INFLUENCE OF CLASS SIZE AND TEACHERS’ EXPERIENCE ON BUSINESS STUDIES STUDENTS ACADEMICS PERFORMANCE


Content

ABSTRACT

This study examine the Influence of Class Size and Teachers’ Experience on Business Education Students Academic Performance in Lagos Mainland Education District, using simple random sampling technique. Questionnaires were administered to 200 business studies students selected from five senior secondary schools in Lagos Mainland Education District in Lagos State. Combinations of parametric and non-parametric statistics were used for the test of the research questions and hypotheses. The study concludes that class size, teachers experiences are significant factors affecting students’ academic performance. Therefore, the study recommends that there is need for government to build more on teachers' educational qualification and mastery of the subjects they are teaching, with teachers training programmes, teachers need to be equipped with the teaching strategies in order to effectively teach both small and larger classes. Moreso, teachers should not only know about the teaching strategies, but they should also be acquainted with putting them into practice in smaller or larger classes. Furthermore, more classrooms should be built to reduce the number of students in the existing classrooms. Every school in Lagos Mainland Education District needs to have an equipped Business studies laboratory, where the students would practice typing without much problem.


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGES

Title page                                                                                                   i

Certification                                                                                               ii

Dedication                                                                                                 iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                     iv
Abstract                                                                                                     v

Table of Contents                                                                                      vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1.      Background of the study                                                                1

1.2.  Statement of the Problem                                                                5

1.3    Purpose of the Study                                                                      6

1.4    Research Questions                                                                        7

1.5    Research Hypotheses                                                                      7

1.6    Significant of the Study                                                                   8

1.7.   Scope of the Study                                                                           8

1.8    Operational Definition of Terms                                                     9

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0  Introduction                                                                                       11

2.1   Class Size                                                                                          11

2.2.   Class Factors                                                                                   14

2.3.    Research on Class Size, Teacher characteristics and Student Academic Performance.                                                                18

2.4    Teachers Effectiveness, Experience and Student Academic Performance                                                                                   22

2.5.   Teachers’ Content Knowledge and Students’ Academic Performance      27

2.6 Classroom Space and Its Effect In Academic Performance             28

2.7 Classroom Utilization and Academic Achievement                          32

2.8   Appraisal of the Literature Review                                         34

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0   Introduction                                                                                      37

3.1    Research Design                                                                              37

3.3.   Population of the Study                                                                  38

3.4.   Sample size and Sampling Technique                                            38

3.5    Research Instrument                                                                      39

3.6    Reliability of Instrument                                                                 40

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  DATA ANALYSIS, HYPOTHESIS TESTING AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULT

4.1    Introduction                                                                                    42

4.2    hypothesis testing and interpretation of result                    42

4.2.1 Hypothesis one                                                                                42

4.2.2 Hypothesis Two                                                                               44

4.2.3 Hypothesis Three                                                                             45

4.2.4 Hypothesis Four                                                                              46

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDING, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0.   Introduction                                                                                     48

5.1.   Summary of Major Findings                                                  48

5.2.    Conclusion                                                                                      53

5.3.    Recommendations                                                                          54

 

References                                                                        57

Appendix                                                                          61

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.2.       Background of the study

In most third world countries, enrolment exceeds provision for both primary and secondary education in terms of adequate furnished classrooms, and educational resources, thus leading to perennial problem of classroom congestion. The poverty level and low classroom utilization rates in these countries worsen the situation. Nigeria is a third world country where the situation is not different and primary and secondary education in the country is poorly funded, hence most of the primary and secondary schools experience classroom congestion, low students-classroom-space and low classroom utilization rates . These situations may likely affect both primary and secondary school students’ academic performance adversely. The large number of students passing through the primary and secondary school system in Lagos mainland education districts and in other educational district in Lagos states is a serious problem, particularly with the state government’s inability to provide adequate furnished classrooms for effective learning and teaching.  The National policy on Education prescribed a maximum of 30 students in a class (TTC, 2004), but practical experience has shown that in most schools in Lagos mainland education districts, average class size exceeds 50. The situation has negative influence on the average classroom space per student.

Also, it is imperative to note that every educational system at every level depends heavily on teachers for the execution of its programmes. Teachers are highly essential for successful operation of the educational system and important tools for the educational development. Without teachers, educational facilities cannot be expanded. Undoubtedly, the success and quality of any educational system depends on the quantity and quality of teachers’ input into the system. Thus, teacher quality and experience are important concern of parents and policymakers, requiring a qualified and experienced teacher in every classroom. In terms of class size, previous researches discovered that, there are many factors which affect the teaching process. Among these, class size is considered one of the most important factors. The related literature clearly indicates that the class size and the effects associated with class size should be seriously taken into consideration by educators. In his overview of studies about class size, Yara, (2010) stated that research on class size generally examined the relationships between class size and children’s achievement, children’s motivation, teacher satisfaction, teacher stress, and the organization. For over four decades, series of studies have suggested the importance of school as social environment of learning. Some of these studies examined location planning and their attendant consequences on achievement of students in various states of the Federation. The studies were intended to assist education authorities of various states to decide where a particular type of school should be located; the size of a school in each location; whether a new school should be built or otherwise among others for effective teaching and learning.Business studies, without any doubt remains one of the most serviceable subject to all disciplines and fields of human work and it has become an indispensable tool in the study of humanities, sciences and technology and has entered into the many areas of human activities. Every individual needs some measure of business mathematics for his or her day to day activities. Usefulness of business studies in human activities cannot be underestimated because it is the foundation of business knowledge and business survival. This observation points to the fact that a business mathematics and business study is not only universally useful and utilitarian in nature; it is also regarded as the key to the solution of human problems (Iyekekpolor, 2007). The Federal Government of Nigeria has for long been aware of the pivotal position of business mathematics to individual fulfillments and national developmental goals with particular reference to scientific and technological emancipation and breakthrough. This understanding has consequently led educational policy makers to position business studies as a compulsory and one of the core subjects in primary levels of education  (FRN, 2004). It is also a requirement for pupils to proceed from upper basic to senior secondary level. Despite the high position offered to business studies in Nigerian education system it is highly disheartening that approaches and strategies for teaching and learning of this subject at both primary and secondary levels are not probably being put to use effectively that could promote learners’ activity and provide learners’ guided practice enabling them to retain concepts taught and solve problems. Generally students fear and hate or dislike business studies because they see it as abstract. This has resulted to their lack of interest and low retention rate which leads to poor performance in business studies and even in mathematics examinations, both internally and externally (Obodo, 2004).

Resourcefulness in business studies teaching demands that the business studies teacher should focus attention on methods of teaching that stimulates learner’s zeal, interest and higher retention rate, taking into cognizance of individual differences of learners.

This then suggest that business studies educators should be able to develop new teaching techniques/methods to take care of the individual abilities of learners in the class room. Mari (2012) maintained that teaching strategies are variables that can easily be manipulated by teachers to increase students’ retention rate and performance as well as reduce or eliminate sex-related differences in science and business studies performance. Thus, this study examines the influence of class size and teachers experience on business students academic achievement in Senior Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland Education District.

1.2.     Statement of the Problem

The poor funding of education in most third world countries does not enable the school system to have manageable class sizes, adequate student classroom space and appropriate class utilization rates, experienced and quality teachers. In spite of the fact that these factors determine the productivity of teachers and students academic performance to the knowledge of the researcher, very few concentration has been devoted to the improvement of these important factors that can determine the performance of the students in schools. Thus, it has resulted to poor retention rate in student especially in business studies and other core subject.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of class size and teachers experience on business studies students academic achievement in Junior Secondary students in Lagos mainland education district.

Other specific objectives are to:

1.  To examine the academic performance of students in the highly congested classes and the students in moderate classes

2.  To investigate class factors like class size, student – classroom space and classroom utilization rate taken together do not determine significantly business studies students academic performance in Lagos mainland education district in Lagos state.

3.  How does class size affect students' achievement in the business studies?

4.  Does teachers’ teaching experience influence the secondary school students' academic performance?



1.4   Research Questions

The research will address the under listed questions

1.      Will class size and classroom utilization affect students performance in schools?

2.      To what extent can class size determine students performance in school?

3.      Will teacher years of experience determine students performance in school.

1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses are tested:

 1. There is no significant influence of class size on academic performance of students

 2. Teacher experience does not significantly influence academic performance of students.

 3. Classroom utilization rate will not significantly influence academic performance of students.

 4. Student- classroom space does not significantly influence academic performance of students.

 

1.6   Significant of the Study

The study is important because it examined the predictability of students achievement based on the class size and teachers experience .The findings will be useful to policy maker’s because they will see the area where they have to improve upon and direct their policies

It also enables school administrators to organize and coordinate school activities in such a way that will be located in a very conducive environment for teaching and effective learning to take place

It will also provide tips for parents and family members as they search to find better ways to help students improve their achievement.

Since, Lagos mainland education district is the case study adopted for this study; the study will help Lagos State ministry of Education to realize the influence of class size and the teachers’ quality on students’ academic performance.

1.7. Scope of the Study

The study is conducted to investigate the influence of class size and teachers’ experience on academic achievement of Business studies students in Lagos mainland education district . The study covers Junior Secondary School students within Lagos mainland Education district in Lagos state. The study covers variables like class size, teachers’ experience, teaching techniques and their effects on students academic performance in Business studies

1.8   OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

·        Academic performance: it is the change in efficiency of behaviour or ability to grow for some time and not because of the growth process but the learning situation.

·        Business study:  business study is an academic area of concentration within business major that is taught at the institution of higher learning. It helps to train and prepare undergraduate and a graduate for career in the business world.

·        Content knowledge:  it refers to the body of information that teachers teach and student are expected to learn in a given subject area or knowledge about the actual subject matter that teacher must also understand in a subject area.

·        Effective teachers: an effective teacher is the one who quite consistently achieve goals which either directly or indirectly focus on the learning of their student. Effective teachers have the knowledge, skill and commitment that ensure equitable learning opportunities and growth for all students.

·        Retention rate:  a measure of the rate at which students persist in their/ educational program but an institution, expresses as a percentage.

·        Rote learning: it is the memorization of information based on repetition. The two biggest example  of the rote learning are the alphabet and the number

·        Teaching experience:  this  has to do with all activities undertaken by the teachers training exercise, it include participation in professional development activities geared toward equipping the teachers for better service delivery


 

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