FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PRODUCTIVITY OF WOMEN EMPLOYEES IN ORGANISATION


Content

ABSTRACT

The participation of women in the modern labour force over the year has been a tropical issue for discussion, when compared with the traditional roles played in the past, it is agreeable that the social status of the present day womenfolk has obviously been uplifted. In this research work, the researcher took time to examine the role of women both past and present eras. The study reveals that women of the past era were mainly restricted to the traditional roles of home keeping and child-bearing, unlike the modern day women who now have wider roles in our ever changing society. The focus of this study is on those women employed in the banking sector with practical emphasis on the situation of one large organization. The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). In the course of this research work, series of problems normally encountered by the women in the performance of their duties were identified and extensively discussed. Having done this, the researcher went further to proffer solutions to these job­ related factors that could affect the productivity of women employees. No restriction whatsoever should be put on women, whether culturally, socially, politically or economically, in their work performance. They should be giving every opportunity equivalent to their male counterparts, in the pursuance of their lustful career. It would go long way to enhancing women employees at work.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Front Page                                                                                                   i

Title page                                                                                                      ii

Certification                                                                                                 iii

Dedication                                                                                                    iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                    v

Table of content                                                                                         vi

Abstract                                                                                                        viii

 

CHAPTER ONE: introduction

1.1             Background of the Study                                                             1

1.2             Statement of the Problem                                                           3

1.3             Purpose of the study                                                                     4

1.4             Research Questions                                                                       4

1.5             Formulation of Hypotheses                                                        5

1.6             Scope and Limitation of the study                                             5

1.7             Definition of Terms                                                                        5

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1      Concept and Definition of Productivity                                   7

2.2      Women in the labour Force                                                        9

2.3      The Underestimation of Women's Economic Activities       10

2.4      Brief History of Banking in Nigeria                                            12

2.5      Women in the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)                        16      

2.6      Labour Legislation as it affect Female Bankers                      17

2.7      Situation in other developing countries                                  18

2.8      Factors that Affect Employees in Public and Private Organisation20

2.9      Effect of Low Productivity                                                           25

2.10   Improvement and Measurement of Productivity                 26

2.11   Suggested Solutions to Productivity Improvement              27

2.12   Prospect for Female Bankers                                                      30

2.13   Government Recognition                                                            32

2.14   National Productivity Centre (NPC)                                          33

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1      Research Design                                                                             35

3.2      Method of Data Collection                                                          35

3.3      Sample size and Sampling Techniques                                     35

3.4      Population of the Study                                                               36

3.5      Formulation of Hypotheses                                                        36

3.6      Method of Data Analysis                                                              36

3.7      Limitation of Methodology                                                         37

3.8      Research Instrument                                                                     38

 

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND FINDINGS

4.1      Introduction                                                                                    39

4.2      Descriptive Information                                                               39

4.3      Test of Hypotheses                                                                        44

4.4      Discussion of Finding                                                                    49

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1      Discussion and Summary                                                             50      

5.2      Conclusion                                                                                       51

5.3      Recommendation                                                                          52

References                                                                                       54

Appendix                                                                                          56

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

A careful observation in recent past reveals that, these has been a phenomenal increase in the member of women in various segment of labour both in the public and private sectors of the Nigerian economy over the past few decades, hitherto, what used to be exclusively the male preserved professions have now been invaded in large number by career-seeking women. The field of architecture, law, management, medicine, engineering, banking and finance, accounting, politics, just to mention few, have all recorded a tremendous patronage by the womenfolk. The slow, but gradual inroad made by women in these male-dominated areas could be attributed to some socio-cultural factors, which were commonly the accepted traditional norms in most African Countries.

 

Until relatively recently, as a result of pervasive western cultural influence, the African women expected, not only to bear and rear children to satisfaction of their spouses, they were also expected to exhibit absolute submissiveness to their traditional home, and as such, they had no say in the management and upbringing of their family members.


 

However, that concept has now change for the better, unlike in the past when women duties were said to be restricted and confined to the kitchen, the women now has at least a dual role of performing their domestic duties at home and that of caring out their office functions. Women now acquire education and training which prepare them fully to become better house-keepers and at the same time to assume higher position of authority in the organisations.

 

Though women are often referred to as weaker sex, they have not been lacking behind in their chosen career, competitiveness, efficiency, aggressiveness, and marked distinction have often been demonstrated in the performance of various duties to the satisfaction and admiration of their male counterparts.

 

The popular saying, what a man can do a woman can even more better, appears to be fast gaining acceptance among the generality of the public, apparently due to the marvelous and outstanding performance of women In their various callings, to mention a few, professor (Mrs.) Dora Akunyill Director-General of National Agency for food, Drugs Administration and control (NAFDAC), Dr. Okereke Onyuike, Director General of Nigerian Stock Exchange and lot of others.


 

Perhaps, due to the present unfavourable economic realities of our time, women have intensified efforts to seek paid employment or engage in various businesses to supplement their husband effort in day-to-day running of the family, now show that women have increasingly important roles to play in the management of organisations.

 

It is therefore imperative for women to be properly integrated into the system in order for them to advance to the top management positions in their various corporate organisations. In spite of the enormous achievement made, observation show that certain constraints do militate against the level of labour productivity of the womenfolk in the day-to-day performance of their jobs. Some of these factors have been identified as intrinsic in nature, which most women cannot do without. They include, but are not limited to pregnancy and maternity period.

 

It is these areas that the men folk have an advantage of occupying top management positions in the organisation over women.

 

Given the above realities of the situation, the purpose of study therefore centered on the need to identify those related factors that affect the productivity of women in organisation and proffer solutions to productivity at work.

 

1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBlEM

Traditionally, the syndrome had always been erroneous believe that women were not used to doing complex tasks. However, events are proving such unfounded and unsubstantiated wrong. A section of the society today still hold the false believe that the level of labour productivity of the womenfolk will continue to be on low ebb in comparison with their male counterpart.

 

The consequence had been the low rating of women for top management jobs in some organisations, even where they possess comparable qualifications, experience, training and skills to perform a task. Women employee could not be productive enough because they are working under pressure and even domestic pressure and so on.


 

These forces have made it difficult for women employees to attain the desired level of productivity. This research will therefore make concerted attempt to investigate the factors affecting productivity of women employees in organisation with a view to suggest the way forward.

 

1.3      PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

Aim:

In view of the fact that women are no longer regarded in our present day society "oppressed class". The research work is aimed at evaluating the factors that affect the productivity of women employees in organisations.

Objectives:

a)     To find out several factors affecting productivity of women employees in organisations.

b)    To identify major problems facing women employees in organisations and suggest way forward or possible solutions.

c)     To find out the kind of work environment that would enhance the productivity of women employees in organisations.

 

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research questions intend for this study are:

        i.            What are the factors affecting productivity of women employees in organisations.

      ii.            Will training/courses employees attended have positive contribution to the productivity of women.

    iii.            What are the problems often encountered by women employees, which could contribute to low productivity in organisations.

 

1.5       FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESES

        i.            That adequate education has contributed and still contributes tremendously to high productivity of women in organisations,

      ii.            That woman can perform better, if given equal opportunity with their male counterparts.

    iii.            That long absence of female employees on maternity leave can affect productivity in organisatons.

 

1.6       SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The focus of this study was directed at the women employees of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), both married and unmarried women. For the fact that there is substantial number of women employees in the Central Bank of Nigeria at the head office. Having its entire female staff in the Lagos head office, It was considered appropriate, convenient and economical to limit the research efforts to the Lagos office of the organisation.

 

1.7      DEFINITION OF TERMS

This section presents the operational definition of relevant terms associated with this study, for the purpose of clarity, the key terms used in this research work have been defined,

Thus;

FACTORS:

According to the dictionary definition, factors means circumstance, fact or influence contributing to a result, this include all the possible obstacles standing in the way of a productive process.

 

PRODUCTIVITY:

This means the relationship between the output and the productive inputs in the production of goods and services as its affects women employees in organisations.

 

WOMEN EMPLOYEES:

By this, the researcher refers to the entire female working group engaged in the services of organisations. However, women employed in the services of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) the focus of the research work is based.

 

ORGANISATIONS:

This is defined as a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons. In other words, when people gather together and formally agree to combine their efforts for a common purpose, an organisation(s) is the result.

 

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