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EVALUATION OF JOB MOBILITY (PROMOTION) OF MALE AND FEMALE EMPLOYEES IN ZENITH BANK LAGOS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BALANCING GENDER GAP IN EMPLOYMENT
This study examined whether any difference exists in the job mobility (promotion) of male and female who are employed in the banking institutions in Nigeria, especially Zenith Bank. The essence of the study is to assert or disregard discriminatory practices of not having equitable number of women being promoted in position of decision making in the banking system. The study employed the descriptive survey method. Using the stratified random sampling method the study selected 250 respondents. Data used for the study were gathered through the questionnaire. The t-test statistics was utilized to test hypothesis one while hypothesis two was tested using the regression statistics. Result showed that the tested male and female Zenith Bank employees differ in their career promotion and that the variations are predicted by variables other than gender, such as educational qualification and work experience. It is recommended that women who are into banking or stereotype career areas should be given internal system efficiency and to sustain the quality of banking.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables
CHAPTER ONE- INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objective of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions/ Hypotheses 4
1.5 Significance/ Justification of the Study 5
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study 6
1.7 Organization of Study 6
CHAPTER TWO- LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Literature Review 7
2.2 Theoretical Review 7
2.3 Recent Review-review of related and Relevant Studies 11
2.4 Mythological Review 17
CHAPTER THREE: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 18
3.2 Theoretical Framework 18
3.3 Methodology 19
3.3.1 Model Specification 19
3.3.2 Research Design 20
3.3.3 Population 20
3.3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedures 20
3.3.5 Research Instrument 21
3.3.6 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument 22
3.3.7 Administration of Research Instrument 22
3.2.8 Method of Data Analysis 23
CHAPTER FOUR- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Demographic information 23
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses and Discussions 25
4.4 Discussion of Findings 31
CHAPTER FIVE- SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Major findings 36
5.2 Conclusion 36
5.3 Recommendations 37
5.4 Suggestion for Further Research Studies 37
1.1 Background of the Study
Job mobility refers to the movement of employees across grades/ positions (both upward and downward) or a complete change in occupation. The study of job mobility has become more central to understanding how individuals’ careers unfold as job mobility becomes a salient part of employees’ work experiences. Promotions subject to the change in job location (changes from one department to other departments) are a good example of employer driven job mobility which is the concern of this research study. It is worthy of mention that career mobility is directly related to job advancement, career development and personal satisfaction. It ensures that employees, over a period of time, move to job roles suitable to their skills, goals and aspirations. In essence, internal –upward mobility is traditionally the most desired type of job mobility because promotions increase status, esteem, responsibilities and financial rewards.
However, careers researchers have typically identified some factors that determine job mobility. These factors include economic conditions, societal characteristics , public policy and legislation, industry differences in gender composition, wage level, labour intensity and industry growth and organizational staffing policies (Sorensen, and Feldman, 2005; Onyene,2004). Granted, however that these factors dictate as impacting on job internal mobility, yet evidence of obvious discrimination against women abounds in most establishment in terms of promotional opportunities for higher management or executive responsibilities even where such women have proven job performance (Okpara,2012; Onyene, 2004 citing Kuforoji Olubi, 1989). As aptly noted by Onyene (2004) the journey to the top-management position is by no means easy for both men and women, it is extremely hard struggle for women but opportunity is made easier for men. The existing literature reveals that gender inequalities have increased with respect to pay and working conditions despite steady growth in women’s participation in the workforce worldwide. According to the May 2000 Beijing Platform for Action, women continue to face barriers to economic empowerment and entrepreneurship. These obstacles include discrimination in education, training, hiring, access to credit, the right to own and inherit property, lower levels of pay, and inequality of promotion for equal work, as well as greater domestic responsibilities for women. Again, despite the barriers militating against their full participation in the labor market, the economic climate in the country requires women to augment the earning of their husbands and parents. Therefore, their contributions to the nation’s economy cannot be overlooked. Consequently, the issue of movement into higher grades or positions in Nigeria organizations or institutions has become a matter of concern for researchers, financial institutions and other stakeholders in order to meet expectations of the gender employment. A cursory look at the banking institutions in Nigeria shows that the industry has its own share of challenges largely stemming from technological and economic factors. With emerging markets changing the landscape of global economic wealth and new generations of customers demanding faster and more innovative products, the institution like other public institutions are faced with lots of challenges in order to move forward to deliver financial objectives to people and organizations. This therefore necessitates that employees of banking institutions should move from one grade / or position to top management and should be in control of not just their traditional roles of planning, organizing, leading and controlling, but must mobilize human efforts in order to meet implementation and innovative challenges. One wonders therefore if this enormous task is either male or female preserve or what gender sub-set is most capable of such managerial creativity and, or change adoption?
Empirical evidence on gender job promotion in both the educational institution and banking industry in Nigeria seem to indicate that men occupy top management positions in different organizations. Study by Okpara (2012) indicates that 12 percent of women are in management position in the banking system. It should be borne in mind that inequality in organizational headship and promotability is not only societal attitude borne out of subjugation but an off-shoot of statues rooted in age-long prejudice. The social and corporate organization production is in control of men because inheritance is patrilineal (Prince bola Ajibola, 1989). According to him, men determine the value of women in modern Nigeria in this regard. The pertinent question that one may ask is this, if men were empowered by law, who is the woman to attach value to herself? On this note the organizational first callers according to Onyene (2004) dictate by covert discrimination how women will be employed and promoted. Research study shows that modern organization seem to have assimilated readymade culture and experience in their rules and behavior, style of communication and mode of relationships and that women need to learn a lot of male related career issues in order to function successfully alongside their male peers want to work more than a survival level jobbers hence the need to review their high potentials, job performance, promotion within the same organization and responsibilities etc as job mobility indicators. Given this situation, this research study seeks to assess the job mobility of male and female employees in Zenith Bank.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Job mobility facilitates inter- and intra organizational exchange of knowledge, contributing to organizational learning. It also contributes to developing transferable skills among employees which in turn contribute to their employability. However, despite these challenges that require career mobility and the advantages that it can give organizations, most organizations are still very traditional when it comes to job mobility, According to Onyene (2004), labeling and, or stereotyping of behaviour and commitment to duty falls short of rational deductions of group dynamics at work as well as the work behaviour exhibited in the pursuance of organizational goals.. True equality of opportunity requires that both men and women be given fair operational chance in the existing work sector to achieve high worker devotedness to duty. The banking system ought not to be mapped clearly along gender inequity both at the managerial leadership level as well as after delicate social service orientation. It is against this background information that the study seeks to evaluate job promotional effect on labour market.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to assess job mobility of male and female employees in Nigeria banking system, specifically Zenith Bank Lagos branches with the aim of balancing gender gap in employment. Specific objective includes:
i. To determine gender differential in job mobility during their productive age.
ii. To assess the extent of inverse and obvious variations in the exhibited level of job mobility.
1.4 Research Questions/ Hypotheses
The following questions will guide this study.
i. Do male and female bank managers significantly differ in their job mobility?
ii. Does socioeconomic characteristic of male and female bank employees have relationship with their job mobility?
Ho 1: Male and female bank employees will not differ significantly in their extent of job mobility.
HO 2: There will be no significant relationship between male and female bank employees’ education, performance, job position and their respective job mobility.
1.5 Justification/ Significance of the Study
The study is relevant in the true sense that it will promote organizational commitment. It identified the importance of job mobility that has become more central to understanding how individuals’ careers unfold since job mobility has become a salient part of employees’ work experiences. The study will help create awareness on the relevant of job mobility to organizations because mobility within an organization is essential for effective human resource planning and skill development. It would also help to create a better understanding of job mobility at the societal level because job mobility enhances the diffusion of knowledge, innovation and technology across firms and thus, stimulate the growth of intellectual capital in a society. The study will enable researchers to understand the major groups of structural factors that can influence the pattern of job vacancies in the labour market: economic conditions, societal characteristics, industry differences and organizations’ staffing policies. This is important because career researchers have generally limited their attention to personal factors and neglected the broader context, in which job mobility may occur. The study will also provide a comprehensive framework for benchmarking Nigeria institutions gender gap by becoming role models in dividing their resources equitably between women and men, regardless of the overall level of those resources. This study will provide information on banking and other public institutions best practices that can help close economic participation gaps. It will also continue to inspire further research, policy changes and new projects by business, governments, civil society and universities, and serve as a call to action to transform the pace of change on an issue that is fundamental to the growth and stability of the Nigerian economy and society.
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The concern of this research study is on job mobility of male and female bank employees in Zenith.. It covered 250 subjects selected from Zenith Bank PLc. Lagos with the purpose of addressing the questions: Do male and female bank managers significantly differ in their job mobility? Does socioeconomic characteristic of male and female bank employees have relationship with their job mobility? In conducting this research study, obtaining materials posed a constraint.
1.7 Organization of Study
This research study is divided into five sections; section one comprises of the introduction consisting the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions hypothesis, justification / significance of the study and organization of the study. Section two covers the literature review with theoretical review, review of current literature methodological review while section three majors in the research methodology covering theoretical framework, methodology, research design, model specification, estimation technique and sources of data; section four is data presentation and analysis focusing on discussion of results/ findings. Section five then covers the summary of findings, conclusion, and policy recommendations.