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INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON FOOTBALL ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA
The study was Influence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on Football administration in Nigeria. The study population comprised participants from (i) NFF Members and Workers in the Nigeria Football Federation, Glass House Abuja (ii) members and workers of State Football Association (iii) Officials and players of Premier League Clubs. Four hundred subjects were purposively selected from the population. However, related literatures were reviewed from textbooks, journals and past researches. Four research questions and hypotheses were formulated and tested. The data were analyzed using frequency count, percentage, and Chi-Square Analysis. It was discovered that there is a significant relationship between Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and Football administration in Nigeria. Therefore, the finding revealed that the NFF/ Clubs owners/Players should procure more ICT facilities and equipment to enhance efficiency and effectiveness in Football administration in Nigeria. This study suggested that Nigeria Football Federation, Glass House Abuja should place greater emphasis on ICT on match venues to reduce conflict in Management of Football in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Research hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Delimitations of the study
1.8 Limitations of the study
1.9 Operation definitions of terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 Concept of ICT
2.3 Relevance of ICT to Football Administration
2.4 ICT and Football Development in Developed Countries
2.5 Football Management and ICT Facilities in Nigeria and other Countries.
2.6 Concepts of Administration and Leadership
2.7 Concept of Football Management
2.8 ICT Component Accessible to Football Administrators in Nigeria
2.9 ICT and Stress Management in Sports Administration
2.10 Relevance of ICT To Football Sports and facilities Construction
2.11 ICT in Education
2.12 Sports Management Practice in Nigeria
2.12 Effective Management of Sport in Primary ,Secondary And Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria
2.13 Problems of Effective Management of Football Sports in Nigeria
2.14 Relevance of ICT to administration of institutions
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 Research Method
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5 Research Instrument
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
3.7 Method of Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS OF FINDINGS
4.2 Research Questions/Hypotheses analysis and results
4.3 Discussion of results
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.2 Implication of the study
5.4 Suggestions for further studies
Background to the Study
Information and telecommunication technology (ICT) has contributed immensely to the transformation of football administration in this country is not an over-statement. Fasan (2004) stated that football as a sporting activity in the present day has undergone a very sophisticated scientific process. Football development and administration require a lot of professional knowledge in which ICT is the driving force. Proper utilization of ICT in football administration generates much success for footballers, marketers, coaches, referees, and the nation at large.
Information and communication technology is a concept that is relatively new in Nigeria. ICT is complex and difficult to define in an organization. However, it has been discovered that some units of technology have been found relevant to sports especially in the area of football administration. These components of ICT include: Prints media (such as books, journals, magazines, seminar papers, periodic, newspaper and handbills), Electronic media (radio, TV, films, internet), Telephone, Telex, E-mail, Fax, Computer.
Human creativity and ingenuity have been put to optimum use in the last few centuries given rise to modern western scientific technology today referred to as the most glamorous civilization in the history of mankind. The application of ICT have put an end to several factors that hampered football administration. Information consists of facts providing knowledge relating to specific events or situation which may be used as a basis for making decisions.
Lucey (1990) in his submission as sighted by Awoyinfa (2008) opined that information can literally be seen as the end product of every experience, hence for information to be obtained the knowledge which is defined as a group of well-confirmed laws like generalizations which relate to specific data is needed in the environment. Information attempts to instruct and motivate people towards some sort of activities. Kayit (2003) defined technology as the application of scientific knowledge and principle to solving human problems. Sports technology is explained to mean the application of scientific knowledge and principles applied to sports situations. It could also be said to mean the application of scientific knowledge, skills, values and principles through man’s creative powers in finding ways and means of achieving higher levels of human movement performance.
Information communication is defined as ‘informing or being informed’. Information could be in form of news, knowledge, concepts, views, opinion and perhaps, making people to be aware and become knowledgeable about a thing or environment. Ukah (1991), claimed that once a man is educated there is the tendency of such individuals to be able to face the challenges that come his/her ways especially in the area of sports. Communication according to Okwo and Ike (1995) in Fasan (2004) is the process, which is used to pass on information or knowledge either in form of news, feelings, emotion and ovation to other people. Thus, information technology involves a systematic and scientific process of passing on knowledge. Today, the importance of ICT is continually emphasized not only in Nigeria but also all over the world.
Considering the problems inhibiting football administration encountered in a “non-on-line” administrative information management system, it is the objective of this study to demand for computerized, web-base, better and well reliable system in all sports levels in Nigeria. The system will allow students, parents, lecturers, administrators, government and the stake holders to have access to the soccer game’s info, without necessarily visiting the glass-house at Abuja. Football sports activities would be in their prime and at optimal level while administration can enjoy today, the global transformation brought about by technology via computer & telecommunication linked-up to ameliorate and proffer solutions to the problems of administration of football in the global society.
Sports competition can also be organized at local, state, national, international levels and require facilities and equipment, man, material and money for proper execution. Sports involve serious business that must be handled by competent persons. However, to ensure that sports sustain its dynamic roles of entertainment, professionalism and recreation, certain individuals are expected to manage its affairs, both human and material resources available within the sports organizations. These individuals are referred to as leaders and comprise of both male and female sports administrators.
Fasan, (1994) observed that leadership is a process that involves an interaction between people in which one person influences the behaviour in the group. Akanlll (1988) asserted that the ability to direct employee in such a way that the goals are achieved is termed leadership. In addition, ICT ensures that football enterprise is got done and effectively too.
Urwick and Gullick (1992) and Challadurai (2002) identified the following management techniques which are also imperative in sports and football administration as; Planning, organizing, staffing, directing or leading, controlling, cor-ordinating , budgeting, and evaluation (PODSCORBE). The prevailing sucessation crisis rocking the Nigerian Football federation (NFF) has led to government intervention and interference, referees strike, suspension of leagued matches, and FIFA legislation or sanction against government sack of football staff. In view of this, the business of soccer administration and operations becomes much more complex and harder to understand. Hence, the conduct of the football enterprise has become increasingly concerned about efficient operations and effective utilization and allocation of resources. All these development makes the relevance and resourcefulness of ICT in football administration indispensable.
Over the years, football has become the most popular sport across the globe. It is so beautiful a sporting activity that both genders, young and old played a game consciously or unconsciously watch the game physically and electronically via telecommunication technology. Football is equally emotional. The social, economic and commercial impacts of football on the players, teams, states and federal governments as well as sports bodies are unquantifiable. Awoyinfa (2008) reported that people had been known to take their lives because their team losses a game. Football is widely discuss by all cadres of human endeavour and professions, out of share emotion forgetting that the game has its own practitioners as they are in their various fields. These practitioners are herein referred to as football administrators or managers.
In so far as possible, the study deals with administration in terms of new ideas and concept embedded in ICT. Thus, the need to give the top administration an over view of the operating and administration problems for which it has general responsibility to show good administrative practice This study therefore focuses on the application of scientific principles and skills towards football administration in Nigeria.
Statement of the Problem
Ayeni (2008) stated that some unit of technology have been found relevant to sports especially in the areas of print and electronic media. The absence of these technologies have not allow Nigeria league and clubs to exposed to international community and best practice around the world in the game of football. The problem of the study therefore is that the needed ICT components for effective administration of football in Nigeria are inadequate; a situation that has exposed Nigeria football to danger of ridicule, collapse and FIFA sanctions, yet football ought to be heart beat of youths and almost all Nigerians as applicable to other football nations.
Purpose of the Study
The study seeks to achieve the following purposes:
1. To examine the resourcefulness of ICT on football administration in Nigeria
2. To assess ways computer literacy would affect football administration in Nigeria
3. To determine how ICT can reduce stress in football administration in Nigeria
4. To find out how effective communication affects football management in Nigeria
The following questions were answered in this study:
1. Will the resourcefulness of ICT improve football programme planning in Nigeria?
2. Will football club ICT compliance influence football management in Nigeria?
3. Will ICT reduce conflict management in football administration in Nigeria?
4. Will ICT compliance among teams enhance effective communication among players and team in Nigeria?
The following hypotheses were tested in this study:
1. The resourcefulness of Information Communication Technology will not significantly improve football programme in Nigeria
2. Football club Information Communication Technology will not significantly influence effective football management in Nigeria
3. Information Communication Technology will not significantly reduce conflict management in football matters in Nigeria.
4. Information Communication Technology compliance among football club will not significantly enhance effective communication among players and teams in Nigeria.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be beneficial to sports and soccer game administrators in Nigeria for planning and informed decisions making as well as program execution speedily with and minimal costs. Given the resourcefulness of ICT and computer literacy, football employees, employers and administrators will be exposed to the international community and conduct the enterprise of football according international best practice.
The study will also be beneficial to footballers as they develop more interest and passion in football as a career and get internal and external exposures.
Football enthusiasts and stakeholders will benefit from the study given the fact that information flow and sharing will be facilitated in the football game issues.
Government will also benefit from the study as it will be guided by resource allocation and budgeting to sports and football administration in the country given the importance of such finding to the welfare of the youths.
Lastly, the findings of this study will be beneficial to researchers, scholars and data banks. In this case, this study will serves as a reference document.
Delimitation of the study
This study was delimited to the following:
(I) Members of NFF, workers in the NFF, state football association, premier league clubs and amateur football clubs in Nigeria randomly selected.
(II) The use of questionnaire.
(III) Two research assistants
(IV) South-West geo-political zone of Nigeria
Limitation of the study
The problem encounter for this study was the genuineness filling the questionnaire and quick retrieved of questionnaire.
The researcher employed persistence on the participants for the completion of the questionnaire,
Operational Definition of Terms
Computer Literacy: Is the ability to operate the computer devices and internet facilities, to store and retrieve information locally and globally.
Football Administration: Is the planning, directing and co-ordination of soccer game for the attainment of the goals of management.
Football Game: Is a game played by two teams of 11 (eleven) players using a spherically shaped object (the ball) with an outer casting of leather, rubber or synthetic in a pitch, usually for 90 minutes duration of two equal halves (45 minutes a piece)
ICT Components: Are electronic devices such as print and electronic media (books, journals, magazines, Radio, TV, films, internet, and computer devices
Information and Communication Technology (ICT): Is the entire computer based information systems and their underlying techniques used in football administration in particular and other sectors of the economy in general.
Soccer Game: Same as football game
Sports: Is a cultural universal practice rooted in the history of ancient Greek civilization and an organized completion in the context of the universe.
Stress: Is health implication inherent in a task or organization.