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INFLUENCE OF FINANCIAL AND NON-FINANCIAL REWARDS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ATHLETES IN TERTIARY EDUCATION SPORTS
Rewards have been found to be an important source of motivation. This study explored financial and non-financial rewards and its influence on the performance of student-athletes in tertiary institutions. This study was guided by research objectives, questions and hypotheses that included the influence of cash rewards on the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports, the influence of scholarships on the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports, the influence of awards on the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports, the influence of health insurance on the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports. Literature review covering relevant texts and documents on the research topic was done. The researcher adopted the descriptive survey research design. The study was carried out among student-athletes in University of Lagos and Yaba College of Technology. A sample of 200 student-athletes were taken from the two tertiary institutions. The researcher administered questionnaires to the selected respondents for data collection. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used which included frequency tables and chi square for the hypotheses. The results of the study showed that: cash rewards had an influence on the performance of student-athletes; scholarships had an influence on the performance of student-athletes; awards had an influence on the performance of student-athletes; health insurance had an influence on the performance of student-athletes.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Pages i
Table of content vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the study 1
Statement of the Problem 4
Purpose of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Research Hypotheses 6
Significance of the Study 7
Delimitation of the study 7
Limitation of the Study 7
Operational Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
The concept of rewards in sports 10
An examination of the influence of rewards on athletes 12
An examination of the role of finance in the career of a student-athlete 14
An examination of non-financial rewards and how they influence athletes’ performance 15
The Importance of Motivation to Athletic Performance 16
Organizational factors that motivate student-athletes 23
The concept of balance between sportsmanship and academics 24
Empirical findings on financial and non-financial rewards influence on athletes’ performance
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Method 32
Population of the study 33
Sample and Sampling technique 33
Research Instrument 33
Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument 34
Procedure for Data Collection 34
Method for Data Analysis 34
Pilot Study 35
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Presentation of demographic data 36
Analysis of research questions 38
Discussion of findings 47
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Suggestions for further studies 52
Background to the study
There is so much occurring in the world of collegiate sports today, and each institution is trying to bring the best out of its student-athletes. Rewards are considered an important tool to stimulate athletes’ performance. Management use rewards for athletes motivation, and so we can say that an attractive reward system attracts new athletes for the institution and motivate existing athletes to perform at high levels. Athletes give their good efforts for achieving goals and good effort depends on rewards. In other words, we can say that good rewards are the most important ways to engage the athletes with their duties.
It is the genuine desire of every student-athlete to achieve success in their sporting career, to uplift the name of his tertiary institution and to be recognized. It is also the desire of each tertiary institution to have their athletes succeed at inter-collegiate sports and bring home the glory; however, this feat would be easier to achieve if these student-athletes are adequately motivated. Rising above competition to become successful as an athlete is not easy. It takes extra effort, extra ability and extra motivation (Hudson, 2006).
Wilson (2005), defined a reward as an external agent administered when a desired act or task is performed, which has controlling and informational properties. Hudson continued that, while rewards are typically delivered to increase the probability of a response, they can increase or decrease the probability of an event occurring. This study deals basically with two kinds of rewards which are: Financial and Non-financial. Hudson’s(2006) rhetoric about the performance of student-athletes referred to financial rewards as monetary remunerations; while it pointed out that non-financial rewards could be in the form scholarships, recognition and exposure .
Humans are psychological beings, and as such, are susceptible to appreciation, recognition and rewards (Wilson,2005). Before we explore this study, it is important to examine what intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are and to reveal the difference between them. Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades. The motivation comes from the pleasure one gets from the task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in completing or even working on a task.(Cassandra,2007).
In Cassandra’s example, an intrinsically motivated person will work on a math equation, for example, because it is enjoyable. Or an intrinsically motivated person will work on a solution to a problem because the challenge of finding a solution is provides a sense of pleasure. In neither case does the person work on the task because there is some reward involved, such as a prize, a payment, or in the case of students, a grade.
Intrinsic motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not seek rewards. It just means that such external rewards are not enough to keep a person motivated. An intrinsically motivated student, for example, may want to get a good grade on an assignment, but if the assignment does not interest that student, the possibility of a good grade is not enough to maintain that student's motivation to put any effort into the project.(Cassandra,2007).
Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide. (Cassandra,2007).
Lauridsen (2010) noted that an extrinsically motivated person will work on a task even when they have little interest in it because of the anticipated satisfaction they will get from some reward. The rewards can be something as minor as a smiley face to something major like fame or fortune. For example, an extrinsically motivated person who dislikes math may work hard on a math equation because want the reward for completing it. In the case of a student, the reward would be a good grade on an assignment or in the class.( Lauridsen, 2010).
Explaining further, Lauridsen (2010) noted that extrinsic motivation does not mean that a person will not get any pleasure from working on or completing a task. It just means that the pleasure they anticipate from some external reward will continue to be a motivator even when the task to be done holds little or no interest. An extrinsically motivated student, for example, may dislike an assignment, may find it boring, or may have no interest in the subject, but the possibility of a good grade will be enough to keep the student motivated in order for him or her to put forth the effort to do well on a task. (Lauridsen, 2010).
While some researchers viewed reward system as a positive cycle whereby each reward serves as a positive reinforcement for further achievement (Bear,2006;Harlow,2008), other researchers concluded that extrinsic rewards, under which financial and non-financial rewards are classified, are disadvantageous to continuous achievements(Rang,2003;Berridge, 2012). Based on the foregoing, it becomes obvious that the athletic performance of a student-athlete could somehow be influenced through the medium of rewards. This study examines the impact of these rewards.
Statement of the Problem
Sportsmanship has become part of university culture all over the world – and Nigerian universities are no exception. Each university aims to achieve recognition and excellence in all aspects of its curriculum, a vital part of which sports is. It is important to note that intercollegiate competitions in the world, and in this case, Nigeria, appear to get keener year in year out, with each higher institution trying to outfox the others and claim the bragging rights.
Lots of speculations and hypotheses have been proposed as to how this sporting success can be achieved, with each higher institution trying to motivate its athletes with the resources at its disposal. What this study aims to unravel is how monetary rewards and non-financial rewards such as scholarships spur or deter university athletes in their quest for athletic glory.
Purpose of the Study
This research seeks to examine the influence of financial rewards on the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports. This study will also determine whether granting of scholarships will influence the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports. Furthermore this study seeks to determine whether financial rewards are an effective motivational strategy. This study also seeks to determine whether financial rewards are an effective motivational strategy for athletes. Lastly, this study seeks to determine whether a robust sports center will influence student-athletes’ athletic performance.
The following research questions were answered in this study:
1. Will cash rewards influence the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports?
2. Will granting of scholarships influence the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports?
3. Will awards be an effective motivational strategy to athletes?
4. Will health insurance influence student-athletes’ athletic performance?
The following hypotheses were tested in this study
1. Cash rewards will not significantly influence the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports.
2. Granting of scholarships to athletes will not significantly influence their performance of in tertiary education sports.
3. Awards will not significantly influence the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports.
4. Health insurance will not significantly influence the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study might be of benefit to coaches, sports instructors and school sports authorities because it will promote a deeper understanding of the motivational background of the contemporary student-athlete. It will also further enhance the understanding of coaches and managers of student-athletes on how rewards, whether financial or non-financial should be disbursed to bring about greater athletic performance. Lastly, the findings of this study might add to the body of knowledge in psychology of sports.
Delimitation of the study
This study was delimited to the Impact of financial and non-financial rewards on athlete performance in tertiary institution sports in Lagos state using descriptive survey research method and the Chi-square statistical tool. It covered student-athletes in University of Lagos (UNILAG), Akoka, Lagos and Yaba College of Technology (YABATECH).
Limitation of the Study
A research of this caliber would have needed a greater time investment in carrying it out. However, this study was limited by time constraint, because the researcher had to shuffle time between this research and his enormous academic work.
Operational Definition of Terms
Athlete: A student who is also a sportsman or woman in a tertiary institution.
Financial rewards: Monetary remunerations given to an tertiary institution athlete for his/her achievement at tertiary institution competitions
Motivation: Something that spurs a student-athlete to engage in a sporting activity or to improve in it.
Non-financial rewards: These refer to rewards given to tertiary institution athletes that come in non-financial forms such as scholarships, recognition, etc.
Tertiary Institution Sports: These are sporting activities that are organized within tertiary institutions or between them.