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EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION, A TOOL FOR THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ADMINISTRATION GOALS IN AN ORGANIZATION:
Effective communication in any organisation, regardless of its type and size remains critical, to the achievement of organisational objectives.This is more so, when any break communication will result in chase, misunderstanding and conflict. Bank PHB Plc lays great emphasis on the oral and written communication for the successful accomplishment of its goals and objectives. The objectives of this study therefore are; to find out different methods and channels of communication and how these can best be used in achieving organisational goals. It was to also find out the barriers and problems of communication and hour they can be solved. Consequent upon which, some recommendations were to be made on how organisations can improve their system of communication for optimum performance and higher productivity. The study adopted the descriptive method through structured means. The sute collected for this study were qualitative therefore, the research relied on descriptive analysis. A summary of the findings indicate that effective communication, is an important factor for any organisation, that wants to achieve its objectives. While it was also discovered that ineffective communication could led to difficulties such a break down in communication low moral, industrial conflict and low productivity.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents vii
1.1 Background of the study 10
1.2 Statement of the problem 11
1.3 Purpose of the study 12
1.4 Significance of the study 13
1.5 Research questions 14
1.6 Scope / Delimitation of the study 14
1.7 Definition of terms 17
Literature review 20
- Conceptual framework 38
- Theoretical framework 39
- Empirical review 42
Research methodology 43
3.1 Design of the study 43
3.2 Area of the study 43
3.3 Population of the study 44
3.4 Sample of the study 45
3.5 Instrument for data collection 45
3.6 Validation of the instrument 46
3.7 Distribution and retrieval of the instrument 46
3.8 Method of data analysis 46
Presentation of data and analysis 47
Research questions 53
5.1 Summary of findings 54
5.2 Conclusion 58
5.3 Recommendations 59
5.4 Limitation of the study 60
5.5 Suggestions for further research 60
Communication is the act of transferring information from one person to another; it could also be means of transmitting and conveying of ideas, attitudes, view and opinions from person to person, generation to generation. Communication to avery large audience, and vice versa.
Social organization cannot survive without communication. You can imagine what the situation will be like if you gather people together and cannot communicate to them; the situation will be quite uncontrollable. Irrespective of how poor or rich and organization is, there exist some spectrum of communication, in all without it no organisation. It is so vital that without it, no organisation can succeed. Infact, communication is indispensable to human existence because one must need to communicate with people around him to share ideas, experience and feelings. An organization where channels of communication, or where it is not working well should need it or have the already existing ones reinforced the employers would like the feelings of the employee, customers and the general public communication to help streamline action and activities in the organization. The employees, mere especially would like to know the objectives of the organization in which they are working for. They will affect them are about to be affective. They will also like to know what is expected of them in the organization, to abide the rules and regulation sand to make know to the organization their feeling, decisive, aspiration and efforts. The will also like to be recognize by other members of the organization especially management. An organization is deemed a goodone when its objectives are derived from those of its members and this can only be achieved by establishing an effective, hence is well informed of the organizational plans and given at same time the chance to make own contributions to the advantage of the management and its entity.
Every organization has a definite objective which is strives to achieve and live up to. For instance, legal institutions at their various levels aim at turning out good, disciplined and well behaved citizens for the country social, economic and political development, police and other law enforcement agencies have the objective of curbing and suspension of deviant behaviours and to bring order to sanity.
1. The society – business organizations are set up for the provision of goods and service the people at the minimum cost and minimum profit. Educational institution, at their various levels aim at turning out literate citizens with high level manpower for the country social, economic and political development, voluntary and religious organizations like the red – cross boys – scouts, girls guides, boys brigade and girls brigades and various churches areset up moral instrument, character moulding and offering humanitarian services to the needy.
According to Ukeku (1983: 20) human resources are the most important tools of every organization, since without them, other resources cannot operate.
These personnel who are the vehicles through which organizational objectives are attained have to be property managed for effective performance, Aenyer (1970:20), it is concerned with the direction and control of an organization it involves planning and direction of work of others.
These managerial functions cannot be successfully executed in the absence of communication. It is particularly, important in the function of directing and leading. It is only when people can open up and burst each other with a share of their true self. Hence, communication is the life wire of the organization.
2. Communication function - is the means by which organization, activity is unified, social inputs are fed into organization, behaviour is modified changes are effect information is made productive and goals are achieved. A personnel officer or a superior officer engages in communication with an individual with the purpose of changing his behaviour. Hemay have discipline or corrective objective in counselling situation which has emotional content the superior should listened empathically to the employees or subordinates, empathy means putting oneself in somebody else shoes or place and emotions. Empathetic listening is therefore a part of two way communication. The subordinate must have the opportunity to express himself and it is only when he has made himself know that the superior will know where to assist him.
Communication is essential for both internal and external functioning of enterprises. Its needs internally, includes integrating the management function to development plans for their achievement to organise human and material resource for maximum productivity and above all to create the conductive atmosphere for effective and efficient organizational performance. External communication is also vital for every organization in order to achieve success. It is through information exchange that manager do know the needs of their numerous customers both consumers and suppliers legal and community requirement, condition s in the labour market, new product line expectations, plans and strengthen plans for business trend innovations.
No organization be it military, business, religious and even government can succeed without external interaction and influence which is only possible through communication.
Brow (1985:116) stressed that communication is the process of transmitting ideas and thoughts from one person to another for the purpose of creating ideas and thoughts from one person to another for the purpose of creating understanding in the thinking of the person receiving the information.
This emphasis on understanding focuses attention on the importance of communication for effective organizational performance.
Anker (1978:102) stated that information is the manager’s main tool since; he does not “handle” people but motivate, guide and directly them to perform in conformity with the desired goals. The manager’s only tool to do this language charts gestures and other movements.
Whatever method that is applied, the important thing is understanding by the receiver for the necessary action no matter the manager’s job, his effectiveness depends on his ability to speak and to write clear enough to get his thinking across to other people as well as understanding what other people are after. Managers should aim at organizing and co-ordinating human and material resources of his organization into an effective and efficient wording unit and to achieve this, he must spend a good percentage of his time on communication. It is only when human and material elements of an organization are harnessed into a united whole that the organization objective can be achieved through effective performance.
In spite of the importance of communication for effective organizational performance, many business organizations in Nigeria to day pay no attention to it.in the office, most of the flies are labelled confidential with the result that those who are supposed to u utilize the information for effective performance are denied access to the fact. How can an organization MEMBER PERFORM CREDITABLE WELL WHEN HE IS NOT? When can an organisation member know when he is contravening the rules and regulation if his organization when on-one has cared to make such known to him/ how can such an organisation expects to succeed or achieve its objective of those with whom and through whom it wished to achieve its objectives are not aware of “while” indolence, stricks and sick reports abound in public office,stricks and the likes occur more frequently as a result of poor and ineffective communication between the management and members of the organization. None of these in any way aids the organization in its efforts to achieve its objectives.in view of this the research hopes that this will help to direct the readers minds towards realising the importance of effective communication in an organization it is various that effective communication minimize misunderstanding and increase mutual understanding trust and selfless services among organization employees.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Oyi local government area is one of the created local governments in the year 1996 by the military administration. The local government, is not insulate from the general leadership, and managerial problems facing the entire country as whole.
It must be remembered that our leadership question has its basic reflection in a necessary, to explain the problem from grass root hence the need to use a particular local example vice versa, oyi: local government area.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
1.2.1 As earlier stated in the introduction, most of the conflicts and misunderstanding arises between individuals within an organization are as a result of lack of good and effective communication between the members and the management of the organization. The people are not informed or under formed on most of the plans of the organisation especially those that affect them and their work many management decisions are their work out their consent. Consequently, most of the policies passed down to them are regarded and supressed and aggrieved workers and bared from gaining access to their right quarters to lodge their complaints. The communication within which the organization is situated may be lacking many things and may be looking forward to its fulfilment by the organization so it is host communication in other to live up to the expectation of the community therefore, every management should do every thing humanly possible to maintain good communication is fundamental, to the existence of every human organization.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
In view of the problems stated the purpose of this study are as follows.
1. To determine the communication techniques used in Oyi local government.
2. To ascertain the system of communication used by the secretariat especially the language methods used.
3. To identify the types of communication within and outside the secretariat
4. To determine the most effective system secretariat communicates.
5. To determine the role of communication in achieving organization goals.
Based on the researches findings, necessary suggestions and recommendation will offered for general consideration and implementation where humanly and financial will be possible.
1.4 Significance Of The Study
The significance of the study are:
1. Focusing the attention of managers to the importance of communication for effective performance.
2. Revealing the role of communication to achieve organizational set objectives. Many organization have not absorbed and implemented an effective communication system. This reflects on the organizational, operation result, where strained relationship affect smooth operations. The research therefore, primary aims at focusing the attention of business manager to the importance. the role of communication to achieve the organizations set goals.
The beneficiaries are:
1. The schools, especially the higher institutions, e.g universities, polytechnics etc.
2. The society at large especially those engaged in one organisation or the other
3. The people in the authority (people at the corridor of power)
1.5 Research Questions
1. How effective is communication system in Oyi local government secretariat?
2. How high does the secretariat rate communication.
3. What methods are used to transmit information in Oyi local government secretariat?
4. Which method is the most effective.
1.7 Scope/Delimitation Of The Study
This study was carried on in Oyi local government Area of Anambra State the researcher emphasized on the effective communication a tool for the achievement of a administrative goals in an organization of Oyi environ.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Conceptual and operational definitions.
Communication: A process whereby ideas, information, facts, instructions, thought, opinions are transmitted from one person to another. It can be verbal, non – verbal or written message. The use of a common system of symbols sign, behaviour etc. for the exchange of information.
Concept: idea, thought, plane, picture in the mind purpose or opinion.
Operation: transmitting, sending out of the message encode.
Encoding: selecting the approximate media for easy transmission and understanding such media include words or phrase, symbols, charts facial expressions and gestures.
Organization: a social or a common purpose example of such includes churches, social clubs and business organizations.
Performance: the execution of an action, the fulfilment, of a claim, promise etc. the ability to work efficiently performance in this content means the ability of the organization to accomplish its primary goals objectives.
Organ gram: the organization structure which is a framework of the formal relationships that have been established in an organization. It is diagrammatical representation of the hierarchy of authority and the formal relationships that exist among the members of an organization.
Authority: the right to act and command others towards attainment of organizational goal in the field of management, some authors define authority as the power to command performance.
Policies: general statements that guide decision making in an organization. They are classified according to managerial levels and affected.
Efficiency: the extent to which the result was achieved atteast cost and it is determined by dividing out put by input.