EFFECTS OF BUDGET AND BUDGETARY CONTROL IN BANKING SECTOR (A Case Study of First Bank of Nigeria Plc.)


Content

ABSTRACT

In both developed and developing countries, the government is turning to small and medium scale industries and entrepreneurs, as a means of economic development and a veritable means of solving problems. It is a seedbed of innovations, inventions and employment. Entrepreneurship is as old as Nigeria and had contributed to the growth of the economy. Presently in Nigeria, SMEs assist in promoting the growth of the country’s economy, hence all the levels of government at different times have policies which promote the growth and sustenance of SMEs.

 

This paper identifies the orientation of SME’s and entrepreneurial trends in Nigeria, tackles the operational definition and scopes, and describes the role of the Nigerian government as a participant, regulator and facilitator, both legally and politically in the growth of SMEs and entrepreneurship. It identifies the marketing problems of SMEs and entrepreneurships in Nigeria, the provision and enactment of beneficial and supportive laws, the provision of infrastructural facilities, constant man-power and development, direct financial assistance to SMEs and the establishment of finance institutions to support SMEs. It identifies the roles of SMEs in Nigeria’s development and growth. It discusses the entrepreneurial thoughts, problems and advance practical marketing solution. It concludes by clearly specifying the role of marketing to the survival of SMEs and entrepreneurship in Nigeria, and relevant recommendations. For SMEs to survive marketing practice and principles must be given prominence.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                 PAGES

Title Page ……………………………………………………………………………. i

Certification…………………………………………………….   ……………………         ii

Dedication…………………………………………………………………………….           iii

Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………..            iv

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………. v

Table of Contents………………………………………………………………….            vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the Study……………………………………………...           1

1.2      Statement of the Problems……………………………………………          1

1.3      Significance of the Study……………………………………………….          2

1.4      Research Hypotheses……………………………………………………          3

1.5      Research Questions………………………………………………………          4

1.6      Method of Data Collection …………………………………………….          5

1.7      Method of Data Analysis ……………………………………………….         5

1.8      Scope and Limitations of the Study…………………….…………..         5

1.9      Definition of Terms………………………………………………………           7

1.10   Historical Background of First Bank of Nigeria Plc …….   8

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1      Introduction ……………………………………………..………………..            12

2.2      Techniques for Compiling Budget ………………………………             13

2.2.1 Increment Based Budget [IBB] ……………………………………            13

2.2.2 Zero Based Budgeting (ZBB) …………………………………………          14

2.2.3 Activities Based Budgeting (ABB) …………………………………           15

2.2.4 Programme Planning Budgeting System (PPBS) …………….          15

2.3      The Budgeting Process   ……………………………………………….          16

2.4      The Origin of Budget in First Bank of Nig. Plc  ………………           19

2.5      Budget Committee and its Importance  …………………………          19

2.5.1  Importance of Budget Committee  …………………………………         21

2.5.2  The Cooperation of Departmental Head in the Preparation

of Budget ………………………………………………………………………        21

2.5.3 The Responsibility of Management in the Preparation of

Budget ………………………………………………………………………….         22

2.6      Budget Preparation  ………………………………………………………        24

2.6.1  How Realistic is the Budget ……………………………………………        27

2.6.2 Treatment of Variances   …………………………………………………       28

2.7      Branch Office Budget and Management Approval at First

Bank Nigeria Plc ……………………………………………………………         30

2.8      The Importance of the Budget to the Whole Organization...      31

2.9     Effectiveness and Short Comings of Budget ……………………..       32

2.9.1 During the Preparation of the Budget …………………………….         35

2.9.2 During the Operation of the Budget …………………………………       36

2.9.3  During the Comparison of the Budget ……………………………..       36

2.9.4 How the Shortcoming are Treated …………………………………..      37

References      39

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1      Introduction …………………………………………………………………         41

3.2      Research Design ……………………………………………………………         41

3.3      Population of the Study…………………………………………………..       42

3.4      Sample and Sampling Technique ……………………………………        42

3.5      Method of Data Collection ………………………………………………       42

3.6          Method of Data Analysis …………………………………………………       43

3.7      Scope and Limitation of the Methodology ………………………..      43

3.8      Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument ……………….      44

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDING

4.1      Data Presentation …………………………………………………………..       45

4.2      Test Hypotheses …………………………………………………………….       54

4.3      Discussion of Findings ……………………………………………………       57

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1      Summary ……………………………………………………………………            58

5.2      Conclusion  …………………………………………………………………           58

5.3      Recommendations ………………………………………………………           60

References ……………………………………………………………………………………….        62

Appendix …………………………………………………………………………………………        64

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This introductory aspect is to provide an insight to the frame upon which the study "Budgeting as a tool of Management Control" is based. Budget has been a vital tool of management control right from inception of organization study.

This is as a result of the growing complexity of the business environment and the high level of competition in the market place, which has made budgeting an invaluable management tool.

The management must know where it wants the organization to be at the end of a future period and how it intends to get there. Thus preparation of budget involves the development of set of estimates of future cost and revenue in a form 'which will coordinate the activities in accordance with selected objectives and will serve as a standard for cost control.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Some problems may be encountered in the process of carrying out research on this topic as budgeting in any company indicates re plans of how the company will be run. It might be difficult to be able to have access to some information which bank may feel it is unsafe to disclose such information.

Budgeting control is the estimation of future -plans made for the purpose of making decision. Hence, this should be reviewed to ensure that they are the best in term adequate planning.

Subsequently, the actual result should be compared with estimates to ascertain the difference in order to discover the cause of variance and form what section or department of the bank does it occur.

 

1.3     SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

Management short comings over the year in analyzing and ranking budget proposals have not gone unnoticed. Stating the company's expectations (goals) in clear formal terms will help avoid confusion and facilitate their attainability. Also communicate expectation to all concerned with the management of the firm so that they are understood, supported and implemented. They also provide a detailed plan of action for reading uncertainty and for the proper direction of individual group effort to achieve goals.

The study is also considered relevant in the following way:

It is relevant to any business student and other related field since it covers almost what is required of them in budgeting. It can also serve as a guide to anybody preparing for any relevant professional examinations.

Bankers will also benefit from this study as it will provide a guide in making decisions on budgeting because bad budgeting can disorganize a business since budgeting involves plan quantified in monetary It will be of immense importance to potential investors either individual, companies or government since it will it provides a feasible basis for the assessment of the viability of the proposed business.

This project work may in the final analysis generate new hypothesis, which will lead to a more detailed research work and provide other scholar who wish to go into this area in the nearest future the relevant information with which to set file stage.

 

1.4     RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

In accordance with objective of this study and the researcher's interest in finding solutions to the problems at the inception of the study, two hypothesis have been formulated about the investment and financial decision in Nigeria economy and as it affect the operation of First Bank of Nigeria plc.

HYPOTHESIS ONE

Ho:      Budgetary system does not give a standard by which the organization actual performance is ascertained

H1:      Budgetary system gives a standard by which the organization actual performance is ascertained

HYPOTHESIS TWO

Ho:     Budget as a tool of management control is not necessary in an

organization.

H1:      Budget as a tool of management control is necessary in an organization.

 

1.5     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Research questions are those interrogative statements that arise often from the course of study, such questions are meant to provide information to the study. In order to achieve the purpose of this research study, the study will attempt to provide answers to the following research questions.

1.        Does budgetary system give a standard by which organization actual performance is ascertained?

2.        Is budget as a tool of management control necessary in an organization?

3.        What is the relationship between the necessary requisite features to be put in place and the efficiency and the effectiveness of budgeting and budgetary control in an organization like First Bank of Nigeria plc?

4.        Is there any relationship between a good budgetary system and the efficiency of a manufacturing organization like First Bank of Nigeria plc?

5.        Does a budgeting and budgetary control give standard by which the organization actual performance is ascertained?

6.        What is the effect of the human element as it affects the implementation of budgeting and budgetary control in First Bank of Nigeria plc?

7.        How much effect or impact does human element have on budgeting and budgetary control process?

 

1.6     METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

Data collection will be through primary and secondary source, i.e data will collected through searches in libraries, relevant journals, magazines, newspapers, textbooks e.t.c and also by the use of structured questionnaire.

 

1.7     METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

In this study, descriptive method will be used to analyze data and also in resting hypothesis, chi-square (X2) will be employed. Findings from this research study will be discussed in the light of the research problem hypothesis, purpose research questions, literatures of the research and other relevant issues conclusions will be drawn and recommendations and suggestions also will be made.

 

1.8     SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

In recognition of various impending limitations of this budget/project work budgeting as a tool of management control does not vividly reflect all the fact behind the project title but effort had been made by the researcher to arrange this study in such a manner that it covers the following areas.

·       The budget committee and its importance

·       Responsibility of management in the preparation of the budget

·       Preparation of cash budget

·       Treatment of variances

·       The importance of budget to the whole organization

·       Branch office budget and management Approval.

A review would be made on where the budgeting process of First Bank of Nigeria Plc. originates from the manager in charge of budget preparation, the extent to which budget estimates are achieved and the approaches disposal.

The researcher at this section find it very important to highlight some of the difficulties which was encountered during the course of carrying out this study and, which had hindered the aspiration of the researcher in terms of information educative Hess and volume.

It is pertinent to mention that time factor posed a considerable limitation to the study as the period between the commencement and the submission of the study is considerably short and most importantly the researcher has to combine other academic work with the writing of the project.

Despite all the above mentioned constraints, this study will serve informative, educative and useful purpose to all intending and existing investors, including bankers,. Manufactures, scholars as an insight, for them to set their own stage and basis upon future researches can be based upon.

 

1.9     DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.        Budget: According to CIMA, it is defined as a future plan of action or an approved estimate stated in both financial and quantitative term, prepared and approved prior to a definitive period of time of the policy to be pursued in order to achieve an objective during that period.

2.        Budgeting: This is simply a process of preparing a detailed short term plan (budget). It is the process in which objectives policies and policy measure, finding requirement and source and allocation of funds stated in the budget are determined.

3.        Budgetary Control: Simply put, it is the use of budget or budgets to control operations and activities of the organization. It refers to the continuous comparison of a level with targeted result so that corrective action could be taken in the adverse variances while actions taken to the advantage of favourable variance.

4.        Budget Committee: This is a committee responsible for the preparation of the organization’s budget. It usually comprises of executive management, senior budget holders and accounting officers.

5.        Budget Manual: This document describes the objectives and procedures involved in budgeting. It provides a useful reference source for managers responsible for budget preparation.

6.        Budgetary System: This according to UMA represents an amalgamation of three major components parts of budgeting, budget and budgetary control.

7.        Fiscal Policy: Refers to government budgeted measures to regulate the macro variables and economic activities through her expenditure and taxation.

8.        Standard: This is a predetermined level of activity.

9.        Rolling Budget: UMA defines it as the continuous updating of a short term budget by adding say a further month or quarter so that the budget can reflect current condition.

10.      Zero Based Budgeting (ZBB): This requires a budget center to justify the entire budget from the scratch (Zero) in each year of budget formulation.

 

1.10   HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC

This First Bank of Nigeria Plc. is a leading banking institution with a one hundred and fifteen years of banking experience, including and resilience behind it founded in 1894 by a shipping magnate front Liverpool, Sir Alfred Jones, the bank commenced as a small bank in the office of Elder Dempster & Company in Lagos.

Today, First Bank of Nigeria Plc. has diversified into a whole range of banking activities and services including commercial, merchant and international banking, become historically, a potent factor in the development of the country.

It was incorporated as a limited liability company in London on March 31, 1894 with Head Office in Liverpool under the corporate name of the bank of British West Africa with a paid up capital and $12,000 it started business after it had its pre-descent the Africa banking corporation, which was established earlier in 1892. The signaled beginning of the pre-eminent position, which the bank in its earlier years grew rapidly in close co-operation with 'the colonial government in performing the traditional roles of a central bank such as issue of specie in the West Africa sub region.

In 1896, a branch opened in Accra Gold Coast (now Ghana) while another was established in free town in 1898. This marked a mile stone in the bank's international banking thereby justifying its West African operational coverage.

The second branch in Nigeria was opened in the older Calabar in 1900 and two years later, services had extended to northern region. With a branch network- of more than 328 in year 2001 spread throughout the duration including London, the bank has the largest number of branch in the industry. The bank has experienced phenomenal growth over the years with a share capital of N55.6million in 1980 which has risen to 1215.million in 1994, the bank's total asset was N33.95 billion in 1994 and deposit base of N23.3million. When the bank operation in 1894, it had a staff strength of six. Comprising three Europeans and three Africans. Today, the bank in virtually fully Nigerians.

This is of course, has been the result of planning responsiveness to the teaming of the Nigerian populace and government, as well as the bank's determination to be identify with the aspiration of the country in its march toward national development in science of these, the bank has had good cause to continually adjust its organizational structure and corporate entity. Beginning with a change of its name to the Bank of West Africa in 1957 reflecting the movement towards independence by the West African Countries, the bank was incorporated locally in 1969 to standard Bank of Nigeria Limited, this was in response to the dictates of the companies Decree of 1968. Therefore, the active participation of Nigerians in the management of the bank was mad in 1979 and in 1991 to First Bank of Nigeria Limited and First Bank of Nigeria Plc. respectively. The enhanced level of operations and the need to respond to increasing competition have necessitated a consideration re-organization of the bank.

They begin seriously in 1985 when a new decentralized structure was introduced after a detailed analysis of the previous operational and reporting structure.

The fine turning of that structure in 1992 has paid off handsomely aggressive banking, decentralized decision making process and responsible directorate system have become the pillar of the bank's current operation in order to facilitate rapid response to customer services.

The bank, has manufactured its leadership in financing long-term development of the economy which stated in 1947 with a long tern loan to the colonial government. To date the banks boast of diversified portfolio and credit facilities to various sector of the economy. The Bank's rural banking records unmatched by and other banks with its agricultural credit facilities through community farming loan scheme have given peasant farmer tremendous access to the much needed bank credit. The Bank had won covered stock exchange Award, as the bank with the best financial reporting in the banking sector for several years. Similarly, for five years, the bank came first as the CBN's Farmer's Merit Award. The Bank has improved substantially on its operational performance in the last three years with a performance record in 1993.

These achievements provided the centenary in 18 Jan 2010, First Bank Nigeria Plc. recorded an- increase in market capitalization of 0.4 percent from N406.1 to N407.54 billion to retain the status of the most capitalized listed equity. On 2 March 2011 First Bank of Nigeria Plc. was the most active in the sub-sector trading 31.16 million shares valued at N467.59 million at 781. deals.

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