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EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF COCOYAM (Colocasia Esculenta And Xanthosoma Sagittifolium)
This project work was carried out to determine the composition, vitamins, minerals and Anti nutrients present in the different processed samples of Cocoyam (C. esutenta and X. sagittifolium) i.e fried and boiled.
The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral composition, vitamin composition and Antinutritional factors.
The results revealed that there were significant difference in the moisture composition, ash content, crude protein, ether extract and crude fibre after the sample was processed (Boiled and Fried).
The result of the vitamins and minerals gave a significant difference as they contain a lesser value of these vitamins and minerals when Boiled and Fried compared to the raw sample.
The result of the Antinutritive composition (phytic acid, Tannin, Trypsin Inhibitor & Oxalate) revealed that there is a large difference comparing the raw, Boiled and Fried sample as their content are reduced when processed.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Content vi
List of Tables x
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Aims and objectives 4
2.0 Literature Review 5
2.1 Cocoyam Historical Background 5
2.2 Varieties of Cocoyam 8
2.3 Toxicity 9
2.4 Taro (Colocasia esculenta) 10
2.4.1 Ecology 10
2.4.2 Structure 10
2.4.3 Cultivation Practices 11
220.127.116.11 Propagation 11
18.104.22.168 Husbandry 11
22.214.171.124 Planting 12
126.96.36.199 Cultivation 13
188.8.131.52 Harvesting 14
2.4.4 Major Diseases and Pest 14
2.4.5 Utilization of Taro Cocoyam 15
2.5 Tannia (Xanthosoma Sagittifolium) 16
2.5.1 Ecology 16
2.5.2 Structure 16
2.5.3 Cultivation Practices 17
184.108.40.206 Propagation 17
220.127.116.11 Husbandry 18
18.104.22.168 Planting 19
22.214.171.124 Cultivation 19
126.96.36.199 Harvesting 19
2.5.4 Major Diseases and Pest 20
2.4.5 Utilization of Tannia Cocoyam 20
2.6 Nutritional value of Cocoyam 22
2.7 Processing of Cocoyam 24
2.8 Effect of processing on Nutritional Value 25
2.9 Storage of Cocoyam 28
3.0 Methodology 31
3.1 Collection of Samples 31
3.2 Apparatus and Reagents for Analysis 31
3.3 Proximate Analysis 38
3.3.1 Determination of Moisture Content 39
3.3.2 Determination of Ash Content 40
3.3.3 Determination of Crude Protein 41
3.3.4 Determination of Crude Fibre 43
3.3.5 Determination of Ether Extract 45
3.3.6 Determination of Minerals 47
3.3.7 Determination of Vitamin C 48
3.3.8 Determination of Vitamin B1 49
3.3.9 Determination of Vitamin B2 50
3.4 Methodology for Antinutritional Factors 51
3.4.1 Determination of phytic acid 51
3.4.2 Determination of Trypsin Inhibitor 53
3.4.3 Determination of Tannin 54
3.4.4 Determination of Oxalate 55
4.0 Result and Discussion 57
4.1 Result of proximate analysis 57
4.2 Result of mineral analysis 58
4.3 Result of Vitamins analysis 58
4.4 Result of Antinutritional Factors 59
4.5 Discussion 59
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Phytic acid standard curve 52
Table 2 Tannin Standard Curve 55
Table 3 Proximate Composition of Cocoyam 57
Table 4 Mineral Composition of Cocoyam 58
Table 5 Water Soluble Vitamin Composition of Cocoyam 58
Table 6 Antinutritive Composition of Cocoyam 59
Human beings require food to carry out essential functions, which include growth, development and reproduction. A balanced food must provide all the nutrients required for energy, body building, maintenance, and regulation of body processes. The nutrients include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water.
The major crops grown in Nigeria consist predominantly of carbohydrates. Examples of such crops are roots and tubers which belong to the class of food that basically provide energy in the human diet such as cassava, potatoes, yam, cocoyam and grains such as maize, rice sorghum and millet. Development of production practices of these crops have since evolved from shifting cultivation through various types of multiple cropping to permanent or continuous cropping (Coursey, 1976).
Root and tuber crops are abundant in rural areas of most developing countries and are often thought of as a cheap staple food. In Africa, the tubers are grown and consumed extensively in the sub-saharan region, root and tuber crops rank next in importance to cereal grains in providing the major part of the daily calorie needs of the people in the tropics. Cocoyam flour especially is important in areas where there is a seasonal famine because they are good substitute to other foods such as yam and potatoes etc. (FAO 1985).
It has been established by Okigbo (1978) that Africa has the highest per capital consumption of root crops, 60% of which is supplied by Cassava and 20% by Yam. It was also estimated that in this region. The per capital consumption of these tubers is about 182.4kg/year and is highest in Central Africa 417.5kg/year and West Africa, 196.8kg/year.
This however indicates that processing food productions from root and tuber crops is a major activity of people in this region. Yet, the Food processing industry carried out at the family or village levels has been mostly traditional and inefficient.
Starch is the most prominent constituent of major crops, such as roots, tuber and cereal grains that are grown and processed in Nigeria into Food for human consumption. Similarly, the by products or waste materials obtainable during local and industrial processing of these starchy crops into foods through diverse, may each be assumed to contain starch as a prominent component.
Cocoyam, a test material for this research work has been processed into many forms for utilization, it has been processed domestically into starches.
The Nigeria weather suit cultivation of Cocoyam but insufficient ways of utilizing them industrially have not encourage the large scale production. It is unlikely however that Cocoyam will ever attain the status of major world crop. In West Africa, where most of the world production occurs, Cocoyam suffers very stiff competition from yam (Oyenuga 1968).
Cocoyam are usually consumed after processing which tends to increase their palatability, digestibility, their keeping qualities and safety. During processing the nutritional value may be adversely affected and in some cases anti-nutritional substances may be reduced or increased depending upon the processing method.
1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim and objective of this research work is as the name implies, to assess the effects of processing on the nutritional value of two cultivars of Cocoyam (Taro and Tannia). The work will cover the physiochemical properties of Cocoyam starches, which is when boiled, and fried.