IMPACT OF INFORMATION COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY (ICT) ON PRIMARY HEALTH CARE AMONG PATIENTS IN SELECTED PUBLIC HEALTH CENTRES


Content

ABSTRACT

 

This study assessed the impact of information computer technology (ICT) on primary Health care among patients in selected public Health centre. Four (4) research questions and hypotheses were raised and formulated. The research method used is descriptive survey. The method describes the variables that answer the research questions that relate the variables of the study to the hypothesis testing. The researcher use purposive sampling technique and a sample size of 150 patients in selected public health centre drawn from university of Lagos medical centre, Shomolu general hospital and Lagos university teaching hospital. The research instrument used was a self structured questionnaire was designed to obtain necessary data for the study. Statistics of percentage was used by the researcher to analyze the data on section A. while for B, chi square X2 was used to analyze the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. Four (4) hypothesis patients to information computer technology will in greater measures facilitate utilization of primary health care facilities. The study recommends. That the government should ensure the implementation and utilization of information computer technology (ICT) in all primary and public health care centres.

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title                                                                                                   page

Certification                                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                              iii

Acknowledge                                                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                                           v

Table of content                                                                               vi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the study                                                                1

Statement of the problem                                                                6

Purpose of the study                                                                       7

Significance of the study                                                                 7

Research questions                                                                         7

Research hypotheses                                                                      8

Limitations of the study                                                                  9

Delimitation of the study                                                                 9

Operational definition of term                                                        10

 

CHAPTER TWO: INTRODUCTION

The impact of ICTS on Health care                                       17

Historical perspective of ICT in primary Health care

 and medical Education                                                                  20

Studies regarding ICT use in primary Health care/

medical Education                                                                          24

The role of leadership in medical Education/primary

 Health care with regard to ICT                                                      31

Industrialized country, Developing country and

A call for leadership                                                                        32

The role of ICT in primary Health care                                           34

Benefit of ICT in primary Health care                                            37

Barriers to the use of ICT in primary Health care                         61

ICT-mediated Health communication                                            69

 

CHAPTER THREE

Research method                                                                             76

Population for the study                                                                 77

Sample and sampling techniques                                                  77

Research instrument                                                                       78

Validity of the instrument                                                               78

Reliability of the instrument                                                           78

Procedure for data collection                                                         79

Procedure for data analysis                                                            79

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Analysis                                                                                   80

Demo Graphic Analysis                                                                  80

Test of Hypothesis                                                                           87

Discussion of finding                                                                       90

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary                                                                                         93

Conclusions                                                                                     96

Recommendation                                                                             97

References                                                                              99

Appendix                                                                                          104

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Background of the Study

The new innovation in modern technology today as enable the implementation of ICT to primary health care system. Which as lead to a tremendous change and improvement we all experience today in the health sector. Today one do not  need be told that ICT as find it way into all sector or profession that involve human activities with the aim of improving on and causing positive change in the working environment of which it is adopted in.

ICT today as gained root in all ministry which include ministry of education, ministry of finance, ministry of defense (security), ministry of information, ministry of agriculture, top agencies and of cause ministry of health.

ICT in health care can simply be refer to as tool that is integrated into the health system for the purpose of improving and enhancing it general functions.

Information computer technology (ICT) can play a critical role in improving health care for individuals and for communities. By providing new and more efficient ways of accessing, communicating, and storing information, ICT can help bridge the information divides that have emerged in the health sector in developing countries like Nigeria, between health professionals and the communities they serve and between the producer of health research and the practitioners who need it. Through the development of databases and other applications, ICT also provide the capacity to improve health system efficiencies and prevent medical errors (health connect international).

It is believed today that ICT with the use of modern technology will consciously, unconsciously make positive impact in the achievement of general aims and objectives of the primary health care system

This research is base on the impact of information computer technology (ICT) on primary health care among patients in selected public health centres. So it is important to look into the meaning of health and also the meaning of ICT what they truly entails.

 

 

Meaning of Health

Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In human it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social challenges.

The world health organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value and because of the word ‘complete’

Other definition as been proposed by different scholars

Health is the general condition of the body or mind with reference to soundness and vigor good health, poor health. Soundness of body or mind, freedom from disease or ailment to have ones health, to lose ones health.

Health is the absence of any disease or important. Health is also a state that allows the individual to adequately cope with all demands of daily life (implying also the absence of disease and impairment). We can also define health as a state of balance, an equilibrium that an individual has established within himself and between himself and his social and physical environment.

 

Meaning of ICT

ICT has become an integral and accepted part of everyday life for many people ICT is increasing in importance in people’s lives and it is expected that this trend will continue to the extent that ICT literacy will become a functional requirement for people’s work, social, and personal lives

ICT includes the range of hardware and software devices and programmes such as personal computers, assistive technology, scanners digital cameras, multimedia programmes, image editing software, database and spreadsheet programmes. It also includes the communication equipment through which people seek and access information including the internet, email and video conferencing. So therefore,

ICT is the digital processing and utilization of information by the use of electronic computer, it comprises the storage, retrieval conversion and transmission of information. (Ifueko Omoigui Okauru 2011)

ICT (information computer technology) is an umbrella term that includes any communication devices or application, encompassing; radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as video conferencing and distance learning. ICT are often spoken of in a particular content, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries.(Margaret rouse 2005)

The study design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer based information system.(chandler, Daniel, Munday, Rod, August, 2012).

ICT covers all forms of computer and communications equipment and software used to create, design, store, transmit, interpret and manipulate information in its various formats. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, mobile phones, transport systems, television, and network technologies are just some examples of the diverse array of ICT tools (www.uq.edu.au/ict/what -is-ict 2012).

Statement of the Problem

Over the years the use of ICT in primary health care in Nigeria had suffered some challenges that as hinder its full integration in Nigeria health care system. Hence the problem of poor electronic medical records and database tracking system. The failure to transit from manual medical information to electronic medical information as lead to poor records of immunized and unimmunized children in communities and lack of databased tracking system in the whole of the country.

Other challenges that hinders the full implementation of ICT to Nigeria primary health care system is the epileptic nature of the power supply and lack of constant internet connection.

Solving these problems will automatically transform Nigeria health sector to a modern one.

If information computer technology (ICT) is to be fully integrated into the primary health care system, each of the problem mentioned above must be address urgently.        

 

 

 

Purpose of the Study

The aim of this study was to know what impact information computer technology (ICT) as made in primary health care in Lagos region of Nigeria. This study intends to examine the following.

1.   The impact of ICT in primary health care and its new innovations

2.   Factors limiting the utilization of ICT in primary health care

3.   The awareness level of the of the public on the use of ICT in primary health care

 

Significance of the Study

This study will be useful in creating awareness of the importance of ICT in primary health care. And also help in identifying the challenges of ICT in primary health care. That may diminish and disable and causes of it non utilization.

 

Research Questions

1.   Would information computer technology (ICT) have any impact on primary health care utilization?

2.   Would exposure of patients to information computer technology (ICT) have impact on primary health care utilization among health care workers?

3.   Would information computer technology (ICT) have impact on primary health care utilization among patients of selected public health centre?

4.   Would the use of information computer technology (ICT) have psychological impact on primary health care utilization among patients of selected public health centre?

Research Hypotheses

1.   Information computer technology (ICT) would have no significant impact on primary health care utilization.

2.   Exposure of patients to information computer technology (ICT) would have no significant impact on primary health care utilization among health workers.

3.   Information computer technology (ICT) would have no significant impact on primary health care utilization among patients of selected public health centres.

4.   The use of information computer technology (ICT) would have no significant psychological impact on primary health care utilization among patients of public health centres.

 

Limitation of the Study

Limitations are conditions beyond the control of the researcher that may place restrictions on the conclusion of the study and their application to other situation (Borg, 1981). The researcher was not able to control the attitude of the respondents as they respond to the questions and as such, lackadaisical attitude of respondents is a major limitation, this is because the respondents may at times give socially acceptable responses which may affect the validity of the findings. 

Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimited to patient of university of Lagos medical centre, Shomolu General Hospital and Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Study involve the use of a structured questionnaire with the help of five research assistants to help administer the questionnaire to the respondents.

 

 

Operational Definition of Terms

ICT: Information computer technology (ICT) is the digital processing and utilization of information by the use of electronic computer; it comprises the storage, retrieval conversion and transmission of information (Ifueko Omoigui Okauru, 2011)

PHC: Primary health care (PHC) is the first level of contact individuals, families and communities have with the health care system.

IT:  Information technology (IT) is the study or use of systems (especially computers and telecommunications) for storing, retrieving, and sending information.

NHS: National Health Service (NHS) is the public funded health care system for England.

RMP: Registered medical practitioners (RMP) are degree that qualifies the medical practitioner to become licensed or registered.

HMN: Health metrics networks (HMN) is to mobilize partners to strengthen health information systems and to increase the availability of information for decisions to improve health outcomes in countries.

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