IMPACT OF JOB APPRAISAL ON EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY IN AN ORGANIZATION (A Case Study of Ojo Local Government)


Content

ABSTRACT

This research work has attempted to identify and determine the Effect of Job Appraisal in Ojo Local Government and the Effectiveness on Employees’ Productivity. The ineffective use of performance appraisal as a human resources management tool cuts across different sectors of the economy, either public or private sector and to determine whether job appraisal exercise will increase the productivity of worker in Ojo Local Government.

In accomplishing this purpose, views and ideas of some authors and scholars in the area of study were viewed, the organization under the study is noted to be one of the oldest Local Government and it’s rated as one of the first twenty (20) local government in Lagos State.

The method of choosing the respondents was done through random sampling; this is to allow for objectivity on the part of the researcher. The data collected would be analyzed through descriptive statistics. This include, table and percentage basis. With a population of over 250 staffs at the head office, it is discovered that management personnel is 25, skilled officers and middle level staff are less than 100, while the remaining belongs to the junior staff.

It is recommended to employers of labors in the organization should work in close association with other relevant groups with other relevant groups in the organization in order to enhance organizational relations policies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents                                                                               Page

Title page                                                                                 1

Abstract                                                                                   2

Table of contents                                                                     3

 

CHAPTER ONE:

1.1   Introduction                                                                     5

1.2   Statement of Problem                                                      7

1.3   Objectives of the study                                                     8

1.4   Statement of Research Questions                                    8

1.5   Statement of Research Hypotheses                                  9

1.6   Scope of the Study                                                           10

1.7   Significance of the Study                                                 10

1.8   Definition of Terms                                                          11

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1   Introduction                                                                     15

2.2   Definition of Performance Appraisal                                16

2.3   Origin and Development of Performance Appraisal          17

2.4   Relevance of Performance Appraisal                                        19

2.5   Problems of Performance Appraisal                                 21

2.6   Performance Appraisal Process                                                22

2.7   Why Do We Appraise Employee Performance                   25

2.8   Features and Focus of A Good Performance

Appraisal Form                                                                26

2.9   Theoretical Framework                                                    27

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1   Introduction                                                                     32

3.2   Data Collection Method                                                   32

3.3   Data Collection Instrument                                              33

3.4   Data Collection Instrument                                              33

3.5   Population of the Study                                                   34

3.6   Sample and Sampling Techniques                                   34

3.7   Data Analysis                                                                   34

3.8   Limitations of the Methodology                                                35

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1   Introduction                                                                     36

CHAPTER FIVE:     SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1   Summary                                                                                 48

5.2   Conclusion                                                                      49

5.3   Recommendations                                                           50

        References                                                                       52

        Questionnaire                                                                  54


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This research project will be limited to Ojo Local Government, using the annual performance appraisal from, which tends to study the impact of Job Appraisal as it affects employee productivity on the part of workers in Ojo Local Government.

However, it is important that employees at lower levels are properly represented at the top administrative level, especially when it comes to policy formulation and implementation.

 

Ojo Local government is the one out of the twenty local government areas in Lagos State. The entire area is about 180 square kilometer with about 30% of it constituting the riverine areas. The local government area has Awori as its native inhabitants, and other tribes from the country are represented in large population.

Performance appraisal according to Fanibuyan (2001) is used to determine the promotion of workers and is usually done by the line manager and personnel specialist. Also, performance appraisal is concerned basically with a view of individual performance during a set period to identify his area of strength and weakness and establish targets for him so as to achieve the overall objectivities of the organization. Bankole (2000) asserted that performance appraisal is a review of employees’ performance based on the objective agreed in essence, it is the process of reviewing an individual’s performance and productivity in terms of effectiveness in a job and assessing his potential for future promotion.

The ineffective use of performance appraisal as a human resources management tool cuts across different sectors of the economy, either public or private sector. It is pertinent to state that there are four main objectives of performance appraisal;

1.          To provide an opportunity for the manager or superior or subordinates

2.          To review the latter’s work in light of set objectives

3.          To achieve the objectives of feedback at work

4.          To create a sense of belonging and instill a sense of achievement in the individual. (Fanibuyan 2001)

A look at the public sector will reveal that performance appraisal is not given any serious attention by both the management and staff of government establishment.

There are cases when annual performance appraisal forms (APA) are filled by staff and would not be submitted back to the appropriate office, or the superior officer who is in charge of appraising subordinates is either frequently absent, or just treats the forms with nonchalant attitude or utter disregard.

1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This research work is necessary now than every considering the rate of environmental hazards that employees are exposed to daily, the condition of job, the quality of food people consume, due to longer hours at work which over expose them to junk foods.

Hence, the study will focus on the impact of job appraisal controlled and managed in Ojo Local Government.  As it is recorded to be a determinant of employees performance on productivity thereby causing disturbances at work. 

Furthermore, problems such as failure of companies in providing health Insurance scheme for their workforce, high rate of job insecurity, the setting of unrealistic deadlines, improper working conditions and absence of counseling department and appraisal on the productivity of employees in Ojo Local government. 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the research is to find out the impact of job appraisal (performance appraisal) on the productivity of employees using Ojo Local government as a case study. The following objectives are intended to be achieved;

1.  To determine whether job appraisal exercise will increase the productivity of worker in Ojo Local government.

2.  To find out whether the performance appraisal exercises is not being used by the management of Ojo Local government as a secret report on the subordinates

3.  To ascertain whether the performance appraisal exercise is not being used as an attack on the personality of workers by the management of Ojo Local government.

1.4   STATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Since it is believed in some public sector organizations that performance appraisal exercise it not been done the way it should be done, and therefore, has negative implication on the productivity of workers. Some questions will be asked which this research will attempt to answer.

1.          Is performance appraisal exercise a secret report on the subordinates?

2.          Is performance appraisal used as a basis for determining promotion or demotion of an employee?

3.          Will performance appraisal exercise increase the productivity of workers?

These questions will give a guide in the data collection and analysis process.

1.5   STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

-      That workers used to be motivated for effective performance

-      That workers must be well informed and carried along against any serious decisions by the management to avoid conflict

-      That performance appraisal exercise has an impact on the productivity of workers in Ojo Local government

-      That there is positive relationship between performance appraisal and promotion of employees in an organization

1.6   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study will be limited to Ojo Local Government area of Lagos State. It aims to study how job appraisal can enhance the employee’s productivity in the local government.

1.7   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The role which annual performance appraisal exercise plays in the overall management in the public sector makes this research more pertinent to personnel management. Performance appraisal performs a tangible role in an organization and it is imperative for the survival of the organization. The usefulness of the appraisal exercise to an organization is in two (2) phases, namely;

-      Evaluation role

-      Developmental role

Evaluation roles

v To evaluate those people that are capable within the organization;

v It helps to evaluate the performance of each employee;

v It helps the management to evaluate itself and likewise the employees

Development roles

-      It helps in employee (s) career counseling

-      It helps to identify those that used to be trained in new skills

-      It helps to identify the training and developmental needs of the organization

The findings of this research will enable us discover the positive and negative implication of annual performance appraisal on employee productivity in Ojo Local government.

In conclusion, the outcome of this research will help improve the practice of human resources management since its findings will expose the practitioners of Ojo Local Government to their responsibilities.

1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS

It is relevant to this study to outlined and define the various terms and concepts that will be used or found in this research. This will eliminate ambiguity from the subject matters.

Local government:  It implies to government at grassroots, in other words, it is government that is closest to the people are the grassroots level and serves at a bridge between the people at the grassroots who can participate directly in federal governance.

According to Robert Ola (1982), he described local government as a political sub division of a nation or state (in a federal system), which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs, including the powers to impose taxes or to exact labor for prescribed purposes.

Performance (Job) Appraisal: According to Fabuniyan (2001), appraisal is used to determine by the promotions of workers and is usually done by the line managers and personnel specialists. Also, performance evaluation which is otherwise known as performance appraisal is the personnel activity by means at which the employee performing the job effectively.

Management:  This implies the process of getting things done by and through others, e.g. supervising the work of a group of clerks rather than doing the work oneself, (Hicks quoted by Otokiti 2002).

Organization:  for many writers in administration and management, organization is an act of putting things in working order. Critically speaking however, the term organization is used in at last three (3) different senses:

Organization in this regard connotes the following:

v The act of designing the administration structure

v Designing as well as building the administrative structure

v The resultant administrative structure itself

For Pfiffner and Sherwood, organization is a pattern ways in which a large number of people, too many to love intimate face to face contact with all others, and engaged in a complexity of tasks, relate themselves to each other in the conscious, systematic establishment and accomplishment of mutually agreed purposes.

Productivity:  implies efficiency and effectiveness of an input geared towards accomplishment of defined goals and objectives. Seen in terms at the degree of output derived from the utilization of man, money and material, and also time in an organization.

Promotion:     it implies elevation from a job or position to more important position in an organization or company. In other words, it implies an advancement of an employee to a better and higher job position in organization. An employee can be said to have been promoted when he is put on a job position which involves higher responsibility, commands more prestige and a higher status. So promotion means filling up vacancies which occur in any organization from time to time.

Administration:      according to Luther Gullick, it has to do with getting things done; with the accomplishment of defined objectives. Administration is sees as management of affairs, especially “public affairs”. The emphasis on public affairs here is largely because administration is often equated with the act of governing.


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