IMPLICATION OF TERRORISM AND GLOBAL SECURITY IN AFRICA: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
The study attempts to x-ray the issue of terrorism and its implications for global peace and security, particularly Africa which is the sphere of our concern in this 21st century. The study explored the extent to which the continent of Africa is affected by the scourge of terrorism as a result of the perennial economic underdevelopment and endemic conflict which serves as a facilitating environment for terrorism.
The study argued that although terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but the internationalization of terrorist acts, particularly with the event of September 11, 2001 which came to be acknowledged as a watershed phenomenon in global security never occurred in isolation of, nor do these events reflect a sudden new threat but a symbolic re-affirmation of a trend that have been evident for several years.
Therefore in addressing global terrorism, it should transcend the counter terrorist measures being adopted by America and its allies to adequately capture what Abdullahi Wade, Senegalese President called "African initiative". By this, Africa can place its security issues in the wider context of global security. Moreso, considering the fact that in the continent, there are countries (Africa countries) that belong to the world Arab community.
A fresh opportunity for Africa to assert its stance in this nascent world order is therefore very important.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Table of Content Vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Research Propositions 3
1.4 Objectives of Study 3
1.5 Significance of the Study 4
1.6 Research Methodology 4
1.7 Limitations of the Study 5
1.8 Theoretical Framework 5
End Notes 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Literature Review 8
2.1 Conceptualization of Terrorism 8
2.2 War on Terrorism 14
2.3 Global Security 18
3.0 The Evolution of Terrorism 30
3.1 Recent Evolution of Terrorism 32
3.2 The Trend and Development of Terrorism In Africa 34
End Notes 41
4.0 Terrorism and Global Security: Implication for Africa in the 21st
4.1 Africa: A Facilitating Environment for Terrorism 43
4.2 Implication of Global Terrorism on Africa 47
4.3 Bounding Terrorism in Africa 53
4.4 The Future of Terrorism And Africa's Security 60
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 63
5.2 Conclusion 65
End Notes 67
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The recent threat to global security in the 21 century continues to generate a major discourse between the state and non-state actors in the international community. This discourse came to a crescendo particularly with the unprecedented attack on one of the powerful nations of the world, pulling down the twin towers (World Trade Centre and the Pentagon in the United States of America).
Essentially this global threat to peace and security in the world is the manifestation of terrorist network, based upon an intolerant ideology whose advocates are willing to die for their cause through weapons of mass destruction. The attendant reactions to the wide spread insecurity occasioned-by terrorism, most especially as it affects America, however led to the conviction of America and the rest of the world in declaring a "war against terrorism of global reach ".
However, the nature and parameters of the global war on terrorism, remains frustratingly unclear. The extent of postulating rogue states, weapons of mass destruction proliferators, terrorist organization and terrorism itself-in the general context of the war on terrorism and their conflation as a general threat, thus exposing the globe to an open-ended and unnecessary conflict with states and non-state entities that pose no direct or imminent threat to terrorism.
Although the events of September 11, 2001 have come to be acknowledged as a watershed in international concern with the issue of terrorism, it symbolizes a reaffirmation of a trend that had been evident for several years. Where terror had previously been an uncomfortable adjunct to anarchism, liberation wars, counter insurgency campaigns and the general level of socio-political and economic injustice in the world.
As it were, most contemporary writing on terrorism focuses on international terrorism and its implication for Africa. In fact by any objective standard, Africa is the continent most afflicted by terrorism, albeit not yet by international terrorism (Jakkie Cilliers 2003: 93). The US State department's patterns of global terrorism is indicative of this claims that although from a very low base with only 6 percent of international terrorist incidents committed on African soil between 1990 and 2002, but the situation poses a new dimension when evaluating the costs of international terrorism in terms of human casualties which presents a different and more alarming picture. Africa recorded 6,177 casualties from 269 acts of international terrorism during the same period, second to Asia in terms of continental casualties; with 1998 as the year with the highest number (5379) due to the bombing in Kenya and Tanzania (Botha 2003, 5-6).
To confine the debate in Africa to statistics that seek to calculate instance of international terrorism would however, do a terrible injustice to Africans. Terrorism is wide spread, but overwhelmingly of a state nature that kills, maims and affects millions of people in Africa. Thus as African countries are in support of global war on terrorism, the continent is becoming a zone vulnerable to attack by the terrorist network.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The implication of terrorism to global security is becoming obvious At the surface it remains the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear As terrorism evolves into the principal irregular warfare strategy of the 21 St Century, its domestic roots is originally fuelled and driven by domestic injustices In view of this, the research work shall endeavour to understand the rationale for the rising wave of terrorism in the world and the implication of this for global security and the net outcome of that on the continent of Africa.
1.3 RESEARCH PROPOSITIONS
The following hypotheses formulated shall be tested with a view to validating them.
· That the increasing trend of terrorism will have a precarious effect for Africa.
· That the internationalization of terrorism has implication for global peace and security.
· That the current global war on terrorism is riot the panacea for eradicating terrorism.
· That the increasing rate of terrorism is as a result of global social-political and economic injustices.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The objectives of the study shall among other things constitute the following:
· To portray the genesis of terrorism, particularly in Africa.
· To examine the implication of terrorism for Africa in this 21st century.
· To appraise, methodologies of combating terrorism.
· To projects the social cost and net effect of international terrorism to global peace and security.
· To discern terrorism as a result of global socio-political and economic injustice.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Giving the pervasiveness of the global terrorism on Africa, the focus of this research work should therefore go beyond the mundane, and appreciate extensive underpinnings. In view of this, the significance of the study shall be premised on the following:
v To be able to search for methodologies towards finding lasting solution to the menace of global terrorism.
v To be able to delegitimize and ultimately eradicate the phenomenon of terrorism.
v To be able to consider the possibility of reducing the implication of terrorism on Africa.
v To be able to readdress the current approach to eradicating terrorism.
v To also consciously look into the global socio-political and economic injustices which bred terrorism.
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research methodology shall be based on secondary method of data collection, which shall revolve round obtaining data from official publications which includes national. dailies, text books, journals, library materials. The form of research shall also be historical, descriptive and analytical.
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The study shall be limited and would revolve round the issue of terrorism and global security, particularly its implication for Africa in the 21st century. However, the unbridled nature and parameters of international terrorism will no doubt require us to reflect on some fundamental issues that are related to the discourse on terrorism and global security. This is perhaps due to the derivative nature of global terrorism.
1.8 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Most of the major theories of terrorism are derived from theories of collective violence in the field of political science. It can be safely said that political science had a monopoly over theories of terrorism, followed by perhaps the discipline of religion, economy, social, psychological and theories of criminology which certainly are relevant in understanding the context of terrorism.
In view of this, it is however necessary to canvass for a more holistic and theoretical framework for this type of research work. Therefore this research work shall adopt "The theory of Anarchism as a theoretical framework for terrorism and global security".
Terrorism is definitely not a form of governance, but anarchy. Most anarchists reject terrorism in its vanguard varieties (for nationalist or religious purposes) but in a theoretical sense, anarchism justifies terrorism as a form of criminal action that attacks the values of an organized, complacent society. As a theory, anarchism holds a unique place in history because it was the first revolutionary movement to come up with systematic ideas about the purpose of agitation. Some. of these ideas are terrorist tactics. The proponents of anarchism are Proudhon, Mikhail Bakunin Carlo Piscean Karl Heinzen etc.
Their central thrust is that murder-suicide constituted the highest form of agitations are revolutionary struggle. That is why they advocated the use of weapon of mass destruction, subversive publications whose targets are innocent people as well as institutions. (Ronald Bemer 2001: Pages 1 - 3). The relation of this to the research work is the fact that, though anarchism is a form of government, but it is couched in a movement, organized to use the methods identified above to get themselves liberalized. Thus the increasing rate of terrorism has been adjudged to be as a result of the oppression and suppression of some group of people in the world, which by implication occasioned the global socio - political; economic and religious injustice. Therefore the need to be self - liberated by these oppressed and suppressed people justified the murder - suicide method to addressing these injustices as being witnessed by international terrorist network. That is why the terrorist network will go to the extent of killing, maiming, and bombing innocent people and institutions which will raise public outcry and curiosity on the need to address the prevailing status quo as well as understanding how much they are aggrieved through their devilish actions. This to them (the terrorist) will not only promise social justice, but also protect diversity and differences among people of the world (Ferrell Jeff 1999: page 3).
Akinyele R.A. and Bassey Ate Ed Managing African Security in the 21"' Century, Nigeria Institute of International Affairs, Lagos. Page 10 Botha Allen (2003) Background: Terrorism in Africa, Paper Presented at the ISS Terrorism Seminar 18 - 19 September 2003 Colostrums Hotel, Pretonia South Africa.
Akinyele Yome (2001) African Security in Historical Perspective-Page 5.
Bayant Ellis and Hlbon Beatrice (1999) The Criminalization of the Stale in Africa, The International African Institute in an Association with James Carrey and Indiana University Press, London. Page 31.
Chabel, P and Daloe J. (1999) Africa Works, Disorder as Political Instrument, African Issues, Villies Publication, London. Page 18 Conor Gearty (2002) Terrorism and Morality in Rubi Journal October (26 -31). Page 19.