EFFECTS OF REGULAR TRAINING ON THE FITNESS LEVELS OF UNDERGRADUATES IN UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS


Content

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to assess the impact regular training on the performance related fitness level of undergraduates in Lagos state. An experimental research method was used to carry out this study. A two group research design was used for this study. Thus data was collected after an eight (8) week exercise period, analyzed and interpreted. The population for this study consists of full time undergraduate students in the University of Lagos. A total of twenty (20) students were used and selected through the purposive sampling technique. Ten (10) students who regularly attended the aerobics program in the department of Human Kinetics and Health Education formed group A, while ten (10) sedentary students formed group B. Standardized tests and standardized instruments were used for data collection. The instruments to be used were tested and ensured that they are accurate before they were used to collect data. The instruments used meet the standard norm for measurement. The data obtained with each test was collected and the data written out for each sample. The data collected from the study were analysed using the simple percentages for data presentation on demographic characteristics, while the inferential statistics of t-test was used in testing the entire stated hypotheses at a 0.05 level of significance. All of the four stated hypotheses formulated, were rejected. The finding of this study shows that there was a significant difference between the speed, balance, coordination and agility of undergraduates in Lagos state who regularly train and those that don’t. Based on the findings and of the study it was recommended that the importance of exercise should be emphasized to sedentary students by university administrators and managers in the country. The study also recommends that special time should be set aside for students at their leisure time to participate in sports and exercise while resting from course work.

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGES

Title Page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                            v

Table of Contents                                                                                       vi

                  

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study                                                                            1

Statement of Problem                                                                       4

Purpose of the Study                                                                        5

Research Questions                                                                           6

Research Hypotheses                                                                        6

Significance of the Study                                                                            7

Delimitation of the Study                                                                           8

Limitation of the Study                                                                     8

Definition of Terms                                                                           8

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Historical view on exercise                                                               10

Importance of exercise to individuals                                                         13

Concept of physical fitness                                                               15

Component of physical fitness                                                                   16

Principles of exercise training                                                           29

Factors affecting physical fitness                                                      35

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Method                                                                              39

Research Design                                                                                40

Population                                                                                        40

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                      40

Research Instrument                                                                         41

Research Instrument                                                                         41

Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument                               41

Procedure for Data Collection                                                                    41

Procedure for Data Analysis                                                             42

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS

Presentation of Data                                                                         43

Testing of Hypothesis                                                                       44

Discussion of Findings                                                                      48

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATION

Summary                                                                                          51

Conclusions                                                                                                52

Recommendations                                                                                      53

REFERENCES                                                                                54


 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Exercise is the training of the body to improve its function and enhance its fitness. The terms exercise and physical activity are often used interchangeably, but this article will distinguish between them. Physical activity is an inclusive term that refers to any expenditure of energy brought about by bodily movement via the skeletal muscles; as such, it includes the complete spectrum of activity from very low resting levels to maximal exertion. Exercise is a component of physical activity. The distinguishing characteristic of exercise is that it is a structured activity specifically planned to develop and maintain physical fitness. Physical conditioning refers to the development of physical fitness through the adaptation of the body and its various systems to an exercise program (Britannica, 2014).

 According to Fit-4life (2014) physical fitness is the ability to meet the physical demands of daily life and to resist diseases associated with inactivity. Physical fitness enables people to perform well in sports and other activities and to look and feel their best. Physical fitness can be classified into two main kinds which include performance-related and health-related. People face different physical demands in the course of their occupations and leisure time. Therefore, the necessary type of conditioning, which may be called performance-related physical fitness, varies from one individual to another. For example, a stockbroker who runs marathon races for recreation requires a high capacity of the heart and lungs to deliver oxygen to leg muscles. On the other hand, a factory worker who lifts heavy crates but reads for relaxation primarily requires great leg and upper body strength to meet daily physical challenges. The requirements for health-related fitness are similar for all people. Everyone must maintain certain aspects of health-related fitness to feel good and to resist disease.

Performance-related physical fitness includes such qualities as muscular strength, aerobic power, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and flexibility. Muscular strength is the ability to produce force in a single effort. This type of strength is vital to such athletes as discus and javelin throwers, football linemen, shot-putters, and powerlifters. Aerobic power is the highest rate at which a person's body can produce energy in the muscles through the use of oxygen. Aerobic power depends on good lung function to supply oxygen to the blood, a strong heart to pump blood to the muscles, and muscles that are efficient in using the oxygen sent to them. Great aerobic power is common among endurance athletes, including cyclists, distance runners, rowers, and distance swimmers. These athletes may have twice the aerobic power of untrained people. Anaerobic power is the ability to produce great force quickly, a combination of speed and strength. The term anaerobic means without oxygen. Highly anaerobic activities use up energy so fast that they can be sustained for only 30 seconds or less. Anaerobic power is needed in such events as the high jump, long jump, 50- to 100-meter sprints in track, rebounding in basketball, and weightlifting. Anaerobic capacity is the ability to sustain great force for up to 30 seconds. It is important in 200- and 300-meter sprints in track; 25- and 50-meter swims; and any sport involving brief bursts of maximum effort. Flexibility is the range of motion of body joints. Great flexibility is needed in such activities as dance, gymnastics, high jumping, hurdling, long jumping, and wrestling. A high degree of flexibility may also help prevent certain sports injuries (Fit-4life, 2014).

Appropriate exercise increases the strength and endurance of skeletal muscles. Increases in muscular strength are associated with increases in muscle mass; increases in muscular endurance are associated with improved blood flow to the working muscles. These results are achieved by resistance training. Any exercise that causes the muscle to increase its tension, whether or not the muscle actually shortens during contraction, provides an appropriate strength-training stimulus. Resistance can be applied to a muscle group by attempting to move an immovable object, by working one muscle group against another, by lifting heavy weights, or by using special strength-training machines and devices. There is a wide selection of strength-training equipment that, when used properly, can increase muscular strength and endurance. It is possible that some of the equipment is more efficient in developing maximal performance, which is important for competitive athletes. But for the average individual, who is training to maintain an acceptable level of muscular fitness, any one device or program is probably about as good as another (Britannica, 2014).

Statement of Problem

Physical fitness is been viewed as the ability of an individual to carry out daily activities with enough vigor and alertness without having undue fatigue and still having enough energy in reserves for emergency situations. The main component of physical fitness is either health related or performance related. The health related component includes cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, endurance, flexibility and body composition while the performance related component includes speed, power, agility, balance, coordination and reaction time. Regular training can be of great benefit to improving these components of physical fitness if done in the right frequency, intensity and duration.

The pertinent issue in this discourse is whether regular training will have any effects on the performance related fitness level of students, this forms the basis for carrying out this research.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of regular training on the performance related fitness level of undergraduates in Lagos state.

Other purpose of the study includes;

1.     To determine if regular training will have any impact on the speed of undergraduates in Lagos state.

2.     To determine the impact of regular training on the balance of undergraduates in Lagos state.

3.     To determine if regular training will have any impact on the coordination of undergraduates in Lagos state.

4.     To determine if regular training will have any impact on the agility of undergraduates in Lagos state.

Research Questions

The following research questions were raised;

1.     What will be the effect of regular training will have any impact on the speed of undergraduates in Lagos state?

2.     To what extent will regular training affect the balance of undergraduates in Lagos state?

3.     Will regular training will have any impact on the coordination of undergraduates in Lagos state?

4.     What is the impact of regular training on the agility of undergraduates in Lagos state?

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were raised and tested;

1.     There will be no significant difference between the speed of undergraduates in Lagos state who regularly train and those that don’t.

2.     There will be no significant difference between the balance of undergraduates in Lagos state who regularly train and those that don’t.

3.     There will be no significant difference between the coordination of undergraduates in Lagos state who regularly train and those that don’t.

4.     There will be no significant difference between the agility of undergraduates in Lagos state who regularly train and those that don’t.

Significance of the Study

This study is important to students as it will enable them understand the role of regular training on their performance related fitness level.

This study is also useful to coaches, gym instructors, athlete trainers, and fitness coaches in other to make them understand the effect regular training on the performance related fitness level undergraduates in Lagos state. It would also make them understand various activities that can be used to build the performance related components of physical fitness and improve health generally.

Furthermore, the study will be an addition to existing knowledge in the area of exercise physiology and physical fitness. It will also serve as basis for further studies.

 

 

Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to full time undergraduate students in the University of Lagos. These students were selected through the purposive sampling technique and the two groups research design was adapted in carrying out this study.

The variables to be tested included the performance related physical fitness index of students, which included speed, coordination, balance and agility. Ten (10) students who regularly attended the aerobics program in the department of Human Kinetics and Health Education formed a group, while ten (10) sedentary students formed the other group.

Limitation of the Study

The limitation that was be encountered during this research was getting students that were willingly and ready to participate in this study. Hence the purposive sampling technique was used for this study.

Definition of Terms

Health:                                    This is used to describe a state of physical, social and mental well-being among students.    

Agility:                             The ability of the body to change direction quickly

Balance:                                  The ability to maintain an upright posture while still or moving

Coordination:                         Integration with hand and/or foot movements with the input of the senses.

Power:                                     The ability of students to do strength work at an explosive pace.

Reaction Time:                       Amount of time it takes students to get moving.

Speed:                                     This refers to how fast students can run.

Performance Related:            These are component of physical fitness that has to do with the skill level of students. They include speed, power, agility, balance, coordination and reaction time.

Physical Fitness:                     It refers to the ability of students to perform well in daily activities without fatigue and still have some sufficient energy for emergencies.

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