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EFFECTIVENESS OF TRADE EXHIBITION AS A MARKETING TOOL IN SMALL & MEDIUM SCALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP
This study attempt to look at the effectiveness of trade exhibition as a marketing tool in small & medium scale entrepreneurship.
The main purpose of this study is to access the important of trade exhibition as a marketing tool in the society. The are major objective of trade exhibition these are:
(a) To create awareness for the product of the manufacture.
(b) It is use to test marketing product pending commercialization.
The research method adopted in his project are primary and secondary data. Through the use of questionnaire personnel interview journal and magazine.
The research instrument used and hypothesis test statistics are through the use of Chi-square method.
The following are the major finding of the study.
It significating increase the companied sales turnover.
It has impact on the company sale volume.
The major potential recommendation of the study are:
(a) Since trade exhibition has a positive impact on the company turnover a profit margin, it recommend that loyalted product limited, should make it a continuous policy.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Content vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Purpose of Study 3
1.2 Statement of problem 4
1.3 Significance of study 4
1.4 Research Question 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis 5
1.6 Research Methodology 6
1.7 Research Instrument 7
1.8 Research Design 7
1.9 Definition of terms 8
2.0 Historical Background 13
2.1 Trade Exhibition 16
2.2 Concept of trade exhibition 17
2.3 Trade exhibition & Advertising 19
2.4 Importance of trade fair 20
2.5 Reason for trade exhibition 22
2.6 Importance of exhibition in marketing of
consumer Goods 23
2.7 Evaluating Trade Exhibition result 25
2.8 Marketing Communication 27
2.9 Small & Medium Scale Entrepreneurship 29
2.10 Reason for the Strategic Importance of
S & M Scale Business 31
2.11 Trade Exhibition Contribution to S & M Scale Business 32
2.12 How to choose the right trade show for S & M
Scale business 33
3.0 Research Methodology 36
3.1 Research Design 36
3.2 Determination of population & Sample Size 38
3.3 Sample Technique 39
3.4 Data collection method 40
3.5 Research Instrument 42
3.6 Questionnaire Design 42
3.7 Validity 43
3.8 Reliability 44
Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 Bio-data Analysis 46
4.2 The Consumers 59
4.3 Test Hypothesis 65
4.4 Discussion of Findings 67
5.0 Summary 73
5.1 Conclusion 75
5.2 Recommendation 76
1.0 Background to the Study
The origin and traditional background of trade fairs can be traced to the time when neither good communication network of security needed for the establishment of pertinent commercial relationship were easily obtain.
The first significant trade fair in Nigeria was held in 1960 to add glamour to Nigeria Independence Celebration, through with less business motives. The first trade fairs with international magnitude was held in 1977 and 60 countries attended.
Over the years companies have come to accept trade exhibition as an effective way of creating awareness and this invariably stimulate the demand for their product. Trade Fair or exhibition can be effectively used regardless of the product lifecycle but it will be better applied at the introduction stage of a product.
This will allow patient consumers to know the product use and its design.
It is noteworthy that trade exhibition could be as small as one main exhibition in one room apartment, it can also be general or specialized exhibition, which could be held for commercial and non-commercial exhibition we are however interested in commercial exhibition. In recent time trade exhibition has gained prominence in the manufacturing industries. At present three international trade fair were held annually in Nigeria, Lagos, Kaduna & Enugu international trade fairs. These fairs are organized by the Nigerian Association of Chamber of Commerce & Industry Mines and Agriculture (NACCIMA).
The reason for organisation participation in trade exhibition as given by Christian Peterson (1972) are as follow:-
2. It could be used to create positions impression on the mind of the potential buyers or to correct negative impressions.
3. It could be used to serve as opportunity for a company without a regular sales force to show case their product to the public.
4. Trade exhibition could be used to test marketing product pending commercialization.
5. Trade exhibition could be used to test marketing product pending commercialization.
6. Trade exhibition could be used to show trade prestige i.e. if a company want to be seen among it competitors as a leader.
7. Trade exhibition is specifically use by small scale business to compete with large firm in already crowded business.
1.1 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The research study is directed towards finding out how effective trade exhibition is in marketing of consumer goods.
1. To know the extent trade exhibition has created awareness for the product of the manufacturer.
2. To know if trade exhibition can be used to forecast the demand for the company’s product.
3. To know if trade exhibition achieve the objectives set by the company.
4. To know or determine trade exhibition contribution to consumer relationship with the company.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
I have been encouraged to write on this topic because of the attitude of some business organisation who falls to realize and appreciate the role of trade exhibition play in the survival of any business organisation. The negative attitude of organisation toward the use of trade exhibition of promote the image of the company’s product has led to an increase level of imitation and life of many consumers are endangered and inadequate information about the organisation and its product.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This research intend to throw light on the need for trade exhibition in marketing of consumer goods the finding of the study will therefore be used to:
a. Throw more light on how consumer react to trade exhibition and its benefit in term of informing them about the product and at the same time enhancing the company’s product image.
b. The management of the company concerned will be able to know those that may arise as a result of competition.
c. It help the management of Loyalted Limited to really comprehend the benefit of trade exhibition.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. How often do you buy at trade exhibition?
ii. Does trade exhibition create awareness for the company product?
iii. Has trade exhibition influence consumer’s decision to buy a product?
iv. Does trade exhibition attract new consumer and increases the usages by existing consumers.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Trade exhibition have no impact on the company Sales.
Hi: Trade exhibition has impact on the company’s sales
Ho: Trade exhibition does not create awareness for the company’s product.
Hi: Trade exhibition create awareness for the company product.
Ho: That trade exhibition does not used to test in the market for consumer’s product.
Hi: That trade exhibition is used to test in the market for consumer product.
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This involved all activities performed in the collection of all necessary data and information required for the research. Data needed for this research study will be collected through primary and secondary sources.
a. Primary Data Sources: This will be carried out with the use of Questionnaire, the question are conducted on the staff or loyalted product limited.
b. Secondary Data Sources:- This will come from journal, magazines, books, newspaper, report, government publication on trade exhibition and other relevant material.
An overviews of the method of research is provide which include a description of the research method employed in collecting the data that were analysed to arrive at any conclusion. It also deals with the research design, population and sample size determination. Other area discussed are questionnaire design administration of questionnaire, method of data collection and also validity and reliability.
1.7 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The instrument for the above study is by applying the test statistic known as chi-square the formula is given as
c2 = E (Oi – ei)2
Where Oi = Observed Frequency
Ei = Expected Frequency
cc2 = Represent computation for the test
= represent chi-square in table
The expected frequency is calculated thus
Ei = Product of the marginal total pertaining to the sale under consideration.
1.8 RESEARCH DESIGN
In order to increase sales, create awareness and to avoid an eventual decline of the product in the market, many manufacturers of consumer goods have come a long way in their trade exhibition, strategies aimed at gaining more share of the market. The idea may not be totally rewarding if proper research is not clearing spelt. The limitation of this study are summarized as follow;
1. Time limitation:- The time available for the project does not allow a thorough and a detailed analysis of the topic but effort were made at arriving at a meaningful finding.
2. Limitation in terms of Survey:- In this regard some of the problem faced in the field survey are no response, not in the office etc all these affect the extent of study.
3. Cost:- This is another factor militating against the study, hence the scope was limited to Lagos.
4. The management no divulging information which they consider confident and use strategic decision regarding their exhibition and promotional strategies.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Brand Name:- This is a word letter or number which is bear able or can be realized given by a producer to a particular product to differentiate it from product of other producers.
2. Competitors:- These are people or organisation that seek to have an edge over their competitor by comparing either with good or services by producing goods of better and high quality and stressing the unique selling proposition of their product.
3. Products:- This is anything that can be offered to the market for use consumption or acquisition of their product can be tangible or intangible product are those cannot be seen.
4. Product Range:- This is production range of product that a company produces for consumption or offered to the market for use.
5. Consumer Goods:- These are goods offered to the market to be bought for direct consumption and not further processing before it can be used.
6. Exhibition: A Display of work of art manufactured goods and natural production for which people are expected to place order.
7. Infringement: An action which goes against take over the right of other.
8. Advertising:- This is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas goods ad services by an identified sponsor.
9. Promotion:- This is the communication to persuade or convince prospective consumers.
10. Personal Selling:- This is an oral presentation in a conversation with one or more prospective purchases for the purposes of making sales.
11. Publicity:- This is always in relation to the news about exhibition is part of.
12. Research:- This is an investigation or a search directed to the discovery of some fact by careful consideration or study of a subset
13. Sale Promotion:- This is short term incentives to encourage purchases or sale of product or service which trade exhibition is part of.
14. Target Market:- This is defined as consumer or group to which a form product or services is appealed to.
15. Precinct:- This is the amount of money (plus) that is charged on a product for an exchange.
16. Packaging:- This is the material used to wrap or protect goods from Spoilage and it is also used to pack good & product.
17. Trade: The business of buying & selling within a country or between countries.
18. Marketing Objective:- These are aims set to achieve by the management over a period it is usually customer oriented that the top management would want to accomplished.
19. Marketing:- A total system of interrelated organizational activities designed to plan, develop promote and distribute want satisfying product, services and ideas. It include all business activities necessary to affect transfer of ownership of goods and provide for their physical distribution form. Producer to the final consumer.
20. Consumers:- A consumer is a person that buy goods or product from another person, consumer can be divided into three (3) type these are:
a. Existing Consumer:- These are regular buyer
b. New Consumer:- These are new people buying the product for the first time.
c. No Consumer:- Those that are not buying the product.
Taylor James R. (1983) Marketing Research & Applied Approach 2nd Edition, Mc Graw-Hill Japa Pg. 12 – 25.
Kotler, Phillip (1986): Marketing Analysis, Planning & Control 4th edition Inc. Prentice Hall New Jersery. Pg. 6 – 15.
Johnson K. (1995): Advertising Analysis, on Promotion of Goods & Services.2nd Edition Mc-Graw – Hill Japan pg. 3 – 14.