IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES ON EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED HIGHER INSTITUTION OF LEARNING (A STUDY OF YABA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)


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ABSTRACT

The performance and attitude of employees’ towards official assignments around the workplace varies from one individual to another. Some individuals approach their duties with utmost seriousness while others present a rather lackadaisical approach. It is the opinion of the majority elites that an individual approach to official assignments in a corporate environment is as a result of different factors many of which in most of the cases are attributed to the social, political and economic variable .The environmental variables which are  equally important as other variables lags behind in order of ranking and importance to employees’ performances in various institution or industry, be it banking, textile, oil and gas, and the academic environment. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of environmental variables on employees performance in selected institutions of higher learning in Yaba Lagos State, Nigeria. The research questions as well as hypotheses were drawn to investigate the extent of environmental variables on employees performance. The research design used was the survey design in which the population of the study consisted of members of staff some selected tertiary institutions. A sample size of one hundred and six (106) was selected using convenient sampling. Copies of questionnaires were administered to the respondents in which ninety-five (95) copies was collected back. The research question were analysed using frequency tables and simple percentages while the hypothesis were tested using Pearson Product Movement Correlation Method. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between environmental variables and employees job performances. The work environment was found to be socially and physically challenging, thereby leading to some negative behaviours on the part of the workers’ such as fatigue, low commitment and mobility of skilled labour from one higher institution of learning to another. The study concluded that in view of the importance of selected environmental variables to employees job performances programmes such as the introduction of financial incentives positive leadership and pollution (either noise or air pollution) employee performance  should be looked-into analyzed and improved upon by the management in work organizations.

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                iv

Abstract                                                                                                                                  v

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   vi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study       `                                                                                   1

1.2       Statement of Problem                                                                                                             3

1.3       Aims and Objectives of the Study                                                                             4

1.4       Research Question                                                                                                      4

1.5       Research Hypothesis                                                                                                   5

1.6       Significance of Study                                                                                                             5

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                                                     6

1.8       Definition of Terms                                                                                                    6

            References                                                                                                                  7

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Preamble                                                                                                                     9

2.2       Theoretical framework of the Study                                                                           9

2.3       Elements for Enhancing Employees Performance                                                      50

2.4       Empirical Review of Previous Work in the Area of Study                                        63

            References                                                                                                                  66

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                 

3.1       Preamble                                                                                                                     67

3.2       Research Design                                                                                                         67

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                                              67

 

 

3.4       Sample Procedure and Sample Size                                                                            67

3.5       Data Collection, Instrument and Validation                                                              67

3.6       Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           67        References                                                                                                                         69

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1       Preamble                                                                                                                     70

4.2       Presentation and Analysis of Data                                                                             70

4.3        Test of Hypothesis                                                                                                      79

4.4       Discussion of Findings                                                                                               83

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary                                                                                                                     84

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  85

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                                      85

            Bibliography                                                                                                               87

            Appendix                                                                                                                    89

 

 


 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Environment is the surrounding conditions and external forces influencing employee’s productivity irrespective of the nature of the organization. The productivity of employee, both the public and private sector depends on several factors out of which the immediate or working environment plays a vital role towards ensuring the optimum performances of individual or group of workers’ in question. In the course of attaining an optimal abysmal performance of employees’ in an organization, positive and negative work environment plays a vital role Decenzo & Robbins (1998).

The type of environment in which employees’ operates goes a long way to determine the way in which such enterprise prospers. About Eighty six percent (86%) of productivity problems resides in the work environment of organizations. Akinyele (2010)

The performance of a corporate organization which determines its survival and growth, depends to a large extent on the productivity of its workforce. Akinyele (2010) workers’ productivity cannot be optimal if the conditions of work environment are not favourable. Brenner (2004).

It should be noteworthy that employees’ carryout official assignment with vigour in a conducive working environment. A conducive environment ensures the well-being of employees’ which enable them exert themselves to their roles which translates to higher productivity. A conducive environment endangers motivation and aspiration for optimum productivity in organization Akinyele (2007).

A working environment where employees have access to adequate materials to work with at his or her immediate disposal, improves their performance(s) and productivity. In today’s Nigeria, industries, factories and public sectors are not producing effectively due to non-conducive environmental factors, For example the rise of insurgence in the Northeast of Nigeria has made most of the working environment unfriendly for employees’ in private and public institutions to perform ineffectively, which has a negative impact on their overall productivity.

 

Also, the performance of employees’ increases when the working environment ensures a stable and long-time job security. Surveys over the years has shown that most people prefers to seek employment in a government-owned institutions to that of their private counterpart. This can be adduced that government-owned institution hardly carry-out sudden and unannounced sacking of the work force enmass, and that the workers’ detainment is guaranteed for maximum numbers of years compared to privately-owned institutions Alam & Sameena (2012).

 

In addition to sustainability of a prosperous organization, another important variable is the issue of continuous training and manpower development with correct and up-to-date techniques in relations to their jobs. Employees’ who attends seminars and trainings on a regular basis are encouraged to put their best not only in their daily cores but also in furtherance to their career development Casio (1989).

Another variable which determines employees’ performance in an organization and institutions of learning it has to do with location or distance of work environment from residing environment. This determines how productive or otherwise of employees’, depending on the nearness or farthest of employees’ residence to the working environment. Employees’ who resides far from work environment spends a quarter of their allocation office hours to recover from fatigue as a result of the long distance transportation hassles from home to their daily working environment.

In tandem with other variable include the leadership style displayed by employers in a working environment. Ricthmond (2009) asserted that employees’ whose working environment promotes democratic decision-making performs better in their official assignment than those employees’ whose working environment favours authoritarian decision-making styles. This is evident in institutions of higher learning, where democratic decisions are taken on behalf of the staff of institutions by management.

 

1.2       Statement of Problem

This part discusses some of the challenges facing employees’ of higher institutions in respect of their inability to perform their duties to the maximum as a result of environmental variables. There are countless environmental variables militating against optimum performance(s) of employees’ in educational institutions; some of which includes independent variables such as irregular and non-payment of salaries, wages and other compensation packages to the employees of higher institutions.. 

Furthermore, the use of constant mobility of highly qualified skilled person highly qualified skilled person both academic and non-academic in governmental tertiary institutions to privately owned institutions in Nigeria and abroad. Specialists in different field of knowledge either moved to private educational institutions in Nigeria or travel abroad for greener pastures. This can be attributed majorly to the inability of the government to provide the basic adequate infrastructure enabling research environment and policy implementation to better the lives of most of the qualified personnel.

 

Kyko (2005) described the “Toxic Work Environment” which refers to physical environment and offices close to places where offensive odour and air pollution takes place on a regular basis. Employees’ in higher institutions whose offices are located near the toilets and are ill-ventilated, produce debilitating output.

In addition, the fear or the anticipation of not getting other due entitlements as pensions allowances at the end of their service from the Federal government is a contending issue. This became a dreaded phenomenon for employees’ in higher institutions as a result of huge financial scam rocking the pension system scheme in Nigeria. Hence, this research would want to investigate the impact of the impact of these environmental variables on employees’ performance.

 

1.3       Aims and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of environmental variables on employee’s performance while the specific objectives are to:

i.        Examine the effects of the irregular and non-payment of salaries and other compensatory incentives on workers’ productivity level in selected higher institutions.

ii.      Determine the negative impact of labour mobility on the job performance of employees in selected higher institutions

iii.    Ascertain the influence of physical factors such as fatigue, noise, ventilation as well as tidiness etc, has on productivity of employees.

 

1.4        Research Question

The following questions will be raised in the course of this research:

i.          What are the effect of irregular and non-payment of workers’’ salaries on workers’ productivity levels?

ii.         Does the movement of skilled workers’ have a negative effect on the overall productivity of workers’ of selected educational institutions?

iii.        Does the physical factors such as noise, proper ventilation, fatigue, etc portends dire consequences on employee’s productivity?

1.4   Research Hypothesis

 Hypothesis I

Ho:       There is no significant relationship existing between irregular and non payment of workers’ salaries on workers’ productivity

Hypothesis II

Ho:       There is no significant relationship existing between movement of highly skilled workers’ and effect in the productivity of workers’ in some selected educational institution

Hypothesis III

Ho:       There is no significant relationship existing between physical factors such as noise, ventilation, fatigue and dire consequences on employees' productivity the following nun hypothesis was formulated for possible acceptance/rejection

 

1.5        Significance of Study

The study serves as a source of knowledge for individuals and group of people who crave to get information about the impact of environmental variables on employees’ performance in higher institutions.

It helps to promote further knowledge on different variables which motivates employees’ to put in their best in different field of endeavours in Federal and Privately owned tertiary institutions in Lagos State.

­It is also significant because it helps to inform readers and public-alike about the impression some people might have about the real impact leaders (management) over the tackling of the challenges faced by the workers’ in higher institution. This is so because people from different quarters have the impression that the management of some of the higher institutions mentioned never contributed to the growth and the development of their staff members, while some others believed otherwise. It is therefore instructive here to note that this study tries to situate areas of these perceived or actual contributions of the management.

This study is also significant that it discusses the Expectancy theory, as it relates to how the management interpret the process to the administration of the selected higher institutions of learning.

1.6     Scope of the Study

This study covers selected Federal and privately owned higher educational institutions of learning in Yaba Local Government area alone. These educational institutions include University of Lagos, Yaba College of Technology, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka and ST. Augustine College of Education.

 

1.7Limitation of the Methodology

The major limitation of the research in higher institution is based on how you share your questionnaires while some respondents did not give accurate and reliable answers, other limitations are unwillingness and uncooperative attitude which led to the delay in the return of questionnaires from respondents

 

1.8 Definition of Terms

Employees: This is individual who on a part time or full time under a contract or employment weather oral or written and has recognized right and duties.

Mobility of Labour: As used in this project, this present the movement of skilled workers’ from one educational institution to another as a result of financial benefit accrued to the individuals in question..

 

Tertiary Institutions: They are basically educational institutions or citadel of learning whose responsibility is to admit, train and impact knowledge transfer is done within a specific period of time.

Pension: This represents the legal financial payment due to be paid to retired workers’ monthly from their savings during their active days in the work force.

Variable: Variable is defined as a construct of which numerical values can be assigned

Worker’s Productivity: This may be defined as the efficiency level of a workers’ in the production process or performances in line with the stated objectives and job assign by the employer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Adeniyi, H.O. (2009).; Compensation Packages (A Strategic Tool for Employee’s Performance and Retention, Leorardo Journal of Science, july 25th  68-71.

Akinyele (2010). Environment and productivity nexus (Empirical analysis of a productive oriented organization) European Scientific Journal8, (12) 189-193.

Alam C. E., & Sameena I. U., (1989). Teachers workload and Gender as Determinant of Teacher Productivity in Public Secondary Schools in Oyo State. European Journal of educational Science.1 (1) 18

Decenzo & Robbins (1998), Public sector professionals: Job characteristics, satisfaction and aspiration for intrinsic fulfillment through work. Hum. Relat. 40: 125-136.

Noah Y & Metiboba S. (2012). Work environment and job attitude among employees in a Nigerian work Organization: Journal of sustainable society 1, 2 36-38

Ricthmond, A. Rafat SA garwal, P. (2012). Identification of Variables Affecting Employee Satisfaction and Their Impact on Organization, Indian: Journal of Business and Management 5 (1)  32 – 39.


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