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EFFECT OF STRENGTH TRAINING ON THE ARM STRENGTH OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE


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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of strength training on the arm strength of secondary schools students in Lagos state. An experimental research method was adopted in carrying out the study. The four group pre test, post test research design was used for this study. The students four groups were measured on their arm strength and their scores were recorded. The population for this study consists of all secondary schools students in Yaba Local Government area of Lagos state. A total of thirty (40) participants were selected through a simple random sampling technique. Ten (10) students were selected randomly into the four groups for the strength training exercises. The standardized instruments were used in conducting the pre test, post test and also during the strength training exercises. The procedure to be used was submitted to the project supervisor for vetting, correction and approval before carrying out the experiment. Standardized test and instruments were used in data collection during the study. The forty (40) students who formed the experimental group performed the following strength training exercises for six weeks such as push up, biceps curl, overhead press and flat bench press exercises. Their performance during the pre test and post test were recorded on a record sheet. Data from the experiment conducted were analyzed using the descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages. While the hypotheses were tested using the inferential statistics of t-test and tested at a 0.05 level of significance. The hypotheses tested were rejected. It is concluded that push up exercise, biceps curl exercise, overhead press exercise and flat bench press exercise have effect on the arm strength of secondary school students in Lagos state. The study hereby recommends that students should be encouraged to engage in strength training exercise to improve their fitness level.

 


TABLE OF CONTENT

 PAGES

Title page                                                                                                                   i

Certification                                                                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                                                                 iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                                     iv

Abstract                                                                                                                     v

Table of Content                                                                                                      vi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study                                                                                  1         

1.2 Statement of the problem                                                                                 3

1.3 Purpose of the study                                                                                         4         

1.4 Research question                                                                                             4         

1.5 Research Hypotheses                                                                                        5         

1.6 Significance of the study                                                                                  6         

1.7 Delimitation of the study                                                                                 6         

1.8 Limitation of the study                                                                                                

1.9 Definition of terms                                                                                            7         

 

CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Concept of Physical Fitness                                                                             9

2.2 Component of Physical Fitness                                                                       14

2.3 Concept of Strength Training                                                                          23

2.4 Basic Principles of Strength Training                                                             25

2.5 Strength Training Exercises                                                                             25

2.6 Effect of strength training exercises on the arm strength                            50

 

CHAPTER THREE : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Method                                                                                                            53

3.2 Research Design                                                                                                 54

3.3 Population                                                                                                           55

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                   55

3.5 Research Instrument                                                                                          55

3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument                                                      55

3.7 Procedure for Data Collection                                                                          55

3.8 Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                             55

 

CHAPTER FOUR : ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Demographic Analysis of Participants                                                           57

4.2 Testing of Hypotheses                                                                                      58

4.3 Discussion of Findings                                                                                     66

CHAPTER FIVE:   SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary                                                                                                             70       

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                                         71       

5.3 Recommendation                                                                                               71                   

     REFERENCES                                                                                                   73                                                                                                       

     APPENDIX                                                                                                          76


 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Strength training involve a manipulation of the number of repetitions (reps), sets, tempo, exercises and force to cause desired changes in strength, endurance or size by overloading of a group of muscles. The specific combinations of reps, sets, exercises, resistance and force depend on the purpose of the individual performing the exercise: to gain size and strength multiple (4+) sets with fewer reps must be performed using more force. Exercise selection should be limited to the basic foundational barbell movements such as the squat, bench press, overhead press and bent-over row (Rønnestad, Egeland, Kvamme, Refsnes, Kadi & Raastad, 2007).

Sports where strength training is central are bodybuilding, weightlifting, powerlifting, strongman, Highland games, shotput, discus throw, and javelin throw. Many other sports use strength training as part of their training regimen, notably american football, wrestling, rugby, track and field, rowing, lacrosse, basketball, poledancing (or polefitness) and hockey. Strength training for other sports and physical activities is becoming increasingly popular (Siff, 2003).

For developing endurance, gradual increases in volume and gradual decreases in intensity is the most effective program. It has been shown that for beginners, multiple-set training offers minimal benefits over single-set training with respect to either strength gain or muscle mass increase, but for the experienced athlete multiple-set systems are required for optimal progress. However, one study shows that for leg muscles, three sets are more effective than one set (Rønnestad, Egeland, Kvamme, Refsnes, Kadi & Raastad, 2007).

Beginning weight-trainers are in the process of training the neurological aspects of strength, the ability of the brain to generate a rate of neuronal action potentials that will produce a muscular contraction that is close to the maximum of the muscle's potential. Exercises like sit-ups, or abdominal crunches, performs less work than whole-body aerobic exercises thereby expending fewer calories during exercise than jogging, for example. Hypertrophy serves to maintain muscle mass, for an elevated basal metabolic rate, which has the potential to burn more calories in a given period of time compared to aerobics. This helps to maintain a higher metabolic rate which would otherwise diminish after metabolic adaption to dieting, or upon completion of an aerobic routine (Rønnestad, Egeland, Kvamme, Refsnes, Kadi & Raastad, 2007).

Weight loss also depends on the type of strength training used. Weight training is generally used for bulking, but the bulking method will more than likely not increase weight because of the diet involved. However, when resistance or circuit training is used, because they are not geared towards bulking, women tend to lose weight more quickly. Lean muscles require calories to maintain themselves at rest, which will help reduce fat through an increase in the basal metabolic rate. Strength training is a safe form of exercise when the movements are controlled, and carefully defined. However, as with any form of exercise, improper execution and the failure to take appropriate precautions can result in injury. A helmet, boots, gloves, and back belt can aide in injury prevention (Manninen, 2006).

1.2 Statement of Problem

In schools all over the country it is important for students to develop good arm strength and engage in strength training exercises as it helps to provide greater muscular strength, improved muscle tone and appearance, increased endurance and enhanced bone density.

In Nigerian schools today, it is noticed that majority of students do not engage in physical activities or exercise that would significantly build their arm strength. The researcher therefore aims to identify the impact of strength training exercise on the arm strength among these students.

There are however numerous strength training exercise that might be done to improve the arm strength of students at the secondary school level. Such exercises would include push up, biceps curl, overhead press and flat bench press exercises as they involve direct use of the arm. If these exercises are conducted properly they might meaningfully increase the arm strength of secondary schools students in Lagos state. This forms the main reason for carrying out this research work.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to examine the effect of strength training on the arm strength of secondary school students in Lagos state.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised and answered in the course of the study:

1.      Will push up exercise have effect on the arm strength of secondary school students in Lagos state?

2.      Will biceps curl exercise have effect on the arm strength of secondary school students in Lagos state?

3.      Will overhead press exercise have effect on the arm strength of secondary school students in Lagos state?

4.      Will flat bench press exercise have effect on the arm strength of secondary school students in Lagos state?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were tested in the study:

1.      Push up exercise will have no significant effect on the arm strength of secondary school students in Lagos state.

2.      Biceps curl exercise will have no significant effect on the arm strength of secondary school students in Lagos state.

3.      Overhead press exercise will have no significant effect on the arm strength of secondary school students in Lagos state.

4.      Flat bench press exercise will have no significant effect on the arm strength of secondary school students in Lagos state.

 

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is of important to the federal ministry of education, school sports administrators, sports directors the school physical educator and coaches all over Nigeria in making them understand the effect of strength training on the arm strength of secondary school students in Lagos state. This study would also be important in making the federal ministry of education and sports plan how to implement several strength training exercises such as push up, biceps curl, overhead press and flat bench press exercise to students in Nigerian secondary schools in other to provide them with the benefits strength training provides.

This study would also be important in providing necessary information to exercise physiologist in addition to existing knowledge on strength training exercise with reference to the Nigerian society.

1.7 Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to the following;

1.      All secondary schools students in Yaba Local Government area of Lagos state.

2.      Strength training exercises such as push up, biceps curl, overhead press and flat bench press exercises

3.      The use of t-test in analyzing data.

4.      Testing hypotheses at a 0.05 level of significance.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

The limitation that was encountered during the conduct of this research work was of getting students to participate in the whole process of the experimental study. Hence the school principal and coach was consulted to help provide students for the study.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Cardiovascular fitness: This refers to the efficiency of secondary school students in Lagos state hearts and lungs.

Flexibility: The capacity of secondary schools students in Lagos state joints or muscles around the arm to move through its full range of motion.

Physical fitness: The ability of secondary school students in Lagos state to carry out daily task with enough vigor and alertness and still have energy in reserve for emergencies.

Muscular Strength: The amount of force secondary school students in Lagos state muscles can produce with a single maximal effort.                                                                                         

Strength Training: The exercise such as push up, biceps curl, overhead press and flat bench press exercises done to improve the arm strength of secondary school students in Lagos state.


 

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