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IMPACTS OF EFFECTIVE FINANCING OF SMALL BUSINESS ENTERPRISES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA)


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ABSTRACT

In view of the importance of SMEs, government has been playing an appreciative role in promoting their survival and growth, various policies towards this has enunciated plan and the ongoing three year rolling plan, priority was accorded industrialization with emphasis on SMEs.

 

Thus, it has been stated that the panacea for solving the problem of stunted economic growth of developing countries often reside in the adequate funding and development of the Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs).

 

Analyst have therefore continued to posit that Nigeria will continue to, remain in a state of underdevelopment unless concerted efforts are made to achieve growth in the SMEs .because the lack of development in this sector has 'continued to keep the Nigerian economy, in the woods. One of the major impediments to the growth and development of this sub-sector is lack of adequate finding.

 

The survey research design was employed in this study and the questionnaire was the main research instrument. A total of 50 respondents make up the sample size of the study. Thus various statistical tools were used to analyze the data collected. A statistical tool used was mean and standard deviation. Hence the finding of the study shows that the rationale for promoting SMEs has given as their ability to make efficient use of resource employment, mobilize domestic savings for investment and it is recommended that: The government in conjunction with banks and professional associations should help the business to sign post the path to improved methods of marketing.

 


TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of Problems

1.3      Objectives of Study

1.4       Research questions

1.5       Research Hypothesis

1.6       Significance of Study

1.7       Scope and Limitation Of Study

1.8       Research Methodology

1.9       Definitions of Terms

1.10     Summary of Subsequent Chapters

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0       Introduction

2.1       Conceptual Clarifications

2.2       Banking Sector Reforms

2.3       Post - Banking Sector Consolidation

2.4       Nigerian Banks and the Problem of Financing Smes

2.5       Government Involvement .In Development of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises

2.6       Definition of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises

2.7       Government Agencies as Source of Finance

2.8       Survival Strategies for Small Scale Business in Nigeria

2.9       Sources of Finance and Funding Of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria

2.10     The Role of Banks in Providing Debt Finance to SMES

2.11     Survival Strategies for Small Scale Business in Nigeria

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction

3.2         Research Design

3.3       Re-Statement of Research Questions

3.4       Re-Statement of Research Hypothesis

3.5       Characteristics of the Study Population

3.6       Sampling Design and Procedure

3.7       Data Collection Instrument.

3.8       Administration of Data Collection Instrument

3.9       Procedure for Analysing Collected Data

3.10     Limitations of Methodology

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0       Introduction

4.1       Data Presentation and Analysis

4.2       Analysis of Respondents

4.3       Test of Hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION

5.1       Summary of Findings

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation

Biography

Questionnaire

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1    Background to the Study

It has been erroneously upheld that Nigeria can become industrialized only through the establishment of large scale industries, but empirical evidence on the industrial development of the economic developed countries has revealed that for a genuine industrial to take off in an economy, concerted effort should be made to increase the number and improve the performance of indigenously owned Small Scale Industries.

 

The economic and social contributions of this sector have played a crucial role in the overall development in Nigeria. For this sector has been the bedrock of Nigerian Industrialization and remain strong in its contribution to the country's economy today.

 

In most of the developing countries, the corporate world is usually characterized by low investment rate occasioned by inadequate of investable funds and poor economic condition. Many of such nations therefore, feel the need to revitalize their economies by embarking on economic reform, programs expected to boost the level of activity in the economy (Olaleye, 2002).

 

The promotion of Small and Medium Enterprises is cornerstone of economic policy for a large number of industrialization countries. Public support for small and medium enterprises appears 'to be based on the widely held perception that small business sector is an incubator of economic growth, a place where innovation takes place and new ideas become economically viable business enterprises (Craig, Jackson and Thompson, 2005).


 

In line with this, the role of small and medium scale enterprises in fosters economic development has been well articulated in, different form of government policies. The specific attention on them is based on their expected impact and potential contribution as well as accelerative effort in achieving macro objectives pertaining to full employment of local technology.  They also serve as catalyst for increase national productivity and a veritable launching pad into the world export market.

 

Giving an insight into the small and medium scale enterprises phenomenon, the Nigerian economy does not seem to have been able to reap 'the advantages obtainable from the SMEs in the past.  In the same vain, these industries complain about neglect or lack of government interest in their quest for rapid growth and development. The existing lukewarm relationship is not in the best interest of the economy.

 

It is for these reasons that the Nigerian government started to show interest in the affairs of SMEs in the 1970s to the present. Some of the positive actions taken by the government include providing funds for some research into these industries, creating small scale industries division or departments, as well as small scale credit schemes in, various states and at the federal level and giving the subject a pride of place in national development plans to the 1970s and 1980s particularly 1981 - 1985 plan.

 

Hence, in view of the growing public interest and governments realization of the many advantages of SMEs, the government has made some policies and distinct pronouncement with regards to the operation and promoting the sector (both economically and monetary). The monetary measures include the establishment of financial institution~. to provide finance to the sector. Banks were also required to provide a specified proportion of their available credit to indigenous borrowers with particular emphasis to SMEs. In addition, various financial intermediaries were established by monetary authorities to provide incentives to these growing industries and business with the specific purpose of aiding them financing managing business problems.

 

In line with the above statements, it is obvious that the study of this nature cannot be overemphasized because of the new look of the Nigerian banks and other financial institutions in providing the needed funds to small and medium scale enterprises.

 

1.2    Statement of the Problem

It is a common knowledge that the small and medium scale enterprises have the potential of lifting the economy out of the doldrums in which it is presently languishing (Ajonbadi, 2002). The opportunities are simply enormous. However, the cry has been the lack of investible funds. Thus is moreso, when allegations have been raised against the Nigerian government and the Nigerian banks in particular, that business policies have been largely made to favour the large scale to the detriments of the SMEs sub-sector. Hence, SMEs does not have better access to funds.

 

SMEs are mostly likely to suffer severe problems of asymmetric, information because of their size and background and the lack of formal credit rating measures for firms. Many economists, mostly notably Slightz and Weiss (1981).

Contend that private lending institutions may indeed fail to allocate loans efficiently because of fundamental information problems in the market for SMEs business loans. Stilitz and Weiss (1981) argue that banks consider both the interest rate they receive on the loan and the riskness of the loan when deciding to make a loan. Thus, the inability to merge these two factors together hinders SMEs in accessing the needed funds.

 

Also, it has been observed that one of the reasons for the slow growth of SMEs in Nigeria is their limited access to long and medium term credit facilities for the acquisition of fixed assets and necessary expansion. The scarcity of funds for this purpose is mainly due to the short term nature of, banks deposits which are the major sources of finance to the economy.  Evidently in trying to reduce the risk inherent on the mismatch of the term of their deposits and loans, banks have been overtly cautions in selecting projects to be granted medium long term finance, while at the same time charging relatively high interest rates. Therefore, the study focuses on the problem of financing as it relate to small and medium enterprises.

 

1.3    Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of financing on the performance of small and medium scale enterprises in Lagos State. Thus, in order to achieve the above objective, the following specific objectives services as our guide:

*    To examine whether small and medium scale enterprises have better access to funds due to bank consolidation.

*    To examine whether government policies and reform programmes have impact on SMEs performance.

*    To examine whether adequate financing of SMEs, by financial institution will enhance the growth of the sector.

*    To examine whether the interest rate charge by banks and other financial intermediaries on loan affects SMEs performance.

*    To enumerates possible recommendations and solutions that may prove useful in better financing of SMEs.

 

 

1.4    Research Questions

In order to achieve the' objectives of this study, the study attempts to provide answers to the following research questions:

*    To what extent does finance has impact on the performance of SMEs?

*    Does SMEs have better access to funds due to bank consolidation?

*    Does government policies and reform programmes have impact 01'\ the performance of SMEs?

*    Does adequate financing of SMEs enhance the growth of the sector?

*    Does interest rate charge by banks and other financial intermediaries on loans affect SMEs performance?

 

1.5    Research Hypothesis

Hypothesis is a tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences. A hypothesis is a tentative statement about relationships that exist between two or more variables (Osuagwu, 2002). Hypothesis is state in two forms, "Null" which is denoted by "Ho" and "Alternative" which is denoted by "Hi". As general rule null hypothesis is always negative, while the alternative is positive in relation to the variables of the research topic.

 

In order to provide answers to the research questions, the following are the hypothesis of this study:

1.       Ho:    Finance does not hinder the growth of small and medium scale

enterprises. .

          Hi:     Finance hinders the growth of small and medium scale enterprises.

2.       Ho:    Government policies and reform programmes does not have impact

on the performance of SMEs.

Hi:     Government policies and reform programmes has impact on the performance of SMEs.

 

1.6    Significance of the Study

The essence or significance of this research study can be seen in the expected goal the study is to achieve. This range from exposing the immense economic benefits derivable from SMEs when giving enough backing (financial) from the financial institution in terms of its contribution to the national economy and employment generation to the people.

 

This study will also delve into some other areas of sources of finance to SMEs. This is because some small scale entrepreneurs may not even be aware of some of these credit schemes to help and assist them.

 

This study also contributes to knowledge in terms of provisions of additional information in the form of ideas, opinions and views from the field (industry operators) to develop and move the sector forward by way of checking the relationship that exists between the financial institution and SMEs in Nigeria.

 

1.7    Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study covers Financial Institutions and SMEs in Nigeria, particularly in Lagos State and does not extend to other sectors. This study is restricted to selected small scale enterprises in Ikeja local government of Lagos State. The study covers a representative numbers of the generality of SMEs. No special consideration is given to sex, age and nationality in collecting data from the respondents.

 

The level of accuracy in this study is proportional to the availability of information that the respondents are willing to give. Also, there is this uncertainty that information given is without bias. Also, undertaking a research study is a serious business. It requires a commitment of time, money and energy, both intellectual and physical. Hence, balancing the study with academics and going to work is an Herculean task.

 

1.8    Research Methodology

The design of this research study is to investigate the effectiveness of financial institution on SMEs performance in Lagos State. The data that will be collected for this study will be obtained from both primary and secondary source of information. The primary data will be collected through questionnaire, while secondary data will be collected from organisation news, journals and other related publications.

 

Responses to the research questions will be analysed using frequency, mean, standard deviation and simple percentage analysis. Findings from the study will be comprehensively discussed in the light of the research problems, hypothesis, purposes, research questions, literature of the research, and other relevant issues to the research. Conclusions will be drawn and recommendations made.

 

1.9    Definitions of Terms

*    Banks: This is a financial institution that aid in collection of deposit and granting loans and other auxiliary service to the public.

*    Banking: Is a service delivery business in which information is pivotal, whether in the honoring of cheques or other withdrawals.

*    Consolidations: This is another term used in place of merger and acquisition.  Thus, it is the combination of two or more corporation.

*    Enterprises: This is any commercial undertaking that is either publicity of privately owned or controlled. The word is used interchangeably with organisation in this study.

*    Performance: The degree of efficiency and effectiveness with which the organisation objectives are achieved.

*    Small Scale Enterprises: These are enterprises in which power consumptions, number of employees, quantum of raw materials, output like are small in size.

 

1.10 Summary of Subsequent Chapters

The research will be divided into five (5) chapters for easy study and analysis.

Chapter One: Is the introductory part which include general introduction, purpose of the study, background of the study, significant of the study, limitation of the study etc.

Chapter Two: Shall discuss the literature review i.e. the recent literature books and journals that deals with the subject matter.

 

Chapter Three: Will highlight the research methods i.e. the methodology, study plan, restatement of research questions and restatement of hypothesis etc.

 

Chapter Four. Will base on presentation, analysis and interpretation of result.

 

Chapter Five: Will attempt to recommend and make its findings known

 


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