EFFECTS OF COMPUTER-BASED INSTRUCTION ON THE LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS OF HEARING IMPAIRED PUPILS IN LAGOS STATE SPECIAL PRIMARY SCHOOLS


Content

ABSTRACT

This research study was aimed at identifying the impact of Computer Based Instruction on the Learning effectiveness of the Hearing impaired Pupils.

A descriptive survey design was adopted while questionnaire demanding specific information were posed for the hearing impaired teachers.

Data collected from respondents were used for the study. A total number of two hundred (200) respondents comprising one hundred (100) males and one hundred (100) females were selected for the study.

They were included through the stratified sampling techniques. Data collected were analyzed using frequency and mean while hypotheses was tested using the independent t-test statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the findings revealed that most teachers of the hearing impaired pupils have not fully equipped or engaged themselves with new technology because they were not exposed to training that incorporate CBI into the teaching of the hearing impaired. It was indicated that CBI is relevant and effective to bring about high academic standard of the hearing impaired in Basis Science. The researcher therefore recommended that government should provide adequate CBI equipment for our hearing impaired schools, and train the teachers regularly on the use of CBI. Provide adequate supply of power because it was agreed that insufficient power supply have caused hindrance in the effectiveness of the hearing impaired, employ skilled technology teachers that can handle CBI effectively for better academic performance of the hearing impaired pupils in our special schools in Lagos State.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  ii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                        v

List of Tables                                                                                                              vi

Abstract                                                                                                                      vii

 

Chapter One:             Introduction                                                                           1         

1.1              Background of the Study                                                                               1

1.2              Statement of the Problem                                                                               4

1.3              Purpose of Study                                                                                            5

1.4              Significant of the Study                                                                                 6

1.5              Research Question                                                                                          7

1.6              Delimitation of the Study                                                                               8

1.7              Limitation of Study                                                                                        8

1.8              Definition of Terms                                                                                        9

 

Chapter Two:            Literature Reviewed                                                             10

2.0       Introduction                                                                                                    10

2.1              Learning Effectiveness on the Hearing Impaired Children Based on

Convention Methods of Teaching                                                                  11

2.2              Learning Effectiveness of the Hearing Impaired Children Based of

Computer Instructional Methods                                                                    18

2.3              Ways of improving the Learning of the Hearing Impaired Children

with the uses of Computer-Based Instruction                                                            23

2.4              Relationship between the Learning Effectiveness when using

Computer -Based Instruction and the Conventional Teaching

Methods on the Hearing Impaired                                                                  26

2.5              The challenges faced by the Hearing Impaired Pupils in Learning

Basic Sciences                                                                                                 31

2.6              Summary of the Literature Review                                                                36

 

Chapter Three:         Research Methodology                                                         38

3.0       Introduction                                                                                                    38

3.1       Research Design                                                                                             38

3.2       Population of the study                                                                                  38

3.3       Sample Size and Sampling Technology                                                          39

3.4       Instrumentation                                                                                               39

3.5       Validity of Instrument                                                                                                40

3.6       Reliability of the Instrument                                                                           40

3.7       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                        41

3.8       Data Analysis                                                                                                  41

 

Chapter Four:           Data Analysis and Discussion                                              42

2.0              Introduction                                                                                                    42

4.1       Result of Analysis                                                                                           42

4.2       Testing of Hypothesis                                                                                     49

4.3       Discussion of Research Finding                                                                     50

 

Chapter Five:            Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations                   54

5.1              Introduction                                                                                                    54

5.2              Summary of the study                                                                                    54

5.3              Conclusion                                                                                                      55

5.4              Recommendations                                                                                          57

5.5              Suggestion for further Studies                                                                        58

 

References                                                                                                      60

Appendix   I Questionnaire                                                                            64

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Tables

 

Table 1          Level of Learning Effectiveness of the Hearing Impaired

Children based on Conventional Methods of teaching              42       

 

Table 2          Improvement of the Learning of Hearing Impaired in basic 

                        Science                                                                                              44

 

Table 3        Relationship Between Computer-Based Instruction and 

                     Teaching Effectiveness of Teachers                                                45

 

Table 4        Relationship Between the Use of Computer-Based 

                     Instruction and Conventional methods for Hearing

                     Impaired                                                                                               46

 

Table 5          Challenges Faced by Hearing Impaired Children in

Learning  Basic Science                                                                  48

      

Table 6       Difference Between Computer –Based Instruction and 

                    Conventional Teaching Methods to Teach the Hearing 

                     Impaired                                                                                               49

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

Education is a key to the development of an individual’s potential, nation’s prospects and the world as a whole. Education has become a fundamental tool for developing economics of the nations of the world. It is on this premise that the United Nations (UN) mandated that education should be part of the privileges and rights the citizenry or any member of the society should enjoy (Olutayo, 2000).

To date, in an attempt to ensure an equal educational opportunities for all, there is still one un-served population that unlike some groups, is hard to identify, place and programme in public schools. They are the handicapped children. Handicapped children are referred to as special children or exceptional children and this points to the importance of the different kind of care they need (Oyebola, 1997). There has been a conscious move towards the integration of handicapped children into regular school programmes, not only in Nigeria but in most countries of the world. During the world congress of the council for exceptional children (CEC) held in Stilling, Scotland a lot of emphasis was placed on mainstreaming.

There are three types of impairment which are physical and health impairment, visual impairment and hearing impairment, but this research work will emphasis on hearing impairment and how performances of hearing impairment students can be improved through Computer Based

Instructions. The condition of the auditory system which makes it either total or partially defective is referred to as hearing impairment (Okuoyibo, Oyewunmi and Adediran, 1998). Hearing appeals to sense of hearing, this implies that hearing is the ability of a child to hear sound through the ear, the auditory nerves and the auditory cortex. Hearing impairment is inability of a person to hear sound.

The use of computer has brought improvement to the life of mankind in all human endeavours most especially in education. Computers are now used in education to monitor students achievements, teach students and also as instructional media to assists in teaching in the classroom. This use of computer in education is referred to as Computer-based instruction. Omoniyi (2003) refers to Computer Based Instruction (CBI) as a common use of computer in education that computer acts as a teacher. The computer can be used to provide interactive lessons in which case, the software is programmed by computer experts for a particular subject area and the students are tutored while executing the programme.

Omoniyi gave five categories of computers-based instruction which are drill and practice, tutorials, instructional stimulations, instructional games and problem-solving. Computer based instruction improves instruction for students with disabilities because students receive immediate feedback and do not continue to practice wrong skills. Computer captures the students’ attention because the programmes are interactive and engages the students’ spirits of competences to increase their performance. CBI makes students to learn at his own pace (Jefferson, 2004).

The research work focus on the effectiveness on computer based instruction on hearing impaired students, many researchers such as Ralph et al (2002) found that computer based instruction improved learning achievement while some agreed that computer based instruction alone is not enough but it supplements conventional method.

Conventional or traditional method of teaching is not sufficient but rather complementing it with computer based instructions. In a research conducted on learning of disabled such as mentally retarded, hearing impaired, emotionally disturbed and language disorder students indicates that their achievement level is greater with computer based instruction than traditional method of teaching. Mevarch and Rich (1985) compared the effects of CBI on participants and found that there was higher performance in learning outcomes among the pupils than those who were taught with conventional method.

1.2     Statement of Problem

The problems inherent in the learning effectiveness of the hearing impaired pupils at the special pre-primary and primary schools and indeed at other levels of Nigerian system of education cannot be overemphasized and underrated. This is because children who do not hear like other children, do not have high or positive academic achievement due to their handicap condition. It is a statement of fact, that hearing is one of the sense organs of the body, and it is used to learn in school. Now, students or pupils who have hearing impairment, find it absolutely difficult to learn because they do not hear what the teacher is saying, what the learner says in the classroom, neither do they hear the interactions of their fellow students/pupils in the classroom. The above problems put together, have prevented the pupils who have difficulties in hearing, from performing better in school like their counter parts who hear well.

The problem of the learning impaired pupils in our primary schools have been aggravated due to the fact that most of handicapped schools of our primary schools do not have the facilities to assist these hearing impaired pupils in school. For instance, lack of computer-based instruction and functional computers to carry out these instructions in order to help the learning impaired, has worsened the learning conditions of the hearing impaired pupils, and thus, their academic outcomes have also been affected negatively.

The above identified problems, gave rise to the investigation of the effects of computer based instruction on the learning effectiveness of the hearing impaired pupils in Lagos State special schools.

1.3     Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to determine the effects of Computer-Based Instruction on the learning effectiveness of learning impaired pupils in Lagos State special primary schools. Specifically, the study shall:

(1)             find out the learning effectiveness of the hearing impaired children using the conventional teaching methods.

(2)             examine the learning effectiveness of the hearing impaired children using the Computer-Based Instructional method.

(3)             examine ways in which the learning of the hearing impaired children can be improved using the computer based instruction.

(4)             investigate the relationship between the use of computer based instruction and the conventional teaching methods for the hearing impaired students.

(5)             find out the challenges faced by hearing impaired pupils in learning basic science.

1.4     Significance of the Study

The findings and recommendations of this study would be beneficial to the following individuals:

(1)     Teachers would gain more knowledge as a result of the findings and recommendations raised in this study. This is because, to teachers, especially those teaching sciences, this study will put them in the right track and be an added knowledge to what they already know in the subjects they teach especially in the area of computer-based instruction in the school. It would help them to teach the hearing impaired group of students effectively.

(2)     As a result of this study, students would be exposed to computer-based teaching and learning processes in the school, as the recommendations and findings would help them to understand the nitty gritty of using computer to learn.

(3)     Parents would no doubt, be able to properly be in the position to know the importance of teaching their hearing impaired children through the use of computer. This study will make parents to appreciate the need to use the computer to assist children/wards who have hearing problems and make them to learn like every other child even at home.

(4)     The society will not be left out in benefiting from the recommendations and findings of this study. This is because the members of the larger society would be able to know vividly the importance of the use of computer in assisting or teaching the child who does not hear in order to make him/her to learn like others in the school.

1.5     Research Questions

(1)     What is the learning effectiveness of the hearing impaired children using the conventional teaching methods?

(2)     To what extent can the learning effectiveness of the hearing impaired children using the Computer-Based Instructional method be examined?

(3)     In which ways can the learning of the hearing impaired children be improved using the computer based instruction?

(4)     What is the relationship between the effects in use of computer based instruction and the conventional teaching methods for the hearing impaired students?

(5)     What are the challenges faced by hearing impaired pupils in learning basic science?

1.6     Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses have been formulated to guide this study. Each hypothesis is tested at P < 0.05 level of significance.

(1)     There will be no significant difference between computer-based instruction and the conventional teaching methods among the hearing impaired students.

(2)     There is no significant difference on the mean effects in learning among hearing impaired students taught with computer assisted instruction and conventional method.

1.7     Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study covered the effects of computer-based instruction on the learning effectiveness of hearing impaired pupils in special primary schools located in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. Finance, time and sourcing materials for the study would be an hindrance to the timely completion of the study.

1.8     Definition of Terms

i.                   Integration: This is the process of educating all students irrespective of their handicapping condition along with their no handicapped peers. In this study, integration means mixing normal and handicap pupils in the same school.  

ii.                 Handicap: The problems and difficulties a person encounters because of physical disability or behavioural characteristic makes him or her different from others.

iii.              Disability: Is a physical problem that limits a person ability to perform certain tasks that most other people can perform.

iv.              Hearing impairment: Are those in whom the sense of hearing is non functional for the ordinary purpose of life.

v.                 Visually impaired (Blind): Are those who cannot read and write print after all optical corrective measures have been taken.

vi.              The learning disabled: Is one who exhibits one or more deficits in the essential learning process of perception, conceptualization, language memory, attention and impulse control (Crownin, 1978).

vii.            Special Education: The education of children and adults who have learning difficulties because of different sort of handicaps.

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