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- IMPACT OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN AGRICULTURAL FINANCING IN NIGERIA (A Case Study of First Bank Nigeria Plc.)
- THE IMPACT OF BANK FRAUD AND DISTRESS ON BANKING HABIT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK, GTB, UBA, UNION BANK AND ZENITH BANK)
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- IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF BANKS IN NIGERIA (A STUDY OF DIAMOND BANK NIGERIA PLC)
- THE IMPACT OF CASHLESS POLICY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA
IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION ON BUYING DECISION (A CASE STUDY OF GLOBACOM NIGERIA LIMITED)
The depressed nature of Nigerian economy has weakened the purchase power of consumers of products and services. The research survey has critically examined the effect which sales promotion has on Globacom Nigeria Limited together with the resultant effect on customers buying behaviour and the level at which customers try and adopt their offerings.
The major tools use in collection of primary and secondary data were the use of 100 administered questionnaires which was distributed among executives of Globacom Nigeria Limited, the marketing intermediaries (wholesalers, retailers and distributors) and the consumers of the product. Consultation of previous materials on the related research topic was also employed.
Research question and hypothesis were equally raised which were analyzed using regression analysis. The hypotheses tested were:
i. Sales promotion has no significant impact on the buying behaviour.
ii. Sales promotion does not lead on repeat purchase and product loyalty.
It was revealed that sales promotion has a great effect on customers buying behaviour and also contributes towards the sales of Globacom Nigeria Limited.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Research Questions 5
1.4 Objectives of the Study 5
1.5 Significance of the Study 6
1.6 Scope of the Study 6
1.7 Definition of Terms 7
1.8 Brief write-up on case study: GLOBACOM Nigeria LTD 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Nature of Sales Promotion 13
2.2 Sales Promotion objectives and uses 13
2.3 Growth of Sales Promotion 14
2.3.1 External Factors 15
2.3.2 Internal Factors 15
2.4 Sales Promotion Methods and Tools 15
2.4.1 Sales Promotion tools used by Retailers 17
2.4.2 Sales Promotion Techniques for New Products 18
2.4.3 Sales Promotion Tools for Established Products 19
2.4.4 Sales Promotion Methods for Resellers 20
2.5 Major Decisions involved in Sales Promotion 21
2.5.1 Major Decisions involved in Sales Promotion 21
2.5.2 Selection of a Sales Promotion Tools 22
2.5.3 Development of Sales Promotion program 22
2.5.4 Pre-Testing of the Sales Promotion program 23
2.5.5 Implementation and control of the Sales Promotion
2.5.6 Evaluation of the Sales Promotion Results 24
2.6 Limitations of Sales Promotion Results 24
2.7 Consumer Buying Behaviour 26
2.8 Decision Process of a Consumer 26
2.8.1 Complex Buying Behaviour 27
2.8.2 Dissonance reducing Buying Behaviour 28
2.8.3 Habitual Buying Behaviour 28
2.8.4 Variety-Seeking Buying Behaviour 28
2.9 Stages of the Buying Decision Process 28
2.9.1 Problem Recognition 29
2.9.2 Information Search 29
2.9.3 Evaluation of Alternatives 30
2.9.4 Purchase Decision 30
2.9.5 Post-Purchase Behaviour 31
2.10 Factors influencing consumer Buying Decision 31
2.11 Effect of Sales Promotion on Buying Decision 33
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 35
3.2 The Study Population 35
3.3 Sampling size and Sampling technique 35
3.4 Method of Data Collection 36
3.6 Method of Data Analysis 36
3.7 Regression Analysis 37
3.8 Research Hypothesis 37
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data 39
4.1 Frequency Tables for Executives 39
4.2 Frequency Table for Middlemen 42
4.3 Frequency Table for Consumers 43
4.4 Frequency Table for other questions 45
4.5 Test of Hypothesis 52
4.6 Discussion of Results 55
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction 58
5.2 Summary of Findings 58
5.3 Conclusion 59
5.4 Recommendation 60
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
After the advent of industrial revolution, machines were introduced into the production system to boost the production of goods and services and this brought about large number of goods available for sales. In this regard, consumers were exposed to variety of products and were required to select the product which will give them the optimum satisfaction they desired according to their needs.
Companies on the other hand were interested in boosting their image, achieving high sales, maximizing profit and at the same time gaining competitive advantage over others. In the light of the foregoing for a company to excel above its competitors, it has to employ certain marketing strategies to attract the attention and triggered the interest of its consumers.
When a consumer goes shopping, he or she implicitly, or explicitly, has to make four key decisions for each product category. Whether to buy in the category and, if so, where (which store), which brand, and what quantity. All four decisions may be influenced by consumer characteristics (e.g., income, family size, purchase frequency) and by the marketing environment (e.g., the prices and promotion activities of the various brands and stores). Marketing mix variables can affect these four decisions to differing degrees.
In recent years, consensus have it that spending on sales promotion by firms in most developed and some developing countries of the world has significantly overwhelmed those on advertising. This is not surprising when its inevitable role in complementing other methods of product promotion in order to achieve short-term gains is considered. Sales promotion involves gaining consumer loyalty, increase repeat purchase and facilitate profit maximization. Promotion campaigns are probably the most important of four marketing mix element: product, price, place and promotion that can help to solve company’s problem and gain competitive advantage if well implemented.
The greatest disadvantage of sales promotion lies on its long-term ineffectiveness, even though it accounts for over 65 percent of a typical marketing budget. This is the result of the research work by Abraham and Lodish in (1990). However, further efforts by Perreault and Mccarthy in (2002) submits that sales promotion can instigate a continuous increase in sales in the long-term if it has successfully resulted in brand loyalty, repeat purchase and customer satisfaction in short term.
Furthermore, the issue of getting the most out of each promotional naira has become an increasingly important one. However, some managers’ studies reveal that 80 percent of promotion users are, in fact, loyal customers who presumably would have bought the brand regardless of the promotion (Levine 1989).
Basically, promotion is an exercise that performs the role of information, persuasion and influence to purchase certain products. Promotion also affects the demand elasticity of a product, making the demand inelastic when the price increases and elastic when the price decreases.
The main purpose of promotion is for effective and efficient communication. Basically, the promotion exercise is usually aimed at achieving the following:
1. Achieving high sales volume, which in turns affects the contribution of profit ratio.
2. Directing and ensuring that product flow through the appropriate channels till the products get to the final consumers so that wants may be satisfied.
3. Identification of markets and buyers motives that enables want to be satisfied.
The objectives of promotion are as follows:
1. To inform that is making the market aware of a new product or service. Promotion informs the market of a price charge, the product or service usage and the available services.
2. To increase the demand for products and services.
3. To persuade consumers by building brand name and encouraging consumers to switch to a firm’s brand.
4. To reduce customer’s fears and anxiety and also to build good company image.
5. It supports personal selling program.
6. Reminding customers of where to buy products that are needed immediately and those needed in future, most especially when they are off-season products.
7. Announcement of special sale.
8. To introduce new business to the community.
This study will be used to highlight or evaluate the effectiveness of sales promotion on the buying decision of consumers. This is very important as it would bring about rapid growth if the promotional strategies are well planned and implemented.
Finally, marketers should constantly evaluate promotional effectiveness in terms of its ability to make clients or consumers to respond more favourably towards the firm’s product than they would respond towards firms’ competitors. This is because it would provide information about the effectiveness of promotional activities on the management, employees, the sales of the company’s product and competitive advantage relevant to most firms or companies producing and marketing consumer products.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Major external factors such as socio-economic, regulatory and technological issues have shaped the structure of communication service and also the nature of competition within it. The Nigerian telecommunication industry cannot be isolated from the list of industries where product promotion and incentives are wholly adopted. The reason for this can be associated with oligopolistic nature of the industry. In other words, the major challenge of the telecommunication companies in Nigeria is how to be the choice of majority of the over 140 million interconnected Nigerians.
However, many promotion and sales incentives adopted by companies these days are so ineffective, dull and dreary that they bore the prospective consumer.
However, considering the level of economic resources committed to these promotional mix and program, a good business manager must weigh the cost of a promotion against the expected increase in sales that will result from the promotion rather than “buying sales” at the cost of reduced profit i.e. carry out a cost benefit of the promotion program. A sales promotion is only effective and appropriate if it can prompt its target and it possess a high degree of creativity and flexibility. Obviously since the aforementioned applies to the Nigerian telecommunication sector, there is therefore a void to fill by carrying out this study.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions relevant to the study are raised:
1. How does sales promotion affect increase in sales and to what extent?
2. What are the factors that influence consumer loyalty of a particular package?
3. Does sales promotion have a short-term impact rather than long-term impact on buyers’ decision?
4. What are the impacts sales promotions have on buyers’ buying decision?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of the study is to examine the effective sales promotion plans in the Nigerian telecommunication industry and evaluate its impact on buying decision using GLOBACOM Nigeria Limited as a case study. The specific objectives of the study include:
1. To examine the impact of sales promotion on customer awareness of the company’s product.
2. To determine whether sales promotion makes the customers to maintain repeat purchase and have product loyalty.
3. To identify the problems associated with sales promotion by the company.
4. To examine the impact of sales promotion or buying decision and levels of satisfaction.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study cannot be over-emphasized as the result; it would serve as an aid to different parties, especially the firm of concern (GLOBACOM NIG. LTD). Drawing from the objectives of the study, it should determine the efficacy of sales promotion by the company in order to foster competitiveness and enhance profit.
Moreover, the study will be useful for students, practitioners, marketers, consultants and academicians who value research and have interest in the business and marketing discipline.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Every research work is only effective and useful at drawing reliable conclusions if it concentrates on its objectives. This study is only limited to the sales promotion activities of GLOBACOM NIG. LTD and the respondents for the study are restricted to the Lagos State University and her immediate environment.
Hence, the researcher has chosen to undertake this research work to cover the period of 2009 and 2010.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined as they are used in this study:
PROMOTION: Promotion keeps the products in the minds of the customers and help stimulate demand for the product. Promotion involves on-going advertising, sales promotion and publicity.
MARKETING: This is the wide range of activities involved in making sure that the company is continuing to meet the needs of their customers and getting value in return. Marketing also includes analyzing the competitive positioning of new packages or products or services (finding market niche), pricing products or services and promoting them through continued advertising, promotion, customer service and sales.
SALES: Sales includes various forms of activities. They include marketing prospective buyers (or leads) in a market segment, conveying the features, advantages and benefits of a product or service to the lead and closing the sales (or coming to an agreement on payment and service).
ADVERTISING: This is bringing a product or service to the attention of potential and current customers. It is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailing or email messages, personal contacts e.t.c.
SALES PROMOTION: These are other activities other than advertising, personal selling and publicity that stimulate the interest, trial and purchase by final consumers or others in the chain of distribution.
BUYING BEHAVIOUR: This is the decision process and acts of final household consumers associated with evaluating buying, consuming and discarding products for personal consumption.
1.8 BRIEF WRITE-UP ON CASE STUDY: GLOBACOM NIGERIA LIMITED
GLOBACOM Nigeria started operation on August 29, 2003 by Dr. Mike Adenuga, who is the present chairman of the company. GLOBACOM was made known to the people through marketing activities such as sales promotion and advertising.
The company has a reputation of one of the fastest growing mobile service providers in the world and their aim is to be recognized as the best mobile network in Africa.
The company has its headquarters in Lagos, Nigeria. The company consolidated its position by setting up new branches in almost all the states in the country. GLOBACOM also extends outside Nigeria to some West African countries like Benin Republic, Ghana and Ivory Coast.
In the first year of operation, GLO MOBILE boasted of about one million subscribers in over 87 towns. This company provides mobile networks, telecommunication services e.t.c. The Cellular News reports that GLO MOBILE which was sixth at the start of last year has apparently now overtaken MTN NIGERIA as the market leader occupying the forth place on the lost of the largest mobile network operators in the region. GLO MOBILE now has over 25 million subscribers in the last seven years. This company also has the largest roaming coverage for voice and data in the whole of Africa.
In addition, the company has been a dominant player in the Nigerian Telecommunication Industry and has continued to improve her product and services to attract consumer. The company has also embarked on a lot of promotional strategies to boost the sale of their products. The most recent sales promotional strategies embarked upon by GLOBACOM NIGERIA include GLO talk points, GLO 100 crash rate, GLO free night calls among other.