FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE SANDWICH STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS


Content

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                i

Certification                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                                  vi

Table of Contents                                                                   viii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0       Introduction                                                                 1

1.1       Background of Study                                                   1

1.2       The Problems of the Study                                           3

1.3       Purpose of Study                                                          3

1.4       Research Question                                                       3

1.5       Significance of the Study                                              4

1.6       Research Hypothesis                                                   4

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                       5

1.8       Limitation of Study                                                       5

1.9       Definition of Terms                                                       5

CHAPTER TWO:

2.1    LITERATURE REVIEW                                                  7

2.2    Personality Factors                                                      7

2.3    Economics Factors                                                       9

2.4    Environment Factors                                                   12

2.5    School Factors                                                              15

2.6    Conclusion on Literature Review                                19

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  Research Methodology                                                   21

3.1  Research Method                                                  21

3.2  Target Population                                                           21

3.3  Sample Size                                                                     21

3.4 Sampling Technique                                                       22

3.5 Research Instrument                                                      23

3.6  Field Testing of Instruments                                          24                       

3.7  Procedure for Data Collection                                       24

3.8  Procedure for Data Analysis                                          25

           

CHAPTER FOUR:

4.1     Introduction to Data Presentation and Analysis       26

4.2.0 Demographic Data                                                      26

4.2.1  Age Distribution of Respondents                               26

4.2.2 Marital  Distribution of Respondents                        27

4.2.3  Dependent/Children of Respondents                        28

4.2.4  Respondents Primary Economics Support               28

4.2.5 Membership of Organization of Respondents           29

4.2.6  Factors Responsible for Academic Performance       30

4.2.7  Whether the Factor Effects are Strong                       30

4.2.8 Effect that Reduces Confidence at Exam                   31

4.2.9 Lack of Interest in a course and low mark

  During Exam                                                              31

4.2.10 Respondent Continuous Assessment and

  Early Preparation for test                                          32

4.2.11 Respondent and Combining work and Academic    33

4.2.12 Respondents on Group Discussion and its

    Effect on Academic Performance                     34

4.2.13 Family Background and Effect on Academic

  Performance                                                               35

4.2.14 Respondents on Effect of Exam Malpractice

  to Academic Performance                                          36

4.2.15  Whether Respondents Find it Difficult

   Preparation Exam                                                     36

4.2.16  On How Students Rates Themselves                       37

4.2.17  Respondents and Strategies for Course

     Understanding                                                           38

4.2.18  Respondents and Strategies for Improving

     Environmental Education                               38

4.2.19  On Leisure and its Importance in Academics         39

4.2.20  Respondents and Suggestions on

   Improvement of Academic Performance                  50

 

CHAPTER FIVE:

5.0 Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations               44

5.1 Discussion and Findings                                                44

5.2 Conclusion                                                                       46

5.4 Recommendations                                                           48

Appendix 

Bibliography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUNCTION

FACTORS AFFECTING ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SANDWICH STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Numerous studies, such as those carried out by Fullana Noe (1995) and Montero Marcos (1990) have sought to understand the factor which account for low students academic performance. Studies seeking to identify what determines academic failure frequently appear as a reaction to condition of change, such as plans for educational reform, or in response to critical situations.

 

The very concept of academic failure varies in its definition.

Radriguez castellanous (1986) considers academic failure as the situation in which the subject does not attain the expected achievement according to his or her abilities, resulting in an altered personality which affects all other aspect of life.

 

Similarly, Tapia (2002) notes, that the current educational system perceives that the student fails if he or she does not pass but more appropriate for determining academic failure is whether the student performed below his or her potential.

 

Grade Point Average (GPA) is a commonly used indicator for academic performance. A minimum GPA should be maintained in order to continue in the degree programmed. In University of Lagos, GPA of 3.0 or higher is considered an indicator for good academic performance.

 

Many factors could act as barrier to sandwich student attaining and maintaining a high GPA that reflect their overall academic performance during their tenure in university. These factors could be utilized by the authorities in the sandwich programme faculty in developing strategies to improve students learning and improve their overall academic performance.

 

Some of these factors which affect academic performance amongst sandwich students of university of Lagos are the focus for critical evaluation in this research which are:

1.   Instructional resources

(a)  Material resources (b)  Human resources

2.   Test Phobia or anxiety

3.   Time management by sandwich students

4.   Academic competence

5.   Study techniques. 6. Age  7. Marital status

1.2       THE PROBLEM OF THE STUDY

There is a persistent poor performance among sandwich students. These academic (under achievements) have been attributed to certain factors such as, material and human resources, test anxiety, time management, academic competence study techniques, marital status and age.

 

1.3       PURPOSE OF STUDY

(1)     To explore the factors affecting sandwich students’ academic performance

(2)     To determine the differences in the levels of these factors with academic performance.

(3)     Early detection and understanding reasons for academic failure may help some students perform better if adequate guidance for improvement is provided efficiently.

 

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

(1)         What are the factors affecting sandwich students’ academic performance?

(2)         To what extent do  all these factors affect sandwich students’ performance?

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following people will benefit from the findings of this study:

(a)          Students;

(b)         Teachers; and

(c)          School authority

(1)         This study will help the students to learn good study techniques which will enhance their performance.

(2)         It will help the school authority to attach more importance on the use of material and human resources in upgrading student’s performance.

(3)         The school authority will make a better plan for educational reform to be able to suit a crash program.

(4)         The teachers will be able to make use of the skill in them to impact knowledge to the students.

(5)         The students will be able to manage their study time with other jobs and duties at home.

 

1.6       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H 1   There is no significant relationship between age and academic performance.

H 2   There is no significant relationship between marital status and academic performance

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study covers all the year 2-4 sandwich students of University of Lagos.

 

1.8       LIMITATION OF STUDY

This study is limited to year 2-4 sandwich students of University of Lagos due to the following reasons.

(a)  Time constraint                 (b)     Shortage of fund

 

1.9       DEFINITION OF TERMS

Instructional Resources: Those things or resources that are needed in the school which aid in the effective teaching and learning. The resources can be grouped in to two.

(a)            Material Resources: Those objects that helps students to learn effectively. It also makes the environment conducive for learning. It helps the students remember what they were taught. Example of material resources are, equipment, facilities, like library, laboratory, football field, textbooks, chalkboard, pictures, audio visual materials e.t.c.

(b)           Human Resources: Availability of adequate human beings inform of teachers, both                  academic and non academic staff, making sure that the teachers are qualified.

Grade Point Average (GPA): It is a commonly used method which acts as an indicator for academic performance.

Academic Competence: Is defined as proficiency of students with respect to the content taught during courses over the past academic years and the ability to understand the course materials.

Strategic Studying Technique: Is defined as the knowledge and application of effective study skills, techniques or methods by students.

Time Management: Has been defined as clusters of behavioral skill sets that are important in the organization of study course load.

Test Anxiety: Is defined in this study as the reaction to stimuli that are associated with an individual’s experience of testing or evaluative situations.

 

 


 

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