entailing responsibilities of the effective are economic planning and regulation of the operations of an enterprises in fulfillment of a given purpose or task.
Pension is a monthly salary paid to a retired officer who has served for a statutory period. It is payable for a minimum period of five years or till death. It is also payable to officers who have reached a minimum age of 45 years. The maximum rate is 80% of total enrolments after 35 years of service.
Retirement is the cessation of services of an officer who has served for more than ten years and is thus due for both pension and gratuity. It requires three months’ notice.
Pension fund management therefore is that aspect of management that focuses on the plans for the employees accumulated and substantial amount of money awaiting distribution, in virtually every kind of income producing resources, including stock, bonds, mortgages and real estate. As pension fund have increased they have become an increasingly.
IMPORTANT FACTORS IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY
The actual management of pension fund asset is often the responsibility of some institutional investor typically, the trust departments of life insurance companies, pension's plan that provided their own administration and invest the fund through a trust are often thought of as self-administered or trust invested pension plans. Plans that use the service of life insurance companies are often referred to as insured pension plan. Retirements plans often have some of the characteristic of both. The Nigeria police pension plans are self-administered under the auspices of the police pension's office. \
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Pension fund management 1S imperative to achieving organizational objectives. Human resources are fundamental in every productive set-up, whether for services or for goods. The need for the welfare of the employees, pre and post retirement can therefore not be over emphasized.
Management at any level is expected to pursue such objectives that will achieve the overall goal of the organization. A critical look at the management of the police pensions will unveil the following problems:
· Under developed working systems
· Slow and bureaucratic process
· High level of labour turnover
· Weakness in system of administration of pension.
· Low investment opportunities
· Loopholes causing high default in rates being Applied
· Problems of centralized pension office
· Lack of available funds
· Inflation and fall in value of Naira
· Low level of training offered to administration staff.
· Poor Remuneration
· Bribery and corruption in the police
· Poor publication image of the Nigeria police.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main purpose of this study 1S to examine the effect of pension fund management and retirees in Nigeria (A case study of Nigeria Police Force, Ikeja).
Specific objectives include:
i. To examine the various applicable rates
ii. To ascertain the problem of weakness in the administration system
iii. To review the bureaucratic process m the administrative system.
iv. To suggest measures for combating the problem of unnecessary delay.
v. To improve on the techniques for achieving desired goals
vi. To emphasis and postulate on a reasonable wage level for the personnel.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What are the factors that are responsible for the high rate of labour turnover in the Nigeria police?
ii. What are the determinants of eligibility to the approved pension's benefits in the police?
iii. How effective are government policies on funding of pensions for retirees?
iv. What is the general level of training offered administrative staff of the police?
v. How appropriates are the present installed working condition system to the need of the police force as a whole?
vi. Does the centralization of the pension's office guarantee effective internal control to the entire system? How effective are the procedures for retirements in Nigeria police?
vii. Does the salary level in the police determine the pension benefits?
viii. How does inflation affect the welfare of retirees in the police?
ix. What impact has the motivation on the human resources of the Nigeria police force?
x. What is the general output level of the Nigeria police personnel?
xi. How profitable is communication to the overall performance of the administrative staff of the police?
xii. What constitutes the reason for corruption and bribery in Nigeria police force?
1.5 STATEMENTOF HYPOTHESES
1. Ho: The pension fund department of the Nigeria Police Force
is not effective in discharging its duties concerning the retirement benefits of its staff.
H1: The pension fund department of the Nigeria police force is very effective in discharging its duties concerning pension benefits of its staff
2. HO: The general level of training offered to the police
pension's staff is low.
HI: The general level of training offered to the police
pension's staff is high.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The dissertation will delve into practical area to modern administration and will seek to relate them to the Nigeria police administrative system. The study will therefore be useful to all levels of management particularly those of the Nigeria Police Force.
Scholars will be spurred to carry out more research and investigations into the subject matter. The work will also provide information to the many present and prospective retires who seem to be in the dark as regards their benefits and other proceedings of retirements. The study no doubt is significant in many respects
1. The study will make recommendations which will increase output of the administrative staff of the polices
2. The study will supply solutions to issues training and manpower development
3. The study will offer corrective check to the inherent tradition of delay in the police administrative system.
4. The study will supply solution to the problem of communication within the administrative structure of the police.
5. The study will suggest adequate support of the top level management in the welfares policies.
6. The study will provide for better monitoring of the activities of the pension office.
7. The study will address problem of how remuneration and suggest ways of improving on the salaries in the police.
8. The study will provide improved techniques for administering
pensions fund in the Nigeria police.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY
This study covers the existing administrative system of the centralized police pension offices and their various attempts to satisfy the increasing needs of retirees all over the federation.
The interviews is limited to the police pension office, lkeja and the force headquarters Annex formation the period of carrying out this research work other constraints are finance, lack of, text on the subjects matter and failure by respondents.
However, most of the information was obtained from the police pension office.
1.8 BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE POLICE PENSION
Nigeria's first ever legislative instrument on pension matters was 'the pension ordinance of 1951, which had retrospective effect from January 1, 1946 (that was in the colonial era). This was later known as pension ACT CAP. 147 and contained in chapter 17 of 1958 edition of the law of Nigeria.
There was enacted for the Nigeria police force a pension law known as "police pension decree No 60 of 1966 which came unto force with effect from 1st September 1966 as an improvement to the popular CAP. 147 there and then pension Act No. 102 of 1979 was promulgated and it came into force as a result of the Udoji salary review as at 1st April 1974, and it replaced all pensions laws that are existing since 1st January, 1946. Its application is on the civil and paramilitary services while Act No. 103 of 1979 catered for Armed Forces Pension.
Taken after the Armed forces experiences, the police and other Government Agencies Pension Schemes were established under Pension Act No. 75 of 1987.
1.8:1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE
The history of the Nigeria police force dates back to April, 1861 when the British counsel in-charge of the colony of Lagos obtained permission from his bosses in London to set up a consular guard of men. In 1863, the consular guard be became known as the Hausa. Guard and alter by an ordinance creating a constabulary for the colony of Lagos in 1879. The name of the organization was changed to the Hausa constabulary. The head of the constabulary was called inspector General of police.
The group called Hausa constabulary because the police recruited were mainly military in character, although the men performed some civil duties.
In 1986, another group the Lagos police was created and armed like the Hausa constabulary, it was headed by a commissioner of police who was also in change of the prisons and fine brigade.
All this development affected Lagos and the Yoruba hinter land.
Areas known as Edo, Delta, Rivers, Gross-Rivers, Akwa-ibom states were declared the oil Rivers protectorate in 10891 with headquarters in Calabar, were an armed constabulary was formed.
In 1890, the Royal Niger constabulary was broken into groups, the Northern Nigeria Police Force and the Northern Nigeria regiment. In the south, the Lagos police and part of Niger coast constabulary became the southern Nigeria police force in 1906 while a greater part of the Niger coast constabulary formed the southern Nigeria Regiment.
The Northern Nigeria police force and the southern Nigeria police force operated separately until April 1930 when they merged to form the present Nigeria police following the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern in Nigeria in 1914.
In October, 1986, the Nigeria police was constructed. The force headquarters administration was created into five directorates. Each directorate is headed by a Deputy Inspector General of Public. The state commands were regrouped into eight zones each headed by an Assistant Inspector General of Police. In March, 1997, the incumbent Inspector General of Police decided after consultation with the presidency, to revert to the old system of administering the force. This development brought about a lot of changes as summarized below;
· Compulsory retirement of the five Deputy Inspector General of Police except one.
· Scrapping of all the five directorate
· Re-grouping of all the arms of the force into six department as A, B, C, D, E and F departments.
· Appointment of Assistant Inspector General to take-of the leadership of each of the departments.
· A complete new Organization structures for the police force.
The Nigeria police force being a potent institution responsible for regulating social order maintaining domestic peace and tranquility and preserving the rights of the citizens it's faced with a dearth meaningful and result-oriented administrators who are capable of enhancing the performance standard in the personnel. This dearth of good administrators has contributed to the high level of labour turnover and brought colossal effect in the management of the pension fund for retirees of the police.
1.9 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Administration: This is process of planning, organizing, coordinating and carrying out of government policies to the public.
Administrative staff: These are those in charge of carrying out the policies to the public.
B.O. T: Board of Trustees
Benefit: These are those achievement made by the employees at the cause of their work.
Communication: This 1S the process of disseminating information from one person to the other
Corporate corruption: Fraud committed by a group of people belonging to an organization who fully plans and execute the crime period of five years or till death. The maximum rate is 80% of total emolument after 35 years of service.
Gratuity: This is a large sum of money paid once to a retired officer who has served for a minimum of five years. The maximum rate is 300% of total emoluments.
Pension: This is a monthly salary paid to a retired officer how has served for a statutory period, It is payable for minimum period of five years or till death. The maximum rate is 800/0 of total emolument after 35 years of service.
Pension Fund Management (PFM): This is aspect of management that focuses on the plans for the employees’ accumulated and substantial amount of money awaiting distribution.
Police command: This is set-ups in the administrative structure of the Nigeria police force.
Police Management activities: These activities include the investigation, operations, training, motivation, placement, control etc. carried out by the line managers in the police.
Retirees: These refers to the retired police officer and men either voluntarily or compulsory. It excludes deserters and non-gratuity and non-pension leavers.
This chapter in nut-shell dea1s with the introduction to the project, it was pointed out that the aim of pension is to provide a better life after services to the pensioner or retires. The purpose of this study is centered round the identification of the problems that arises in the management of pensions fund on retires in the Nigeria police force. The effective management required adequate planning, effective control, investment appraisa1 and a well-defined system of organizations. Where these occur, funds will be well managed and the life and welfare of the retirees will be enhanced. The questions and hypothesis which are to be answered and tested respectively were mentioned. The chapter a1so examined the definition of specia1 terms to avoid confusion with norma1 day to day usage. It a1so dea1s with the basic scope and limitation of the study and presents the significance of the study in the light of the present day needs.