- THE EFFECT OF GOVERNMENT EXPORT PROMOTION POLICIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPORT BUSINESS IN NIGERIA (A STUDY OF THE NIGERIAN EXPORT PROMOTION COUNCIL [NEPC])
- THE EFFECT OF MANPOWER TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON OGRANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A CASE OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC.)
- THE EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS, IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AJEROMI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
- EFFECT OF GOVERNMENT EXPORT PROMOTION POLICIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPORT BUSINESS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIAN EXPORT PROMOTION COUNCIL)
- A SURVEY OF PROBLEM AFFECTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN SOME SELECTED JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN ALIMOSHO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.
- EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER ON STUDENTS EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAINLAND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
- EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS, IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AJEROMI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
- THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN IKEJA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
- EFFECT OF STUDENTS’ ABILITIES, CLASS SIZE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BADAGRY LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)
- TEACHING AND LEARNING PROSE IN SCHOOLS (A CASE OF OKO-AFO SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL AND GOVERNMENT SENIOR COLLEGE, BADARY)
EFFECT OF STABILITY TRAINING ON THE DYNAMIC BALANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN AKOKA PRIMARY SCHOOL, YABA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
The issue of study-duration extension in education is like a hole in a tooth; boldly challenging the perfection of education and constantly questioning its efficiency. This study explores this distasteful phenomenon, highlighting its causative factors, antecedence and implications. It is delimited to the Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Lagos. The sample population were 40 extra-year students from the above-mentioned Department. The Chi-square statistical tool was employed in data analysis. The following recommendations were made: Students who represent the University in sporting competitions, their movements should be made known to the lecturers and other teaching personnel in the institution. Arrangements should also be made to set up make-up test, assignments and examinations for them, which they may miss while representing the institution. Cohort advisers need to be motivated and encouraged to live up to their expectations. Checks and balances should be made on their activities by the appropriate personnel, while considering feedbacks from advisees. There is need to continually guide students against the effects of negative peer pressure, so that it may not affect their academic goals and achievements.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Research questions 5
1.5 Research hypotheses 5
1.6 Significance of the study 6
1.7 Delimitation of the study 6
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Physiology of balance 8
2.2 Biomechanics of balance 11
2.3 Balance assessment 16
2.4 Balance training studies in athletes 22
2.5 Core stability training studies in athletes 26
2.6 Balance training in athletes with injuries 27
2.6 Summary 29
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Method 31
3.2 Population of the Study 31
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 32
3.4 Research Instrument 32
3.5 Validity of Research Instruments 32
3.6 Reliability of Research Instrument 32
3.7 Procedure for Data Collection 32
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 33
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Subjects 34
4.2 Balance testing procedure 36
4.3 Training Program 39
4.4 Discussion of findings 45
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 48
5.2 Conclusion 49
5.3 Recommendation 50
1.1 Background to the Study
Balance, the ability to maintain a stable position over a base of support is an important component of a human’s single leg stance ability (Matsuda, Demura & Uchiyama, 2008; Paterno, Myer, Ford & Hewett 2004). Typically, balance forms the basis for motor skills, from simple to more challenging, in sports (Anderson & Behm, 2005; Davlin, 2004). Balance, dynamic in nature, requires single limb control in order to complete functional tasks during sports, such as kicking, jumping, landing, tackling, running and evading. Dynamic balance requires a combination of both ankle and knee proprioception and core stability in order to maintain an upright posture.
Balance incorporates the visual, vestibular and somato-sensory input from afferent and efferent control strategies (Matsuda, Demura & Uchiyama, 2008; Simoneau, Ulbrecht, Derr & Cavanagh, 1995).
Proprioception is a specialized sensory modality that includes the sensation of joint
and muscle movement and known as kinesthesia and joint position sense (Lephart, Pincivero, Giraldo & Fu, 2007). Core stability is the body’s ability to maintain dynamic equilibrium of the trunk as a result of internal or external disturbance (Zanzulak, Cholewicki & Reeves, 2008). Research supports the proposition that, physiologically, muscle and joints have proprioceptive qualities, but there has been limited applied research on the practical applications of balance training for elite team sport athletes (Lephart, Pincivero, & Giraldo 2007).
While balance studies have assessed the impact of balance training in reducing injury reoccurrence, there is less research investigating whether balance training including wobble board and core stability exercises, improves balance in the able bodied person. While balance studies have included balance training typically using wobble boards, core stability exercises are also an important component of developing dynamic balance. The trunk or ‘core’ provides an anatomical stable base for movement of distal segments (Kibler, Press & Sciascia, 2006).
Studies of dynamic balance have typically assessed balance through the intervention of balance training over 4-10 weeks (Guillou, Dupui & Golomer, 2007; Hertel, Olmstead-Kramer & Challis, 2006; Jonsson, Seiger & Hirschfield 2004; Tropp & Askling, 1988; Tropp, Romeu & Wojecic, 1984; Verhagen, Van der Beek, Twisk & Bouter, 2005).
For athletes, the realization of the benefit of stability training is small at first. They are questioning why they have to do it at all. But if they stick with it, they notice that doing an everyday activity starts to become a little easier (Kibler, Press & Sciascia, 2006). That sack of groceries can be grabbed with one hand. Climbing the stairs takes less effort. Sports skills become a little crisper and smoother. The connection is not there yet but it starts to make them wonder what is going on (Louriero, 2009).
An example of a stability training tool is the Swiss ball. Maintaining proper alignment on the ball stimulates the body's natural motor reflexes and encourages the body to react as a whole, integrated unit. This type of movement corresponds to how you move about in a normal day. Training on the ball challenges the whole body to participate in order to maintain correct posture and balance, and to perform dynamic exercise movement (Gaerlan, Landreau & Ferraro, 2012). When using the ball correctly, the body is required to utilize various muscles for stabilization. These muscles may not have been previously challenged using traditional exercise equipment. Because the ball is versatile and dynamic the training outcome will deliver maximal results.
The simplicity of the stability ball translates into balance.( Azri, Calisaya, Candela & Richards, 2009) Because the ball demands balance, you will work muscles you never knew you had or challenge them in a different way. The trial of maintaining perfect posture, on a round and mobile surface can be invigorating, fun and amazingly effective in building functional strength, and challenging your abdominal and back muscles ( Azri, Calisaya, Candela & Richards, 2009)
The versatile nature of stability training is designed to improve balance, body awareness, coordination and posture. There are different positions and exercises where this can be used so it will never be boring, revealed Azri, Calisaya, Candela & Richards (2009). Azri, Calisaya, Candela & Richards (2009) also revealed that stability training is considered to be the most effective exercise tool to improve and develop pelvic, shoulder and spine stability because the person has no other support to rely own except his or her own body. If you feel like falling off, your body will automatically alert you of the problem and then make the necessary corrections thus reinforcing positive movement patterns ( Azri, Calisaya, Candela & Richards, 2009).
Besides being a tremendous benefit to your body, it adds another layer of variety to your current strength training protocol. By replacing your bench with the ball you can add a whole new level of coordination and balance to your seated and lying exercises; not to mention the great core muscle strength and endurance you develop from stabilizing your body during all of your sets and repetitions (Drevet, 2009).
The current research is being undertaken as there seems to be little or no research investigating the effect of stability training exercises on the dynamic balance of children in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The researcher has noticed that the quality of balance in individuals is a relative quality, ranging from person to person. The degree of dynamic balance depends on many factors, some of which are injuries, congenital defects and poor postures. Children are vulnerable to these factors, which, coupled with inexperience and a relative lack of information, can compromise their balance. The problem of this study is to determine how stability training can help to offset the effect of the predisposing factors and influence children’s balance.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of stability training programme on the dynamic balance of Akoka Primary school pupils.
1.4 Research questions
The following research questions will be answered during the course of this study
1. Will stability training affect the co-ordination of primary school pupils?
2. Will stability training affect the agility of primary school pupils?
3. Will stability training affect the flexibility of primary school pupils?
4. Will stability training affect the reaction time of primary school pupils?
1.5 Research hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested in this study
1. Stability training will not significantly affect the co-ordination of primary school pupils.
2. Stability training will not significantly affect the agility of primary school pupils.
3. Stability training will not significantly affect the flexibility of primary school pupils.
4. Stability training will not significantly affect the reaction time of primary school pupils.
1.6 Significance of the study
The findings of this study will be of importance to coaches, physical education teachers and trainers because it will generate valuable information concerning the stability of their trainees. It will also reveal to them the importance of stability training and how stability relates to other factors of fitness.
1.7 Delimitation of the study
This study is delimited to the effect of stability training exercises on the dynamic balance of primary school pupils in Yaba Local Government Area of Lagos state using the experimental research design.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Stability training exercises: A series of activities aimed at improving the sense of physical stability of participants.
Dynamic balance: The ability of a child to maintain a center of gravity over a constantly changing base of support.
Proprioception : The process by which the body can vary muscle contraction in immediate response to incoming information regarding external forces, by utilizing stretch receptors in the muscles to keep track of the joint position in the body.