EFFECT OF RETAILING STRATEGY ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF CADBURY NIGERIA PLC)


Content

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study      

1.4     Research Questions

1.5     Research Hypothesis

1.6     Significance of the Study

1.7     Scope and Limitation of the Study

1.8     Definition of Terms

References

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Introduction

2.2     Meaning of Retailing

2.2.1 Retail Challenges

2. 3    Vertical Retailing

2.3.1 Drivers of Vertical Retailing

2.3.2 Transaction Cost Theory of Retailing

2.3.3 Empirical Research of Transaction Cost Theory.

2.3.4 Transaction Cost Motivation in the Empirical Research

2.3.5 Human Assets.

2.3.6 Brand Name Capital.

2.3.7 Opportunism and Trust.

2.4     Model of Retailing (Theoretical Review)

2.4.1 Matrix Computational Approach

2.4.2 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis.

2.4.3 main Aspects of Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

2.5     Organizational Performance

2.5.1    Theoretical Review of Retailing and Performance Measures

2.6     Challenge Costs and Benefits of Retailing.

2.6.1  Cost of Retailing

2.6.2  Benefits of Retailing.

2.7     Benefits of Strategic Management to Organization

2.8     Barriers to Sucessful Implemtnation of Strategic Management

2.9     The Role of Organization in Industries

2.10   The Strategic Planner, the Duties and the Strategic Management Development

2.11   An Overview of the Case Study (Cadbury Nigeria Plc)

References

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0        Introduction

3.1     Research Design

3.2.    Restatement of Research Questions and Hypothesis.

3.2.1   Research  Questions

3.2.2   Research Hypothesis

3.3        Characteristics of the Study Population.

3.4        Sampling Design and Procedure

3.5        Research Instrument

3.6      Administration of Data Collection Instrument

3.7        Analytical Tools

3.8        Reliability of Instrument

3.9        Validity of Instrument

3.10     Limitation of Methodology

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1     Introduction

4.2     Analysis and Interpretation of Data

4.3     Testing of Hypotheses and Interpretation

4.4     Discussion of Tested Hypotheses

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONAND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3        Recommendations

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Retailing is the set of activities that markets products or services to the final consumers for their personal or household use. Businesses used retailing strategies to increase market share and profit and thus enhance firm’s performance. Vertical retailing is very common among larger businesses interested in growing their event further. Vertical strategy occur when business expand into new areas connected with its business processes.

 

Various strategies exist for each types of retailing designed to increase profits for the company. Market expansion occurs when businesses attempt to expand into area that increase their market share but not necessarily in different areas or even the same products.

 

Retailing strategy is a vertical strategy where businesses either enter industries in the supply chain ahead of them. In otherword, vertical retailing strategy is a means of guaranting distribution channels for products and services by building relationship with or taking control of distribution.

 

The intense competition in the market and changing customer preferences has made the retailers’ job difficult and challenging. It was observed that many retail outlets were opened and some of them were closed. This scenario has attracted the attention of many researchers to find solution for the same. During interaction with the organized NLR the need was identified to understand the retail challenges, and organizational performance.

 

In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the retail challenges and their effect on organizational performance. The remainder of the paper focuses on these issues. The first section focuses on literature survey on retail challenges. The second section focuses on the organizational performance. The third section focuses on research methodology to design and execute research for the same. In the last section the paper ends with discussion, limitation and space for future research. The technique of factor analysis has been applied to classify factors for retail challenges and technique of structural equation modeling has been applied to test hypotheses.

 

Businesses save money by selling products they creates and free the supplier from the threat or influence of major buyer. Firms tend to add new product to their portfolio as they acquire new knowledge and integrate it with their existing knowledge base particularly in highly dynamic industries. The new knowledge often builds upon the existing knowledge, allowing for improvement in existing products such as high quality and ability to safety consumer’s needs. As a result, this process of knowledge creation and retailing  often improves the success of related products in the portfolio. The mix of different knowledge stocks enriches the firm’s capability to offer a greater variety of related products. In so doing, the firm can better satisfy customers’ needs in a manner superior to competitor’s product offerings.

 

On the other hand, the manufacturing industry remain one of the most critical engines for Economics growth and its performance as a catalyst to transform slow growing and low-value activities to more productive activities that enjoy greater margins and have higher growth prospects but its potential benefits are even greater in present time with rapid technological change and for reaching liberalization and bridge income gap with the industrialized world. (Mike, 2010).

 

However, vertical retailing  implies that fortunes of a business unit are least partly tied to the ability of its in-house supplier or customer (who might be its distribution channel) to complete successfully. Technological changes, changes in product design involving components strategic failures or managerial problems can create a situation in which the in-house supplier is providing a high cost, inferior or inappropriate products and services. Essentially, there are two types of vertical retailing strategy.

 

Backward retailing strategy exists when firms develop its own sources of raw materials. It occurs when a firm develops into activities which are concerned with the inputs into its current business. (Oyedijo Ade, 2004).

 

Retailing strategy on the other hand occurs, when a firm is disposing off its own output by gaining ownership or increase control over distributors or retailers.

 

Increasing number of manufacturers today is pursuing a retailing strategy  by establishing web site, distribution outlet e.t.c. to sell their products directly to consumers. Thus, retailing strategy is an issue that concern with the company outputs i.e. the firm goes further retailing in the value chain by creating and providing its own distribution outlets, transportation system, repairs and servicing.

 

It is argued that increased vertical retailing has resulted in lowering prices of both the unmerged input suppliers and the vertically integrated firm (McAfee1999). Theoretically, literature contends that vertical retailing or coordination will create efficiencies by reducing the transaction costs associated with market exchange. (William Son, 1974). Other most commonly argued benefits of vertical retailing  include the reduction of risk, improves supply chain, coordination, captures upstream and downstream profit margins, the ability of integrated firm to innovate and differentiate, it enhances steady near capacity production operation through the creation of ones own dependable channels for pushing product to the end –users, increased efficiency in the exchanged of information and organizational structures and improved market positions of the integrated firm.

 

Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to empirically examine the effect of vertical retailing on the performance of integrated firms more specifically; we examine the impact of retailing strategy on the performance of Cadbury Nigeria Plc.

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Since problems and difficulties are common to all industrial sectors, manufacturing industrial sectors have no immunity. This research work is carried out with the objective to provide solution to problems facing manufacturing industries:

1.  The problem ranges from inadequacy of vertical retailing planning.

2.  Lack of gaining control over distributors,

3.  Unlimited availability of qualified and competent distributors

4.  Weak form of machineries that is put in place to implement retailing strategy,

5.  Lack of enough capital and human resources needed to manage the business.

6.  High cost of market transactions and administration activities within an organization

7.  Lack of stable production desire to gain competitive relative

This cost advantage over rivals through the use of retailing strategy and the enhancement of selling prices to the end users in which the organization can increase the predictability of demand for its outputs through retailing strategy.

 

 

 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY      

§  To evaluate the effect of retail strategy on organizational  performance

§  To determine how retail strategy affects the attainment of organization goals

§  To examine the extent in which organization’s retail outlets has increase market share.

§  To evaluate the effect of an organization servicing department on productivity

§  To know the effect of lower selling prices to end users on the profitability of manufacturing industry.

 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

§  Does organization’s retail outlets increases market share?

§  To what extent has servicing department of an organization contributed to productivity?

§  Does the adoption of retailing strategy helps in the attainment of organization goals?

§  Does retailing strategy increase the profitability rate of organizational performance?

§  Does organizational control of sales have any effect on organizational profitability? 

 

1.5   RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Ho;   There is no significant relationship between organization retail outlets and market share.

Hi:    There is significant relationship between organization retail outlet and market share.

Ho:   There is no relationship between servicing department of an organizational performance and productivity.

Hi:    There is relationship between servicing department of an organizational performance and productivity.

Ho:   There is no correlation between retailing strategy and the attainment of organizational goals.

Hi:    There is correlation between retailing strategy and the attainment of organizational goals.

 

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Retailing strategy as a general strategy helps to position a company to sustain a competitive hedge over its rivals. In many industries, independent sales agent, wholesalers and retailers handled competing brands of the same product having no allegiance to any one company’s brand they tend to push whatever sells and earns them the biggest profits a manufacturer can be frustrated in his attempt to win higher sales and market share or maintain steady, near- capacity production, if it must distribute its products through distributors and/ or retailers who are only half heartedly committed to promoting and marketing its brand as proposed to those of rivals. In such cases, it is advantageous to a manufacturer to integrate retailing into wholesaling or retailing via company own distributorship or chain of retail stores.

 

Another important relevance of retailing is franking, where the franchisor grants to its franchises the right to use the franchisors name, reputation and business skills at a particular location or area. This helps to lessen the financial burden of swift expansion and so permit rapid growth of the company and help reap the advantages of large scale advertising as well as economics of scale, management and distribution. Business can expand rapidly by franchising because costs and opportunities are spread among many individuals.

 

1.7   SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of this research work shall be restricted to Cadbury Nigeria Plc. The research work focus on retailing strategy as a tool to achieving lower selling prices to the end users. However, the study was limited by the following:

v Time

v Finance

v Information availability.

 

1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS

v STRATEGY: This is refers to as the ideas, plans that firm employed to compete successfully against rivals.

v MANUFACTURING: This is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods.

v PERFORMANCE: It is refers to the end result of activity.

v RETAILING: This is the process of combining two or more things in order to work together.

v PROFITABILITY: This is the money someone made in business after paying the costs involved.

v PRODUCTIVITY: Is the rate at which a worker or company produces goods and amount produced, compared with how much time and money is needed to produce them.

v COMPETITOR: A person or organization that compete against others especially in business.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Aluko, M, Odugbesan Osuagwu. A. et al (1997); Business Policy and strategy Nigeria; Longman Publisher.

Approach: Unpublished Doctorial Dissertation, State University of New York, Binghamton.

Cowton, C.J (1998) “The use of secondary data in Business Ethics Research” Journal of Business ethics, 17:423-427

David, (2001). “Empirical studies of vertical retailing ”. The transaction cost orthodoxy. Report from university of Torina and ceris.

Fernando, B. R (1995). The effect of vertical retailing  on oil company performance. Oxford Institute for energy studies.

Gerry, J and Kevan, .S. (2005); Exploring Corporate Strategy, Singapore, Pearson  Education.

Henderson, B. (1973); The experience curve reviewed iv, the growth share matrix or product portofolio. Big perspectives 135.

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Kazmi, A.(2002) Business policy and strategy management (2nd). New Delhi Tat McGraw-Hill publishing company limited.

MAN (1994) “Nigeria Industrial Directory: Manufacturing Association of Nigeria.

Mike, J.A (2010) the structure of Nigerian manufacturing industry. The National Workshop

 

 

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