INFLUENCE OF DEMOGHRAPHIC VARIABLES ON THE PERCEPTION OF SCIENCE TEACHERS TOWARDS THE INCLUSION OF HIV/AIDS EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


Content

ABSTRACT

Health is wealth is a common saying among the people. For people to live a healthy life many precautions will have to be taken. The health condition of the people is of great concern to government and people who are involved in health care delivery. One of the health problems facing our society now is the problem of HIV/AIDS which has become epidemic. Reproductive health programmes has been given a considerate focus in the health policies. The problem of AIDS has become a global one for the United Nation Organisation (UNO) has declared December 1st of every year the World AIDS Day. This Day was first marked on 1st December 1998. This is an effort to raise awareness to the unending epidemic. Statistics from the 2003 edition of the AIDS epidemic by UNAIDS shows that Two million dies of AIDS related causes in 2002. Efforts are being made to find solution to this problem. HIV/AIDS has claimed the lives of 25 million people since the start of the epidemic according to greater than one organisation. The havoc HIV/AIDS has caused to human being is monumental. The situation is worse in African Nations because of the poverty level. This problem has been a source of worries to many African leaders and government as well. According to Mandela (2002) “AIDS today in Africa is claiming more lives than the sum total of all wars, famines and floods, and the ravages of such deadly diseases as malaria. It is devastating families and communities, overwhelming and depleting health care services, and robbing schools of both students and teachers”. Therefore, this study investigate how teachers of Science perceive the inclusion of HIV/AIDS Education in secondary schools as one way being advocated for solution to the HIV/AIDS epidemic through education.

 

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE                                                                                                                 PAGES

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                                                        vi

 

CHAPTER ONE:     INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the study                                                                                     1        

1.2  Statement of the Problem                                                                                                3

1.3 Research Question                                                                                                3

1.4 Research Hypotheses                                                                                            4

1.5 Purpose of Study                                                                                                  4

1.6 Significance of the Study                                                                                     4

1.7 Limitation of the Study                                                                                        5

1.8 Delimitation of the Study                                                                                     5

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms                                                                           5                                                                     

CHAPTER TWO:                LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1  and Definition of HIV/AIDS                                                                              7

2.2 Genesis of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria                                                                         8

2.3 Misconception about HIV/AIDS                                                                         10

2.4 Adolescent and HIV/AIDS                                                                                  11

2.5 Attitude and Behaviour towards HIV/AIDS                                                       14

2.6 Stigma and Discrimination of HIV/AIDS                                                                        15

2.7 HIV/AIDS and Sex Education                                                                            18

2.8 Education as Tools                                                                                                21

2.9 Impact of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria                                                                          24

2.10 Impact of HIV/AIDS in Africa                                                                          24

2.11Health Education in Nigeria Secondary School                                                  27

2.12 ppraisal of Literature Review on HIV/AIDS Education in School.                   27

 

CHAPTER THREE:            RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Method                                                                                                  30

3.2 Population                                                                                                             30

3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                            30

3.4 Research Instrument                                                                                             31

3.5 Validity of Research Instrument                                                                          31

3.6 Reliability of Research Instrument                                                                       31

3.7 Procedure for data collection                                                                                31

3.8 Procedure for data analysis                                                                                   31

3.9 Pilot study                                                                                                             31

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

4.0 Introduction                                                                                                          37

4.1 Data Analysis and Presentation                                                                            51

4.2 Test of Hypotheses                                                                                               67

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.

5.1 Summary                                                                                                               57

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                                            79

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                                80

 

REFERENCES                                                                                                        82

APPENDIX                                                                                                               90

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which causes the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first discovered in the early 1980s. it has spread more rapidly than most diseases in recent history, having social cultural, economical and moral repercussions on individuals, families, communities and threatening foundations of entire societies. Over the years, the link between HIV/AIDS and impoverishment has grown and even stronger as the diseases is infecting and affecting the younger generation who are the productive labour force of every economy. HIV infections are spreading quickly within the youth populations and what happens to them today will determine what becomes of them and their communities in the future. An estimated 11.8 million young people aged 15-24 are living with HIV/AIDS, and half of all new infections, over 6,000 daily, are occurring among them. (The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, UNAIDS, 2003.)

The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified HIV/AIDS as one of the world’s first health emergency and an urgent threat to global public health. It reveals that HIV/AIDS is the worlds’ second widely spread communicable disease and the sixth common cause of death globally. (WHO, 2004) In international circles in recent years, it has received as much attention as other pressing global questions like war, terrorism, environmental degradation among others. According UNAIDS (2006), about 65 million people have been affected and more than 25 million people have died of AIDS related causes. The situation is made even gloomier, with 29 million new infections estimated by 2020 if prevention and treatment are not accelerated.

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) report for 2006, states that several countries report success in reducing HIV infections.

However, the overall infection rate is on the rise. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the highest affected region. The WHO (2004) has classified HIV/AIDS as the main cause of adult mortality in Africa. It affirms that about 3.1% and 3.9% of all male and female deaths respectively are caused by AIDS related diseases. In the same vein, UNAIDS (2006) fact sheet states that 63% of the global HIV/AIDS infections are in Africa, South of the Sahara with the prevalence rate highest among the age group 15-49 years. It is for which reason African heads of states declared AIDS as a state of emergency in the continent during the African Development Forum (2000).

UNAIDS/WHO (2007) estimate the number of persons living with HIV worldwide is 33.2 million. Deaths related to HIV/AIDS declined from 2.2 million in 2005 to 2.0 million in 2007. However, the number of new infections rose to 2.5 times higher than the number of infected persons receiving treatment (UNAIDS, 2008). Rather than being complacent, this underscores the need for countries to increase their commitment to prevention efforts. This is necessary if this pandemic must start reversal in order to meet the 2015 target by the MDGs and to save humanity from an impending scourge.

The WHO (2005) observes that young people in Nigeria are highly affected. Indeed, a third of Nigerians infected are 18-35 years of age. This age group constitutes all Nigerians who are in secondary school, high school, University, vocational schools, professional schools and those in active service. Mbanya, Martyn & Paul (2008) stated  the socio-economic impact of the disease is profound with growing numbers of sections being affected, and high hospital bed occupancy rampant. They add that this results in overstretched medical personnel and extra burden to the health and education sectors where school teachers are reported to be unproductive on several counts and morbidity increasing from opportunistic infections. This of course, poses a major challenge to the socioowHo

 

 

 

 

 

-economic development of the country considering the fact that the age group below 18 makes up about 42% of the entire population (Population Reference Bureau, 2009).

 

Health Education is not a recent inclusion in the school system. A look through the curricular development in Nigerian Education reveals the various ways in which health related issues has been treated. Attempts to introduce population and family life education into both formal and informal sector of Nigerian education could be traced back to 1980’s. By 1985, reproductive health education has been integrated into some school subjects like Biology, Integrated Science, Physical and Health Education, Home Economics, Religious and Moral Education at both the Junior Secondary School (JSS) and Senior Secondary School (SSS) levels. As a result of globalisation many things are wrong with our social life styles. One of the effects of the bad social life of our people is the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Despite the various attempt to mould the life of our people on sexual matters and moderate their behaviour through the use of condoms in preventing HIV/AIDS, not much success have been attained. Olusola Adara,”Seminar on HIV/AIDS Curriculum Development” (2003).

Teachers of Science in secondary schools perceive that introducing HIV/AIDS Education in school will reduce the epidemic caused by the disease which the study intends to look at.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Over the years, the researcher has noticed with keen interest that there has been an increase in death of people that are associated with HIV/AIDS issues. Different people have come up with claims and counter claims about cures to HIV/AIDS. Scientific studies have proved that no cure has been found for HIV/AIDS. The dilemma which people have been thrown into due to no solution to the ravaging HIV/AIDS has led to the view of Science teachers in secondary school that  teaching HIV/AIDS Education in schools can be used to fight war against AIDS.

One school of thought believed that a separate school subject should be introduced for the purpose of addressing the problem of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Another school of thought however argue that the inclusion of HIV/AIDS education will be an attempt to overload the already overloaded school subjects and over tasking the teachers.

The problem of this study is designed to investigate how teachers of Science perceive the inclusion of HIV/AIDS Education in secondary schools.

1.3 Purpose of this Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate how teachers of Science perceived HIV/AIDS Education inclusion in secondary schools and how the skills attained in schools can be used to fight the war pose by HIV/AIDS epidemic.

1.4  Research Questions

1.         Will gender influence the perception of science teachers’ on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in secondary schools?

2.         Will science teachers’ perception on HIV/AIDS education inclusion based on their educational qualifications?

3.         Will science teachers’ perception on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in school based on teaching experience?

4.         Will science teachers’ perception on HIV/AIDS education inclusion based on the location of their school?

 

1.5 Research Hypotheses     

The following research hypotheses were tested in the research study:

1.      Gender will not significantly influence on the perception of Science teachers on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in schools.

2.      There will be no significant influence on the perception of Science teachers on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in schools based on their educational qualification.

3.      There will be no significant influence on the perception of Science teachers on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in schools based on their teaching experience.

4.      There will be no significant influence on the perception of Science teachers on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in schools based on the location of their school.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will be of great benefit to teachers, educators, curriculum developers, authors, parents, students and the general society.

To the teachers, the findings will show their current view on HIV/AIDS education in secondary school. The study shall provide correct analysis of teaching which will help to reshape things for better. It will also provide remedial strategies in the reconstruction of school curriculum.

The findings of the study will be of great importance to curriculum designers in planning for curriculum programme in schools. It will help them to know what to include in the content of the curriculum so as to help solve the problem of HIV/AIDS epidemic.

To the educators, the finding of the will let them see the need to provide necessary in-service programme such as workshop, seminars etc. for teachers so as to increase their skills in teaching.

To the authors, the finding of the study will help to structure their books in such a way that will simplify the content of the syllabus to the students. By the results of this study, authors will organise contents of their textbooks in such a way that students will be able to cope with themes of HIV/AIDS.

The result of the study will also serve as basis for further research work in the area of using education to solve the problems of HIV/AIDS.

1.7 Limitation of the Study  

The problem encountered by researcher was lack of co-operation from the respondents and due to time constrain some of the teachers were persuaded to respond to the questionnaire which they eventually did. 

 

 

1.8 Delimitation of the Study

1. The study was delimited to One- hundred Science teachers in twenty- five secondary schools in Ijebu Ode Local Government Area in Ogun- State. The schools studied represent all the Public secondary schools in the Local Government.

2. Descriptive survey research method.

3. The use of self- structured questionnaire only as the instrument.

4. The use of two research assistants

5. Frequency counts and percentages for demographic data, while inferential statistics of chi-square for hypothesis testing at 0.05 alpha level.

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined for the purpose of this study:

AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Condom: Thin rubber covering wear on penis to protect sexual disease during intercourse

Defile: Proof wrong

Deplete:  To reduce something by large number

Dilemma:  Unpleasant thing or action

Epidemic: Disease attacking many people at the same time

HIV: Human Immune Deficiency Syndrome which leads to AIDS

Perception: To view or feeling about an issue

Precaution: Something done to prevent future trouble.


 

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