EFFECTS OF BRANDING ON PRODUCT IMAGE (A STUDY OF UNILEVER NIG PLC)


Content

ABSTRACT

This research work focused on effects of branding on product image of selected Unilever NIG Plc’s fast moving Consumer Goods.(FMCG). The research critically and vividly looked into the meaning of branding, element of branding,   Economic and Psychological effect of branding on consumer purchase decision making process.

The method used is survey research design which gives room for primary data Questionnaire.  Questionnaire was administered on 100 consumer respondents. The regression analysis method is used to test the hypothesis and to examine the effect of branding on product image. During the course of findings, it was discovered that effective branding has an impact on new product performance and increases organizational sales volume. Since branding enhances the salability of the organization, sales volume will be increased. Conclusively the researcher deduced that effective branding affect the performance of new product in the market positively. Similarly it was also concluded that image which a product projects in the market is a function of effectiveness of the organizations branding decisions. Finally branding affects the generic image of the organization and ease the consumer decision making process, thereby leading to greater purchase of their products.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                               I

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                       II

DEDICATION                                                                                                                        III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                          IV

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                V

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                            VI

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0     Background of the study                                                                          1

1.1     Historical background of the study (Unilever Nig Plc)                      2

1.2     Statement of the problem                                                                        4

1.3     Research Objectives                                                                                   5

1.4      Research questions                                                                                    6

1.5      Research hypothesis                                                                                 6

1.6      Significance of the study                                                                          7

1.7      Operational definition of terms                                                             8                     

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1      Introduction                                                                                                            10

2.2      Historical background of the study (Unilever Nig Plc)                    11

2.3      Product and new product development (NPD)                                13

2.3.1  The features of a product                                                                        17

2.4      The concept of branding                                                                         24

2.4.1  Elements of branding                                                                                27

2.4.2  Brand                                                                                                             28

2.4.3  Defining brand equity                                                                               31

2.4.4 Types of brands                                                                                          37

2.4.5  Brand awareness                                                                                       38

2.4.6  Brand name                                                                                                 38

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS

3.1      Introduction                                                                                                            42

3.2      Restatement of Research Question                                                       43

3.3      Research Design                                                                                         43

3.4      Sample size and sampling techniques                                                 44

3.5      Restatement of research hypotheses                                                   45

3.6      Data collection instrument                                                                      47

3.7      Method of data collection and analysis                                               48

3.8      Scope/Delimitation of the study                                                            49

 

CHAPTER FOUR:DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1      Introduction                                                                                               51

4.2      Presentation and discussion of findings                                             51

4.3      Discussion of results                                                                                 68

4.4      Discussion on findings                                                                             71

 

CHAPTER FIVE : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1      Introduction                                                                                               72

5.2      Summary of findings                                                                                72

5.3      Conclusions                                                                                                 73

5.4      Recommendation                                                                                     73

5.5      Suggestion for further study                                                                 74

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                                                           75

APPENDIX                                                                                                    76

                                                         

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

It is paramount for an organization to promote an awareness of differences between the products and those of competitors.  Branding is one of the strategies of differentiating a product so that a company can compete in non-price basis i.e. a company product should be differentiated from competitive products.

 

Branding strategy is often used by companies selling reasonable standardized products such as soap, toothpaste and body cream or automobile to a brand market that is fairly homogenous in its demand for the given item.  Kotler and Keller (2006) said that “to be branded product must be differentiated” physical products vary in their potentials for differentiation.

 

Anyanwu (2006) said that branding is essential for advertising effectiveness.  This is because it is branding that distinguishes similar goods of different manufacturers.  It helps consumers to identify the brand identity of various goods.  A brand may begins with a name as in the case of ‘Pears’ ‘Omo’ ‘Lipton’ and ‘Lifebuoy’ but extends to other vital features – typography, colour, package design, slogan etc.  These are features which assist in creating, stimulating and maintaining demand. 

 

Confidence and consequently, image are based primarily upon satisfaction with using a company’s product and service and dealing with its people without the reality or value being present, it is virtually impossible to create the image of it.  The image of the company or its brand should be a major source of differential advantage.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Obviously, every research work seeks to proffer solution to certain research problems or questions.  Selecting a good brand name is one of the major tasks facing the management of an organization.  Bad brand name does not only destroy the image of a particular product but also affect consumer’s pre-disposition towards the other products produced by the company.  The negative effect of giving a bad brand name to a product necessitates the study on the effect of branding on the image of Unilever Nig Plc products.     Many organizations use loose words as their brand names.  Sometimes firms or organizations do not know the branding strategy to adopt which will result into:

1.                 Loss of customers to competitors

2.                 Decrease in sales volume

3.                 Loss of current market stand to the underdog competitors

4.                 Decrease in the organization or firm new product performance  

 

1.3       RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

This research work is aimed at providing solutions to branding problems facing an organization which may directly or indirectly affect the image of their product(s).  The following objectives will be pursued in this research work:

1.     To examine the effect of branding on new product image.

2.     To investigate if effective branding have any effect on sales volume.

3.     To investigate if branding affect consumer buying decisions.

 

1.4              RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In the course of carrying out this research, the following questions will be answered:

1.                 Does branding have an effect on new product image?

2.                 Does effective branding have any effect on sales volume?

3.                 Does branding affect consumer buying decisions?

 

1.5              RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Hypotheses are tentative statements or arguable assertion formulated about the characteristics of a defined population which may be accepted or rejected after critical investigation and tests (Adaramola, 2001).

In this regard however, state that every research work must be hinged on two forms of hypotheses, namely: null hypothesis (H0) and alternative hypothesis (H1).  The testable hypotheses for this research work include:

HYPOTHESIS 1

H0: Effective branding does not have any effect on new product image.

H1: Effective branding has an effect on new product image.

HYPOTHESIS 2

H0:     Effective branding does not have effect on sales volume.

H1:     Effective branding has effect on sales volume.

HYPOTHESIS 3

 H0:  Effective branding does not have effect consumer buying decisions.

 H1:  Effective branding has effect on consumer buying decisions.

 

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will enable the management of Unilever Nigeria Plc and other organizations to know the effect of effective branding on their products or product image.  It will also contribute to the academic discipline serving a good and reliable secondary data for the up-coming researcher who might be interested in conducting further research on the same course.

 

1.7     OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Product: It is anything that meets the functional needs of customers.

Brand: It is a specific name, symbol or design or more usually some combination of those used to distinguish a particular product from those of competitors.

Awareness: Creating a developing striking presentation of a brand and spending sufficiently on advertising and promotion.

Brand name: Consults of words, letters or letters that can be vocalized.

Brand marks: It is the part of the brand that appears in form of symbol, design or distinctive colour or lettering.

Market: All potential customers sharing a specific need or want who might be willing and able to exchange something to satisfy that need and wants.

 

 

 

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